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Imperiul Vlaho-Bulgar si Imperiul Byzantin

 First Bulgarian-Roman-Vlach Empire and the Magyar Invasion

The Bulgarian Empire and the Wars with the Invading Nomads Magyars

  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian%E2%80%93Hungarian_Wars

Hungarian conquest (War of 894–896)

A motion map of the Hungarian conquest. Note that the northern borders of the Bulgarian Empire are uncertain.

When the Hungarians raided Pannonia first time in 862 they had come at the invitation of their ally, the Moravian leader Rastislav. The following year, Louis the German king of Eastern Francia retaliated by forging an alliance with the Bulgarians, whose Khan Boris-Mihail sent mounted troops to help beat Rastislav into submission. That set a pattern of confrontation in the Danubian region which lasted for some 25 years: Hungarians and Moravians against Bulgarians and Franks. The Hungarian Conquest was one of the factors that upset this military balance. Prior to the Conquest, in 881, Svatopluk received assistance from the Hungarians that advanced as far as Vienna. Two years later, Svatopluk suffered a punishing blow from the Bulgarians. In 892, when Svatopluk once again refused to pay obeisance to the Franks, he could still count on his Hungarian allies — but also on Bulgarian retaliation.

The situation took a decisive turn in September 892, when Khan Vladimir informed Arnulf of Carinthia's envoys that the Franks could no longer count on his military aid in the Carpathian Basin; the Bulgarians were only prepared to halt salt deliveries to the enemy. The Frank delegation was still there when Simeon I of Bulgaria ascended to the Bulgarian throne; once a hostage of the Byzantines, he vengefully prepared for war.

The Bulgarians flee to Silistra after the defeat by the Hungarians.

In response, the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI's envoy Niketas Skleros met on the Lower Danube with the Hungarian ruling princes Árpád and Kurszán, and they agreed to form an alliance. As a result, a Hungarian force, led by Árpád's son, Liüntika (Levente) – led an army of the Hungarians' Kabar auxiliaries, and possibly the Szekelys – ferried across the Danube by the Byzantines and attacked Simeon's Bulgarians from the rear. Simeon suspended his campaign against Byzantium to turn against the Hungarians. Defeated by the latter, he sought refuge in the castle at Drastar (Silistra).

That same year, in 894, Hungarian warriors advanced into the Carpathian Basin and Pannonia to aid Svatopluk against the Bulgarians' Frankish allies. When they learned of Svatopluk's death, the Hungarians pulled back, though apparently only as far as the region of the Upper Tisza. In spring 895, Árpád followed with his army and, after some skirmishes on the Great Plain, brought the Bulgarians' rule 0n the plains to an end. Having hurriedly made peace with Byzantium, the Bulgarians concentrated their forces to defeat Liüntika's Hungarians.

After the Hungarians retreated, Simeon pretended to agree to negotiations – the Byzantine envy Leo Chirosphact who arrived to the Bulgarian capital Preslav was put in custody and Simeon deliberately prolonged the peace talks. In the meantime he allied with the Pechenegs simultaneously launched attacks on the Hungarian encampments in the Etelköz. In the bloody battle of Southern Buh the Bulgarians led by Simeon I and his father Boris I who was a monk at the time decisively defeated the Hungarians. The ensuing, massive withdrawal by the Hungarians ended in the 'conquest', or rather settlement, of what became the Hungarian's permanent homeland. Soon after the Bulgarian victory, Simeon stopped the negotiations and in the summer of 896 the Byzantine army was routed at Bulgarophygon.

When the Hungarians arrived to invade in the Carpathian Basin, they encountered  resistance on the part of the Bulgarians and Vlachs. Took the Hungarians 100 years to conquer the  prefeudal Bulgaro-Vlachs duchies  in Transylvania and between the Tisa and Danube . Likewise the Moravians they came under Hungarian rule but continued to use their burial grounds (eg. Maroskarna) into the early 10th century.

Conflicts in 10th century

The duchies of Glad and Salan within the Bulgarian Empire. The lands of Menumorut were located to the north of Glad's duchy.

With the emergence of the Árpád dynasty after Kurszán's death, a new clan became the repository of Hungary ('Turkia')s second sovereignty'. There is no indication of the time when the ruling gyulas transferred their headquarters and residence to the middle Maros valley. The gyula must have been in charge of eastern and southern affairs, for he directed the raids against Byzantium and Bulgaria in April 934 and April 943.

The blows suffered at the hands of the Pechenegs and Bulgarians in 895–896 induced great caution. Constantine Porphyrogenetos repeatedly noted that the Hungarians feared the Pechenegs, who were used by the Bulgarians to keep the Hungarians in check. When, early in the 10th century, Byzantine envoys urged the Hungarian leaders to attack the Pechenegs, their proposal was rejected on the grounds that it carried too many risks; in any case, the Hungarians had no intention of reoccupying the Etelköz, now held by the Pechenegs as far as the Danube delta. They tried to preserve peaceful relations with the Pechenegs so that they would be free to concentrate on more westerly targets. The Pechenegs, for their part, preferred to raid the richer lands of the Bulgarians and Byzantines rather than the poorer Carpathian Basin, which was in a state of some turmoil due to the Hungarian conquest. Thus the anti-Hungarian alliance of the Bulgarians and the Byzantine empire gradually fell apart, and the two old enemies, the Hungarians and the Pechenegs, pursued a rapprochement in the face of growing Bulgarian might.

The first page of Gesta Hungarorum – a Medieval Hungarian manuscript which is one of the main sources for the Hungarian conquest. However, it mixes ascertainably correct facts, inaccuracies and information that cannot be confirmed from other sources. Some parts are considered by most modern Hungarian authors as simply inventions (by the author or by his predecessors) to contradict Frankish and other chronicles.

In 913, Simeon launched the first in a series of military campaigns by which he seized from the Byzantines most of the Balkan Peninsula; six years later, he exchanged his title of Great Khan for that of Czar. He was not a man to let the salt mines and gold deposits of southern Transylvania pass into Hungarian hands without a fight. In order to conquer the rest of Transylvania as well as the region between the Maros, Tisza, and Danube rivers ('Glad's domain according to Anonymus, but most likely under Bulgarian rule), the Hungarians would need to ally themselves with the Pechenegs against the Bulgarians. The painful consequences of the alliance of Bulgarians and Pechenegs in 895 were still fresh in the Hungarians' memory. As long as the Pechenegs remained hostile, the Hungarians would not dare to provoke Simeon by seizing his lands north of the Carpathians and the Danube.

The opportunity came with the formation (ca. 932) of a Pecheneg–Hungarian alliance. It is possible that the gyula Bogát had acted earlier, but if not, he must have seized this chance to occupy southern Transylvania. In breaking the Bulgars' resistance, the Hungarians were helped not only by their Pecheneg allies but also by the internal struggle — exacerbated by Byzantine meddling — over the succession to Czar Simeon, who died in 927. This may have presented Bogát's successor, the gyula Zombor, with the opportunity to occupy the land lying between the Maros, Tisza, and Danube rivers.

Having seized southern Transylvania from the Bulgarians, Bogát's warriors and their servants settled down in Slavic-Vlach villages along the lower reaches of the Küküllő rivers.

The region between the Mures, Tisa, and Danube rivers must have come under the rule of a Hungarian gyula by 948, for that was when Emperor Constantine recorded that the Bulgarian cities Orsova, Belgrade, and Sirmium lay near Hungary's borders.

It was a sign of the gyulas' enhanced power that they launched the first Hungarian campaigns against Byzantium, cutting through the weakening defenses of the Bulgarians. According to Byzantine chronicles, the first campaign occurred in 934;[1] it ended in a peace treaty between Emperor Peter I of Bulgaria and the Hungarians. Another campaign, in 943, was terminated in similar fashion, and the Byzantines probably had to pay tribute.

In 948, a sudden turn of events compelled Transylvania's gyula to adopt a policy divergent from that of the ruling prince who had dispatched his nephew, and the harka Bulcsú to Constantinople, to renew the peace treaty; the envoys attached so much importance to the task that they had themselves baptized. It is likely that this gesture was motivated by Bulcsú's decision to launch new western raids; therefore he wanted to protect his rear from Byzantine attack. Some time after 952, the gyula Zombor also presented himself at Constantinople, but he came in his own right, and not as an envoy of the ruling prince. He, too, had himself baptized,[2] but his political goal was different from that of Bulcsú. Zombor was interested not in western raids but in the anti-Bulgarian plans of the Byzantine court. The latter had never given up its ambition to crush the Bulgarians and restore the old imperial borders on the Sava and Lower Danube rivers. The gyulas also considered the Bulgarians, from whom they had seized the territories that lay north of the Danube and the Carpathians, to be their principal enemy. The Árpádian ruling princes would have been satisfied with Byzantine neutrality, but the gyulas sought an alliance against the Bulgarians.

War of 1003

Since the fall of the Bulgarian capital Preslav in 971 the Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empires were in a state of constant war. The Byzantine–Bulgarian conflict reached its height in 1003 when Hungary became involved. At that time the governor of the northwestern parts of Bulgaria was Duke Ahtum, the grandson of Duke Glad, who was defeated by the Hungarians in 930s. Ahtum commanded a strong army and firmly defended the northwestern borders of the Empire. He also built many churches and monasteries through which he spread Christianity in Transylvania.[3][4]

The Magyars defeat a Bulgarian army.

Although marriage of the heir to the Bulgarian throne Gavril Radomir to the daughter of the Hungarian ruler had established friendly relation between the two strongest states in the Danube area, the relationship deteriorated after Géza's death. The Bulgarians supported Gyula and Koppány as rulers instead of Géza's Stephen I. As a result of the conflict, the marriage between Gavril Radomir and the Hungarian princess was dissolved. The Hungarians then attacked Ahtum, who had directly backed the pretenders for the Hungarian crown. Stephen I convinced Hanadin, Ahtum's right-hand man, to help in the attack. When the conspiracy was uncovered Hanadin fled and joined the Hungarian forces.[5] At the same time, a strong Byzantine army besieged Vidin, Ahtum's seat. Although many soldiers were required to participate in the defense of the town, Ahtum was occupied with the war to the north. After several months he died in battle when his troops were defeated by the Hungarians.[6] As a result of the war, Bulgarian influence to the northwest of the Danube diminished.

 

 

Already in the 10th century, in an effort to break away from Byzantine influence, Boris I of Bulgaria replaced the Greek language with Church Slavonic in administration, literature and liturgy, and the Greek Alphabet with the Cyrillic alphabet. Slavonic literature became the third major literature in the Orthodox Christian world, while Slavonic liturgy spread throughout most of Eastern Europe. By the 10th century, the Wallachs (exonym of the Romanians. see Vlachs) both north and south of the Danube, after having long remained faithful to the Greek ritual, had adopted the Slavonic liturgy.[1]

 

 The Byzantine Bulgaria (theme) 1045

 

File:Byzantine Macedonia 1045CE.svg

 

The Theme of Bulgaria was a province of the Byzantine Empire established by Emperor Basil II after the victory over Samuel of Bulgaria (997-1014 AD) and the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire in 1018. It was based on the wider regions of Skopje and Ohrid[1] (modern Republic of Macedonia and south Serbia). Its capital was Skopje and it was governed by a strategos. Two main rebellions took place in the region, the Uprising of Peter Delyan (1040-1041) and the Uprising of Georgi Voiteh (1072). After 150 years the Bulgarian Empire was briefly restored, with the Rebellion of the brothers Peter and Asen in 1185 AD.

 Notes

  1. ^ Byzantium in the Year 1000 - Page 126[1] by Paul Magdalino

Sources

 

 

Wars of Hungary, 855-1241

 
for a narrative History of Hungary click 895-955, 955-1196, 1196-1301

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894-904
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907
910
915
917
918922924
926
927
928
933
934
937
942
943
954
955
959
961
968
970
1003
1038-1046
1091
1096
1097
1107
1111-1116
1123
1146
1164
1180-1183
1189
1202
1203
1232
1240-1246
1241

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

War with Bulgarians, Patzinaks; Hungarians settle in Pannonian Plain
Magyar Raid into Italy
Magyar Raid into Moravia
Magyar Raid into Transylvania
Magyars defeated an invading Bavarian army in the Battle of Pressburg/Pozsony/Bratislava
Magyar victory over East Frankish army
Magyar Raid into East Frankish Kingdom
Magyars, in alliance with Bulgars and Pechenegs, fought Byzantine Empire
Magyar Raid into West Frankish Kingdom (Lorraine)
Magyars raided Byzantine territory in southern Italy
Magyar Raid into Italy, Burgundy, West Frankish Kingdom (Aquitaine)
Magyar Raid into West Frankish Kingdom (Champagne)
Magyars, at the request of the pope, raided Byzantine territory in southern Italy
Magyar Raid against Rome
Magyar Raid into East Frankish Kingdom
Magyar Raid of Bulgaria (Byzantine territory at the time)
Magyar Raid into West Frankish Kingdom (Champagne, Berry)
Magyar Raid into Caliphate of Cordoba
Magyar raid into Byzantine territory on the Balkans
Magyar Raid into West Frankish Kingdom (Flanders)
Magyar Raid into East Frankish Kingdom; defeat in Battle of Lechfeld
Magyar raid against Constantinople Byzantine Empire)
Magyar raid into Byzantine Empire; Magyars defeated
Magyar raid into Byzantine Empire
Allied Magyars, Bulgar, Rus and Pecheng invaded Byzantine Empire, were defeated
Conquest of breakaway Transylvania
Conflict over Successon; Paganism suppressed
War with Croatia
First Crusade passed through Hungary
Conquest of Croatia; in 1102 Pacta Conventa established Dynastic Union
War with Venice over Dalmatia
Rebellion of Zara, Trau, Spalato; War with Venice over Dalmatia
Hungarian reconquest of Trau, Spalato
War (Border Conflict) with the Empire
Trau, Spalato lost to Byzantium
Hungary, Serbian allies pressed on Byzantinians, Venetians in Dalmatia
King of Hungary claimed to be King of Galicia
Venetians occupied Zara, established themselves in Dalmatia
War with Bulgaria; loss of Belgrade
War with Bulgaria; Belgrade regained
Crusades against Bosnian Bogomils, launched from Hungary
Tatar Raid into Hungary

 Bulgarian-Serbian Wars (medieval)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian-Serbian_Wars_%28medieval)

Bulgarian-Serbian Wars


Clockwise from top left: Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria; Stefan Dušan of Serbia; Boris I of Bulgaria; Stefan Dragutin of Serbia.
Date839 - 1330
LocationWestern Balkans
ResultInconclusive
Territorial
changes
Serbia was conquered twice; both states had numerous territorial changes
Belligerents
Bulgarian EmpireRaska
Duklja
Kingdom of Serbia
Commanders
Presian
Boris I
Simeon
Marmais
Theodore Sigritsa
Samuil
Michael III Shishman
Vlastimir
Časlav Klonimirović
Jovan Vladimir
Stefan Dečanski

The Bulgarian-Serbian wars were a series of conflicts which took place between the Bulgarian Empire and the medieval Serbian states of Raška, Duklja and the Kingdom of Serbia between the 9th and 14th centuries. The area of the conflict was the Western Balkans, more specifically western Serbia, Bosnia and Kosovo.

Up to the 12th century the Serbian states were dependent and strongly influenced by the dominant Balkan powers, the Bulgarian and Byzantine Empires. The rulers of both countries aimed at controlling of the Serb princes in order to use them as allies in the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars. The first war between Bulgarians and Serbs occurred during the reign of Khan Presian between 839 and 842 and was caused by the Byzantine diplomacy. Later after series of campaigns the Bulgarian Emperor Simeon I destroyed the Serb state in 924. Peter I restored the independence of Serbia in 931 and appointed his protege Časlav Klonimirović as its ruler. They were again subjected by Emperor Samuil in 998.

In the 13th century Stefan Dragutin and his brother Stefan Milutin fought as Hungarian vassals against the Bulgarian governors of Belgrade and Braničevo, Darman and Kudelin and managed to defeat them. In 1327 the Emperors of Bulgaria and Byzantium signed an anti-Serbian alliance to stop Serbia's growing power but in 1330 Bulgarian Emperor Michael III Shishman was defeated by Stefan Dečanski in the battle of Velbazhd.

War of 839-842

The first war between Bulgarians and Serbs took place between 839 and 842. According to Byzantine sources both peoples co-existed peacefully up to that moment.[1] The conflict was a result of the Byzantine policy to divert the Bulgarian expansion in their southern-western provinces.[2] After the Bulgarians took western Macedonia the Serbs thought they were threated to be engulfed by the large Bulgarian Empire. Their Knyaz Vlastimir managed to unite several Serbian tribes[3] and the Byzantine Emperor Theophilos who was officially overlord of the Serbian tribes supported Vlastimir in his attempts for unification of the Serbs and probably granted them independence[4] aiming at creating a threat to the Bulgarians.

The Bulgarian Khan Presian decided to eliminate the growing Byzantine influence over the Serbs and attacked them in 839. The war lasted for three years and Presian did not achieve anything - he only lost part of his army. However, the Byzantines achieved their aim - the Bulgarian attention was diverted and they managed to cope with the Slavic rebellions in Pelopones. The war ended with the death of Theophanes in 832 which on one hand released Vlastimir from his obligations to the Emperor and on the other hand gave opportunity to the Bulgarians to attack the Byzantine Empire an annex the area of Ohrid, Bitola and Devol in 842-843.[5]

Campaign of Boris I

Boris I.

After the death of Vlastimir c.850 his state was divided between his sons Mutimir, Stroimir and Goinik and the new Bulgarian ruler Boris I attacked the Serbs. He wanted to use the Serbian weakness and impose Bulgarian influence instead of the Byzantine one. However, the campaign proved to be a disaster after the Serbs defeated the Bulgarian army and captured Boris I's son Vladimir Rasate and twelve great boils.[6] To take back his son, Boris I concluded peace with the Serbs and both sides exchanged gifts.[7] There were no territorial changes but the Bulgarian ruler probably abandoned his ambitions to conquer the Serbs. However, the Bulgarians achieved part of their objectives - the Serbs rejected their alliance with Byzantium. Boris and Mutumir established friendly relations and the latter was backed by the Bulgarians in his struggle against his brothers and after Mutimir captured them they were sent to Bulgaria.[8]

Campaigns of Simeon I

In 917 the Byzantines managed to bribe the Serbian Prince Petar Gojniković who was an ally of Simeon I. After the Byzantine army was annihilated in the battle of Anchialus on 20 August that year, the Bulgarian Emperor had to delay his march to Constantinople in order to secure his western borders. In the autumn of 917 Simeon sent an army under the generals Theodore Sigritsa and Marmais to invade Serbia and punish Gojniković for his treason. They convinced Petar Gojniković to meet them but when the Serbian Prince came he was captured and taken to Preslav where he died in prison. The Bulgarians installed Petar's cousin Pavle Branović who was under the wing of Simeon on his place.[9][10]

The Balkans in the early 10th century. In dark green - Bulgaria in 904; in light green territorial extension of Bulgaria under Simeon I; in purple - Serbia conquered in 924.

In 921 when the Bulgarians controlled almost every Byzantine possessions on the Balkans, the latter tried once again to turn the Serbs against Bulgaria. Romanos Lekapenos sent Zaharije Pribisavljević against Pavle who was loyal to Simeon but he was defeated and sent to Bulgaria. However, the Byzantine managed to bribe Pavle Branović and while the Bulgarians were besieging Adrianople, the Serbs started hostilities against Bulgaria but this time Simeon easily fought them out - he sent Zaharije with an army in Serbia. Pavle was defeated and his throne taken by Zaharije.[11]

However, the Byzantine historians wrote that Zaharije "after he recalled the beneficence of the Byzantine Emperor, immediately rebelled against the Bulgarians because he did not not want to submit to them but preferred to be a subject of the Byzantine Emperor."[11] Angered with his betrayal, Simeon sent an army led by Theodore Sigritsa and Marmais to crush the Serbs but the Bulgarians were ambushed and defeated and the heads of their commanders sent to Constantinople.[12] Simeon pretended that he was ready to conclude peace with the Byzantine Empire and in the meantime summoned a large army against the Serbs under the generals Knin, Imnik and Itsvoklius along with the new pretender of the Serbian throne Časlav Klonimirović. When the news of those preparations reached Zaharije, he immediately fled to Croatia. However, this time the Bulgarians to fully conquer the Serbian principality. The Serbian nobles were persuaded to meet Časlav and were captured and taken to Preslav. The Bulgarian army devastated Serbia and moved the population to Bulgaria while some escaped to Croatia and Byzantium.[13] Serbia was included in the borders of the Bulgarian Empire.[14] for a period of three years until Caslav Klonimirovicdefeated Bulgaria and renewed the Serbian realm.

 The legend of Basil the Bulgar-slayer  By Paul Stephenson

The Paristrion Themata- Dobrudja

Campaigns of Samuil

Prince Jovan Vladimir.

After the defeat at Spercheios in 996 against the Byzantines, the Bulgarian Emperor Samuil turned his attention to the Serbian and Croatian principalities to the northwest where the Byzantine influence was very strong.[15]

In 998 he invaded the Serbian principality of Duklja which was ruled by Prince Jovan Vladimir. The Serbs were unable to resist the Bulgarian army and Jovan Vladimir fled with his people in the Oblica mountain.[16] When Samuil arrived he left part of his army to bar the Serbs and with the rest of his troops he besieged the coastal fortress of Ulcinj. To avoid further bloodshed the Bulgarians offered Jovan Vladimir to surrender and after he initially refused but after it became clear that his nobles were ready to betray him, he finally surrendered to Samuil. Jovan Vladimir was exiled to Samuil's palaces in Prespa.[17] Then the Bulgarians seized Kotor and set off for Dubrovnik and Dalmatia.

While Jovan Vladimir was in Bulgarian captivity, one of the daughters of Samuil Theodora Kosara fell in love with the young Serbian Prince and Samuil approved their marriage. Jovan Vladimir was allowed to return to his lands as a Bulgarian official, supervised by a trusted man of the Bulgarian Emperor, Dragomir.[18] However, in 1016 he was killed by the new Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Vladislav who was suspicions of Vladimir who could be a potential candidate for the throne.[19]

Conflicts in the 13th century

South-eastern Europe c. 1261. The Bulgarian Empire is in dark green, the Kingdom of Serbia in orange.

The first clashes between the reborn Bulgarian Empire and the Serbs who acted as Hungarian vassals appeared in 1202. Emeric of Hungary took advantage of the campaigns of the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan and took the Bulgarian cities Belgrade, Branicevo and Niš. The latter was given to his vassal, the Serbian zhupan Valkan. However, on the next year the Bulgarian army pushed the Serbs out of Niš and defeated the Hungarians in the battle of Morava.[20]

In 1289 the Hungarians asked their vassal Stefan Dragutin to attack the Bulgarian nobles Darman and Kudelin, rulers of the Branicevo province, who had previously defeated the Hungarians. In 1290 Dragutin invaded the province but was defeated by Darman and Kudelin who on their turn attacked his lands. Dragutin had to ask his brother Stefan Milutin, the King of Serbia to help him. In the next year they defeated the Bulgarians who fled to Vidin. The despot of Vidin also fought against the Serbs but the war was unsuccessful and Bulgaria lost the Belgrade and Branicevo provinces forever.

War of 1330

The Balkans in 1355 showing Serbia in its greatest extend ever.

After 1291 both states maintained friendly relations. In 1296 the Bulgarian Emperor Smilets married his daughter Theodora to the future Serbian King Stefan Uroš III Dečanski. The sister of Dečanski Anna Neda was married to the Bulgarian Emperor Michael III Shishman. However, the growth of the Serbian Kingdom in the late 13th and early 14th century raised serious concern in the royal courts in Tarnovo and Constantinople - while both Empires had numerous external and internal problems, the Serbs expanded their state in northern Macedonia.

On 13 May 1327 Michael III Shishman and Andronikos III Palaiologos signed a treaty against Serbia and agreed to launch joined campaign.[21] The campaign began in July 1330 when the Byzantine invaded Serbia from the south but after they seized several fortresses their campaign was halted by orders of Andronikos III. In the meantime the Bulgarian army which numbered around 15,000 men attacked from the east. On 24 July the armies of Bulgaria and Serbia (which numbered approximately 18,000 men[22]) met near the town of Velbazhd (Kyustendil). Despite the one-day truce agreed by the two rulers, the Serbs broke their word and attacked the Bulgarians while the latter were scattered to search for provisions.[23] Caught by surprise and immensely outnumbered, the Bulgarians tried to organize resistance but were defeated and the wounded Emperor Michael III Shishman was captured by the victors and died four days later.[24]

Despite their victory, the Serbs were unable to continue their campaign in Bulgaria - Stefan Dečanski did not risk to confront the Bulgarian reserves led by the Emperor's brother and despot of Vidin Belaur and the despot of Lovech Ivan Alexander. After short negotiations near the castle of Izvor Belaur and Dečanski concluded a peace treaty according to which the Bulgarian throne was inherited by Michael III Shishman's and Anna Neda's son Ivan Stefan. Bulgaria did not lose territory but was unable to stop the Serbian expansion in the largely Bulgarian-populated Macedonia.

Conclusion

The battle of Velbazhd opened a period of 20 years in which for the first time Serbia became the dominant power of the Balkans. Their new King Stefan Dušan who killed his father in 1331 conquered Macedonia, Epiros and Thessaly and in 1346 was crowned Emperor with the help of the Bulgarians. After his death in 1355 his state was divided into several independent states as did Bulgaria after the death of Ivan Alexander in 1371. In the 15th century both states were destroyed by the Ottoman Turks.

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ De admin. imperio, ed. Bon., cap. 32, p. 154
  2. ^ Грот, К. Я. Известия Константин Багрянородного о сербах и хорватах, Петроград, 1879, стр. 181
  3. ^ Л. Ковачевић и Л. Jовановић, Историjа српскога народа, Београд, 1894, кн. 2, стр. 38—39
  4. ^ Ст. Станоjевић, Историjа српскога народа, Београд, 1910, стр. 46—47
  5. ^ Известия за българите, стр. 42—43
  6. ^ Грот, К. Я. Известия Константин Багрянородного о сербах и хорватах, Петроград, 1879, стр. 183
  7. ^ Const. Porphyr., ibid., cap. 32, p. 154—155
  8. ^ Const. Porphyr., ibid., cap. 32, p. 155
  9. ^ Const. Porphyr., ibid., cap. 32, p. 155
  10. ^ Грот, К. Я. Известия Константин Багрянородного о сербах и хорватах, Петроград, 1879, стр. 186-187
  11. ^ a b Const. Porphyr., ibid., cap. 32, p. 157
  12. ^ Const. Porphyr., ibid., cap. 32, p. 157-158
  13. ^ Const. Porphyr., ibid., p. 158
  14. ^ Zlatarski, V. History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages, Sofia, 1971, p. 214
  15. ^ Šišič, F., Geschichte der Kroaten, S. 188—189
  16. ^ К. Jireček, Studien zur Geschichte und Geographie Albaniens im Mittelalter (S.—Ab. aus dem 1 Bd. der “Illyrisch-Albanischen Forschungen”, zusammengestellt von Ludwic v. Thalloczy, S. 63—187), Budapest, 1916, S. 56—57 - According to Constantine Jireček that mountain is Tarabosh (572 m) located to the south-western corner of Lake Škodra
  17. ^ Šišić, p. 331
  18. ^ Šišić, p. 334
  19. ^ Stephenson, Paul (November 2006). "Partial Translation of Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja". .Mac. http://homepage.mac.com/paulstephenson/trans/lpd2.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-03. 
  20. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 162 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  21. ^ Nicephori Gregoras. Historiae byzantinae ed. Schopen, I, Bonnae, 1829, I, 391, 394;
  22. ^ The battle of Velbazhd
  23. ^ Архиепископ Данило. Животи краљева, с. 183
  24. ^ Шишмановци, 54-55


When the Hungarians raided Pannonia first time in 862 they had come at the invitation of their ally, the Moravian leader Rastislav

Rastislav


Saint Rastic or Rastiz was the second ruler of Great Moravia between 846 and 870. He was canonized in October 1994 by the Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church....
. The following year, Louis the German

Louis the German


Louis the German , was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye....
 king of Eastern Francia retaliated by forging an alliance with the Bulgarians, whose Khan Boris-Mihail

Boris I of Bulgaria


Boris I or sometimes Boris-Mihail , also known as Bogoris was the ruler of Bulgaria 852–889. At the time of his baptism in 864, Boris was named Michael after his godfather, Emperor Michael III....
 sent mounted troops to help beat Rastislav into submission. That set a pattern of confrontation in the Danubian region which lasted for some twenty-five years: Hungarians and Moravians against Bulgarians and Franks. The Hungarian Conquest was one of the factors that upset this military balance. Prior to the Conquest, in 881, Svatopluk

Svatopluk I


Svatopluk I from the House of Mojm?r was the prince of the Principality of Nitra and then the king of Great Moravia . Under his rule Great Moravia reached its maximum territorial expansion....
 received assistance from the Hungarians that advanced as far as Vienna. Two years later, Svatopluk suffered a punishing blow from the Bulgarians. In 892, when Svatopluk once again refused to pay obeisance to the Franks, he could still count on his Hungarian allies — but also on Bulgarian retaliation.

The situation took a decisive turn in September 892, when Khan Vladimir

Vladimir of Bulgaria


Vladimir-Rasate was the ruler of Bulgaria from 889 to 893.He became ruler of Bulgaria when his father Boris I of Bulgaria decided to retire to a monastery after a reign of 36 years....
 informed Arnulf of Carinthia

Arnulf


Arnulf may refer to:*Arnulf of Metz, saint *Arnulf of Eynesbury, saint*Arnulf of Carinthia *Arnulf I of Bavaria *Arnulf I of Flanders *Arnulf II, Count of Flanders ...
's envoys that the Franks could no longer count on his military aid in the Carpathian Basin; the Bulgarians were only prepared to halt salt deliveries to the enemy. The Frank delegation was still there when Simeon I of Bulgaria

Simeon I of Bulgaria


Simeon I the Great ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927, during the First Bulgarian Empire. Simeon's successful campaigns against the Byzantine Empire, Magyars and Serbs led Bulgaria to its greatest territorial expansion ever, making it the most powerful state in contemporary Eastern Europe....
 ascended to the Bulgarian throne; once a hostage of the Byzantines, he vengefully prepared for war.

In response, the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI

Leo VI


Leo VI can refer to:*Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise*Pope Leo VI*King Leo VI of Armenia...
's envoy Niketas Skleros met on the Lower Danube with the Hungarian ruling princes Árpád

Árpád


?rp?d , the second Grand Prince of the Magyars . Under his rule the Hungarian people people settled in the Carpathian basin. The ?rp?d dynasty ruled the Magyar tribes and later the Kingdom of Hungary until 1301....
 and Kurszán

Kurszán


Kursz?n , the Magyar tribal chieftain, son of K?nd was a partner ruler besides ?rp?d till his death. He had a crucial role in the Kingdom of Hungary Conquest ....
, and they agreed to form an alliance. As a result, a Hungarian force, led by Árpád's son, Liüntika (Levente

Levente


Levente - youngest son of Vazul, a ruler in Hungary's ?rp?d dynasty.Levente was son of Vazul, cousin of Stephen I of Hungary, and an unknown women from the family T?tony....
) - led an army of the Hungarians' Kabar auxiliaries, and possibly the Szekelys - was ferried across the Danube by the Byzantines and attacked Simeon's Bulgarians from the rear. Simeon suspended his campaign against Byzantium to turn against the Hungarians. Defeated by the latter, he sought refuge in the castle at Drastar (Silistra

Silistra


Silistra is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the country's border with Romania. Silistra is the administrative centre of Silistra Province and one of the important cities of the historical region of Southern Dobruja....
).

That same year, in 894, Hungarian warriors advanced into the Carpathian Basin and Pannonia to aid Svatopluk against the Bulgarians' Frankish allies. When they learned of Svatopluk's death, the Hungarians pulled back, though apparently only as far as the region of the Upper Tisza. In spring 895, Árpád followed with his army and, after some skirmishes on the Great Plain, brought the Bulgarians' rule to an end. Having hurriedly made peace with Byzantium, the Bulgarians concentrated their forces to defeat Liüntika's Hungarians.

After the Hungarians retreated, Simeon pretended to agree to negotiations - the Byzantine envy Leo Chirosphact who arrived to the Bulgarian capital Preslav

Preslav


Preslav was the capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972 and one of the most important cities of medieval Southeastern Europe. The ruins of the city are situated in modern northeastern Bulgaria, some 20 kilometres southwest of the regional capital of Shumen, and are currently a national archaeological reserve....
 was put in custody and Simeon deliberately prolonged the peace talks. In the meantime he allied with the Pechenegs

Pechenegs


The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a nomad Turkic peoples people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic languages....
 simultaneously launched attacks on the Hungarian encampments in the Etelköz. In the bloody battle of Southern Buh

Battle of Southern Buh


The Battle of Southern Buh occurred near the banks of the so called river, in modern Ukraine. The result was a great Bulgarians victory which forced the Magyars to leave forever the steppes of southern Ukraine and to establish the Kingdom of Hungary a hundred years later....
 the Bulgarians led by Simeon I and his father Boris I

Boris I of Bulgaria


Boris I or sometimes Boris-Mihail , also known as Bogoris was the ruler of Bulgaria 852–889. At the time of his baptism in 864, Boris was named Michael after his godfather, Emperor Michael III....
 who was a monk at the time decisively defeated the Hungarians. The ensuing, massive withdrawal by the Hungarians ended in the 'conquest', or rather settlement, of what became the Hungarian's permanent homeland. Soon after the Bulgarian victory, the Simeon stopped the negotiations and in the summer of 896 the Byzantine army was routed at Bulgarophygon

Battle of Bulgarophygon


The battle of Bulgarophygon was fought in the summer of 896 near the town of Babaeski in modern Turkey, between the Byzantine Empire and the First Bulgarian Empire....
.

Conflicts in 10th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salan Glad01

With the emergence of the Árpád dynasty after Kurszán's death, a new clan became the repository of Hungary ('Turkia')s second sovereignty'. There is no indication of the time when the ruling gyulas transferred their headquarters and residence to the middle Maros valley. The gyula must have been in charge of eastern and southern affairs, for he directed the raids against Byzantium and Bulgaria in April 934 and April 943.

The blows suffered at the hands of the Pechenegs and Bulgarians in 895-896 induced great caution. Constantine Porphyrogenetos repeatedly noted that the Hungarians feared the Pechenegs, who were used by the Bulgarians to keep the Hungarians in check. When, early in the 10th century, Byzantine envoys urged the Hungarian leaders to attack the Pechenegs, their proposal was rejected on the grounds that it carried too many risks; in any case, the Hungarians had no intention of reoccupying the Etelköz, now held by the Pechenegs as far as the Danube delta. They tried to preserve peaceful relations with the Pechenegs so that they would be free to concentrate on more westerly targets. The Pechenegs, for their part, preferred to raid the richer lands of the Bulgarians and Byzantines rather than the poorer Carpathian Basin, which was in a state of some turmoil due to the Hungarian conquest. Thus the anti-Hungarian alliance of the Bulgarians and the Byzantine empire gradually fell apart, and the two old enemies, the Hungarians and the Pechenegs, pursued a rapprochement in the face of growing Bulgarian might.

Gesta Hungarorum Anonymous

In 913, Simeon launched the first in a series of military campaigns by which he seized from the Byzantines most of the Balkan Peninsula; six years later, he exchanged his title of Great Khan for that of Czar. He was not a man to let the salt mines and gold deposits of southern Transylvania pass into Hungarian hands without a fight. In order to conquer the rest of Transylvania as well as the region between the Maros, Tisza, and Danube rivers ('Glad

War of 1003

Glad


Glad can refer to:*Glad , ruler in the territory of Banat, who was defeated by the Magyars during the 10th century*GLAD , GLancing Angle Deposition...
's domain according to Anonymus

Anonymus


Anonymus is the Latin word for anonymity, the correct English spelling. The Latin spelling, however, is traditionally used by scholars in the humanities to refer to an ancient writer whose name is not known, or to a manuscript of their work....
, but most likely under Bulgarian rule), the Hungarians would need to ally themselves with the Pechenegs against the Bulgarians. The painful consequences of the alliance of Bulgarians and Pechenegs in 895 were still fresh in the Hungarians' memory. As long as the Pechenegs remained hostile, the Hungarians would not dare to provoke Simeon by seizing his lands north of the Carpathians and the Danube.

The opportunity came with the formation (ca. 932) of a Pecheneg-Hungarian alliance. It is possible that the gyula

Gyula


*Gyula is a Hungarian male given name. It was adopted as a given name sometime after the establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary. It was revived in the 19th century and is often associated with the Latin name Julius....
 Bogát

Bogat


Bogat is a town in northern Tajikistan. It is located on the M34 highway, Tajikistan in Sughd province.ReferencesExternal links...
 had acted earlier, but if not, he must have seized this chance to occupy southern Transylvania. In breaking the Bulgars' resistance, the Hungarians were helped not only by their Pecheneg allies but also by the internal struggle — exacerbated by Byzantine meddling — over the succession to Czar Simeon, who died in 927. This may have presented Bogát's successor, the gyula Zombor, with the opportunity to occupy the land lying between the Maros, Tisza, and Danube rivers.

Having seized southern Transylvania from the Bulgarians, Bogát's warriors and their servants settled down in Slavic villages along the lower reaches of the Küküllo rivers.

The region between the Mures

Mures


The name Mures may refer to:*Mures County in Romania*Mures River in Romania and Hungary Also, the following localities contain the name Mures and lie on the banks of the river above....
, Tisa, and Danube rivers must have come under the rule of a Hungarian gyula by 948, for that was when Emperor Constantine recorded that the Bulgarian cities Orsova

Orsova


Orsova is a port city on the Danube river in southwestern Romania's Mehedinti County . It is situated just above the Iron Gate , on the spot where the Cerna River meets the Danube....
, Belgrade

Belgrade


Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. The city lies on international waterway, at the confluence of the Sava River and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkan Peninsula....
, and Sirmium

Mitrovica


Mitrovica may refer to:...
 lay near Hungary's borders.

It was a sign of the gyulas' enhanced power that they launched the first Hungarian campaigns against Byzantium, cutting through the weakening defenses of the Bulgarians. According to Byzantine chronicles, the first campaign occurred in 934; it ended in a peace treaty between Emperor Peter I of Bulgaria

Peter I of Bulgaria


Peter I was emperor of Bulgaria from May 27, 927 to 969, died January 30, 970....
 and the Hungarians. Another campaign, in 943, was terminated in similar fashion, and the Byzantines probably had to pay tribute.

In 948, a sudden turn of events compelled Transylvania

Transylvania


Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountains, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term frequently encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of Crisana, Maramures, and Banat....
's gyula to adopt a policy divergent from that of the ruling prince who had dispatched his nephew, and the harka Bulcsú to Constantinople, to renew the peace treaty; the envoys attached so much importance to the task that they had themselves baptized. It is likely that this gesture was motivated by Bulcsú's decision to launch new western raids; therefore he wanted to protect his rear from Byzantine attack. Some time after 952, the gyula Zombor also presented himself at Constantinople, but he came in his own right, and not as an envoy of the ruling prince. He, too, had himself baptized, but his political goal was different from that of Bulcsú. Zombor was interested not in western raids but in the anti-Bulgarian plans of the Byzantine court. The latter had never given up its ambition to crush the Bulgarians and restore the old imperial borders on the Sava and Lower Danube rivers. The gyulas also considered the Bulgarians, from whom they had seized the territories that lay north of the Danube and the Carpathians, to be their principal enemy. The Árpádian ruling princes would have been satisfied with Byzantine neutrality, but the gyulas sought an alliance against the Bulgarians.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Since the fall of the Bulgarian capital Preslav in 971 the Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empires were in a state of constant war. The Byzantine-Bulgarian conflict reached its height in 1003 when Hungary became involved. At that time the governor of the northwestern parts of Bulgaria was Duke Ahtum

Ahtum


Ahtum was an early 11th century Voivode of Banat and a descendant of Glad , another local duke and governor in the First Bulgarian Empire. Ahtum was the last local ruler who was opposed to the establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary....
, the grandson of Duke Glad

Glad


Glad can refer to:*Glad , ruler in the territory of Banat, who was defeated by the Magyars during the 10th century*GLAD , GLancing Angle Deposition...
, who was defeated by the Hungarians in 930s. Ahtum commanded a strong army and firmly defended the northwestern borders of the Empire. He also built many churches and monasteries through which he spread Christianity

Christianity


Christianity is a Monotheistic religion #Christian view religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as New Testament view on Jesus' life....
 in Transylvania

Transylvania


Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountains, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term frequently encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of Crisana, Maramures, and Banat....
. Although marriage of the heir to the Bulgarian throne Gavril Radomir

Gavril Radomir of Bulgaria


Gavril Radomir was the ruler of First Bulgarian Empire from October 1014 to August or September 1015. He was the son of Samuel of Bulgaria, and he came to the throne following his father's death....
 to the daughter of the Hungarian ruler had established friendly relation between the two strongest states in the Danube area, the relationship deteriorated after Géza's death. The Bulgarians supported Gyula and Koppány

Koppány


Kopp?ny was a Hungary nobleman of the tenth century. Brother of the ruling prince of Hungary, G?za of the ?rp?d dynasty, Kopp?ny ruled as Prince of Somogy in the region south of Lake Balaton....
 as rulers instead of Géza's Stephen I

Stephen I of Hungary


Saint Stephen I was Grand Prince of the Hungarians and the first King of Hungary . He greatly expanded Hungarian control over the Carpathian Basin during his lifetime, broadly established Christianity in the region, and he is generally considered to be the founder of the Kingdom of Hungary....
. As a result of the conflict, the marriage between Gavril Radomir and the Hungarian princess was dissolved. The Hungarians then attacked Ahtum, who had directly backed the pretenders for the Hungarian crown. Stephen I convinced Hanadin, Ahtum's right-hand man, to help in the attack. When the conspiracy was uncovered Hanadin fled and joined the Hungarian forces. At the same time, a strong Byzantine army besieged Vidin

Vidin


Vidin is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. It is close to the borders with Serbia and Romania, and is also the administrative centre of Vidin Province, as well as of the Metropolitan of Vidin ....
, Ahtum's seat. Although many soldiers were required to participate in the defense of the town, Ahtum was occupied with the war to the north. After several months he died in battle when his troops were defeated by the Hungarians. As a result of the war, Bulgarian influence to the northwest of the Danube diminished.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simeon I of Bulgaria, Tsar of the Bulgarians and the Romans-Vlachs

Close
Simeon I the Great
Tsar of the Bulgarians and the Romans
Simeon the Great anonymous seal.jpg
Anonymous seal of Simeon I
Reign 893 – 27 May 927
Born 864/865
Died 27 May 927(927-05-27)
Predecessor Vladimir
Successor Peter I
Consort two, names unknown
Offspring see below
Father Boris I
Mother Maria

Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki[2] [simɛˈɔn ˈpərvi vɛˈliki]) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. Simeon's successful campaigns against the Byzantines, Magyars and Serbs led Bulgaria to its greatest territorial expansion ever,[4] making it the most powerful state in contemporary Eastern Europe.[5] His reign was also a period of unmatched cultural prosperity and enlightenment later deemed the Golden Age of Bulgarian culture.[6]

During Simeon's rule, Bulgaria spread over a territory between the Aegean, the Adriatic and the Black Sea,[7][8] and the new Bulgarian capital Preslav was said to rival Constantinople.[8][9] The newly-independent Bulgarian Orthodox Church became the first new patriarchate besides the Pentarchy, and Bulgarian Glagolitic translations of Christian texts spread all over the Slavic world of the time.[10] Halfway through his reign, Simeon assumed the title of Emperor (Tsar),[11] having prior to that been styled Prince (Knyaz).[12]

Biography

Background and early life

Simeon was born in 864 or 865 as the third son of Knyaz Boris I[12] of Krum's dynasty.[13] As Boris was the ruler who Christianized Bulgaria in 865, Simeon was a Christian all his life.[12][14] Because his eldest brother Vladimir was designated heir to the Bulgarian throne, Boris intended Simeon to become a high-ranking cleric,[15] possibly Bulgarian archbishop, and sent him to the leading University of Constantinople to receive theological education when he was thirteen or fourteen.[14] He took the Hebrew name Simeon[16] as a novice in a monastery in Constantinople.[14] During the decade (ca. 878–888) he spent in the Byzantine capital, he received excellent education and studied the rhetoric of Demosthenes and Aristotle.[17] He also learned fluent Greek, to the extent that he was referred to as "the half-Greek" in Byzantine chronicles.[18] He is speculated to have been tutored by Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople,[19] but this is not supported by any source.[14]

For who could have anticipated that Simeon, who for his great wisdom, for the favour shown him by heaven, has led the Bulgarian nation to a height of glory, who more than any man detests knavery, who honours justice, who abominates injustice, who is above all sensual pleasures…

—from Nicholas Mystikos' letters to Simeon[20]

Around 888, Simeon returned to Bulgaria and settled at the newly-established royal monastery of Preslav "at the mouth of the Tiča",[21] where, under the guidance of Naum of Preslav, he engaged in active translation of important religious works from Greek to Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian), aided by other students from Constantinople.[14] Meanwhile, Vladimir had succeeded Boris, who had retreated to a monastery, as ruler of Bulgaria. Vladimir attempted to reintroduce paganism in the empire and possibly signed an anti-Byzantine pact with Arnulf of Carinthia,[22] forcing Boris to re-enter political life. Boris had Vladimir imprisoned and blinded, and then appointed Simeon as the new ruler.[23][24] This was done at an assembly in Preslav which also proclaimed Bulgarian as the only language of state and church[25] and moved the Bulgarian capital from Pliska to Preslav, to better cement the recent conversion.[26] It is not known why Boris did not place his second son, Gavril, on the throne, but instead preferred Simeon.[12]

[edit] Trade War with Byzantium and Magyar invasions

With Simeon on the throne, the long-lasting peace with the Byzantine Empire established by his father was about to end. A conflict arose when Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise, allegedly acting under pressure from his mistress Zoe Zaoutzaina and her father Stylianos Zaoutzes, moved the marketplace for Bulgarian goods from Constantinople to Thessaloniki,[15] where the Bulgarian merchants were heavily taxed. The Bulgarians sought protection by Simeon, who in turn complained to Leo. However, the Byzantine emperor ignored his embassy.[27][28]

Map of Bulgaria's greatest territorial extent during the reign of Simeon I

Forced to take action, in the autumn of 894 Simeon invaded the Byzantine Empire from the north, meeting with little opposition[29] due to the concentration of most Byzantine forces in eastern Anatolia to counter Arab invasions.[30] Informed of the Bulgarian offensive, the surprised Leo sent an army consisting of guardsmen and other military units from the capital to halt Simeon, but his troops were routed[15][31] somewhere in the theme of Macedonia.[8] The Bulgarians took most of the Khazar mercenary guardsmen prisoners and killed many archons, including the army's commander. However, instead of continuing his advance to the Byzantine capital, Simeon quickly withdrew his troops to face a Magyar invasion from the north.[32] These events were later called "the first trade war in medieval Europe" by Bulgarian historians.[31]

Unable to effectively respond to the Bulgarian campaign due to the engagement of their forces against the Arabs, the Byzantines convinced the Magyars to attack Bulgaria,[15] promising to transport them across the Danube using the Byzantine navy.[31][33] Leo VI may have also concluded an agreement with Arnulf to make sure that the Franks did not support Simeon against the Magyars.[34] In addition, the talented commander Nikephoros Phokas was called back from Italy to lead a separate army against Bulgaria in 895 with the mere intention to overawe the Bulgarians.[35] Simeon, unaware of the threat from the north, rushed to meet Phokas' forces, but the two armies did not engage in a fight.[36] Instead, the Byzantines offered peace, informing him of both the Byzantine foot and maritime campaign, but intentionally did not notify him of the planned Magyar attack. Simeon did not trust the envoy and, after sending him to prison, ordered the Byzantine navy's route into the Danube closed off with ropes and chains, intending to hold it until he had dealt with Phokas.[37]

Despite the problems they encountered because of the fencing, the Byzantines ultimately managed to ferry the Magyar forces led by Árpád's son Liüntika across the Danube,[38] possibly near modern Galaţi,[39] and assisted them in pillaging the nearby Bulgarian lands. Once notified of the surprise invasion, Simeon headed north to stop the Magyars, leaving some of his troops at the southern border to prevent a possible attack by Phokas.[40] Simeon's two encounters with the enemy in Northern Dobruja resulted in Magyar victories,[15] forcing him to retreat to Drǎstǎr.[40][41] After pillaging much of Bulgaria and reaching Preslav, the Magyars returned to their lands,[42] but not before Simeon had concluded an armistice with Byzantium towards the summer of 895.[35] A complete peace was delayed, as Leo VI required the release of the Byzantine captives from the Trade War.[43]

[edit] Anti-Magyar campaign and further wars with Byzantium

The Magyars defeat a Bulgarian army

Having dealt with the pressure from the Magyars and the Byzantines, Simeon was free to plan a campaign against the Magyars looking for retribution. He negotiated a joint force with the Magyars' eastern neighbours, the Pechenegs, and imprisoned the Byzantine envoy Leo Choirosphaktes in order to delay the release of the captives until after the campaign against the Magyars.[44] This would allow him to renegotiate the peace conditions in his favour. In an exchange of letters with the envoy, Simeon refused to release the captives and ridiculed Leo VI's astrological abilities.[15][45]

Using a Magyar invasion in the lands of the neighbouring Slavs in 896 as a casus belli, Simeon headed against the Magyars together with his Pecheneg allies, defeating them completely[46] in the Battle of Southern Buh and making them leave Etelköz forever and settle in Pannonia.[8][15] Following the defeat of the Magyars, Simeon finally released the Byzantine prisoners in exchange for Bulgarians captured in 895.[15]

The Bulgarians routing the Byzantine forces at Bulgarophygon in 896. From the Madrid Skylitzes.

Claiming that not all prisoners had been released,[46] Simeon once again invaded Byzantium in the summer of 896, heading directly to Constantinople.[47] He was met in Thrace by a hastily-assembled Byzantine army, but annihilated the Byzantine forces in the Battle of Bulgarophygon (at modern Babaeski, Turkey).[15][48] Arming Arab captives and sending them to fight with the Bulgarians as a desperate measure, Leo VI managed to repel the Bulgarians from Constantinople, which they had besieged.[15][49] The war ended with a peace treaty which formally lasted until around Leo VI's death in 912[8] and under which Byzantium was obliged to pay Bulgaria an annual tribute.[50] Under the treaty, the Byzantines also ceded an area between the Black Sea and Strandža to the Bulgarian Empire.[51] Meanwhile, Simeon had also imposed his authority over Serbia in return for recognizing Petar Gojniković as their ruler.[52]

Simeon often violated the peace treaty with Byzantium, attacking and conquering Byzantine territory on several occasions,[53] such as in 904, when the Bulgarian raids were used by Arabs led by the Byzantine renegade Leo of Tripoli to undertake a maritime campaign and seize Thessaloniki.[54] After the Arabs plundered the city, it was an easy target for Bulgaria and the nearby Slavic tribes. In order to dissuade Simeon from capturing the city and populating it with Slavs,[15][55] Leo VI was forced to make further territorial concessions to the Bulgarians in the modern region of Macedonia. With the treaty of 904, all Slavic-inhabited lands in modern southern Macedonia and southern Albania were ceded to the Bulgarian Empire,[8][56] with the border line running some 20 kilometres north of Thessaloniki.[57]

[edit] Recognition as Emperor

The death of Leo VI on 11 May 912 and the accession of his infant son Constantine VII under the guidance of Leo's brother Alexander, who expelled Leo's wife Zoe from the palace, constituted a great opportunity for Simeon to attempt another campaign against Constantinople, the conquest of which remained the dream of his life. In the spring of 913, Simeon's envoys, which had arrived in Constantinople to renew the peace of 896, were sent away by Alexander, who refused to pay the annual tribute, urging Simeon to prepare for war.[58]

Simeon was the Bulgarian Charlemagne, but he was better educated than our Charles the Great and much greater than him, for he laid down the foundations of literature that belonged to the people.[59]

Alfred Nicolas Rambaud, French historian

Before Simeon could attack, Alexander died on 6 June 913, leaving the empire in the hands of a regency council headed by Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos.[60] Many of the residents of Constantinople did not recognize the young emperor and supported the pretender Constantine Doukas,[61] which, exacerbated by revolts in southern Italy and the planned Arab invasion in eastern Anatolia, was all to Simeon's advantage.[62] Nicholas Mystikos tried to discourage Simeon from invading Byzantium in a long series of pleading letters, but the Bulgarian ruler nevertheless attacked in full force in late July or August 913 and reached Constantinople without any serious resistance.[63] However, the anarchy in Constantinople had ceased after the murder of the pretender Constantine Doukas and a government had promptly been formed with Patriarch Nicholas at the helm.[64] This urged Simeon to raise his siege and enter peace negotiations, to the joy of the Byzantines.[64] The protracted negotiations resulted in the payment of the Byzantine tribute's arrears,[65] the promise that Constantine VII should marry one of Simeon's daughters[15][63] and, most importantly, Simeon's official recognition as Emperor of the Bulgarians by Patriarch Nicholas[66][67] in the Blachernai Palace.

Shortly after Simeon's visit to Constantinople, Constantine's mother Zoe returned to the palace on the insistence of the young emperor and immediately proceeded to eliminate the regents. Through a plot, she managed to assume power in February 914, practically removing Patriarch Nicholas from the government, disowning and obscuring his recognition of Simeon's imperial title[68] and rejecting the planned marriage of her son to one of Simeon's daughters.[69] Simeon had to resort to war to achieve his goals. He invaded Thrace in the summer of 914 and captured Adrianople. Zoe was quick to send Simeon numerous presents in order to conciliate him and managed to convince him to cede back Adrianople and withdraw his army. In the following years, Simeon's forces were engaged in the northwestern Byzantine provinces, around Drač (Durrës) and Thessaloniki, but did not make a move against Constantinople.[70]

[edit] Victories at Acheloos and Katasyrtai

The Bulgarian victory at Anchialos, Madrid Skylitzes.

By 917, Simeon was preparing for yet another war against Byzantium. He attempted to conclude an anti-Byzantine union with the Pechenegs, but his envoys could not match the financial resources of the Byzantines, who succeeded in outbidding them.[71] The Byzantines hatched a large-scale campaign against Bulgaria and also tried to persuade the Serbian Prince Petar Gojniković to attack the Bulgarians with Magyar support.[72]

In 917, a particularly strong Byzantine army led by Leo Phokas the Elder, son of Nikephoros Phokas, invaded Bulgaria accompanied by the Byzantine navy under the command of Romanos Lekapenos, which sailed to the Bulgarian Black Sea ports. En route to Mesembria (Nesebǎr), where they were supposed to be reinforced by troops transported by the navy, Phokas' forces stopped to rest near the river of Acheloos, not far from the port of Anchialos (Pomorie).[73][74] Once informed of the invasion, Simeon rushed to intercept the Byzantines, and attacked them from the nearby hills while they were resting disorganized. In the Battle of Acheloos of 20 August 917, one of the largest in medieval history,[75] the Bulgarians completely routed the Byzantines and killed many of their commanders, although Phokas managed to escape to Mesembria.[76] Decades later, Leo the Deacon would write that "piles of bones can still be seen today at the river Acheloos, where the fleeing army of the Byzantines was then infamously slain".[77]

Map of the progress of the Battle of Acheloos or Anchialos[78]

The planned Pecheneg attack from the north also failed, as the Pechenegs quarrelled with admiral Lekapenos, who refused to transport them across the Danube to aid the main Byzantine army.[73] The Byzantines were not aided by Serbs and Magyars either: the Magyars were engaged in Western Europe as Frankish allies, and the Serbs under Petar Gojniković were reluctant to attack Bulgaria because Michael of Zahumlje, an ally of Bulgaria, had notified Simeon of their plans.[79]

Simeon's army quickly followed up the victory of Acheloos with another success.[63] The Bulgarians sent to pursuit the remnants of the Byzantine army approached Constantinople and encountered Byzantine forces under Leo Phokas, who had returned to the capital, at the village of Katasyrtai in the immediate proximity of Constantinople.[80] The Bulgarian regiments attacked and again defeated the Byzantines, destroying some of their last units before returning to Bulgaria.[81]

[edit] Suppression of Serbian unrest and late campaigns against Byzantium

Immediately after that campaign, Simeon sought to punish the Serbian ruler Petar Gojniković who had attempted to betray him by concluding an alliance with the Byzantines.[8] Simeon sent an army led by two of his commanders, Theodore Sigrica and Marmais, to Serbia. The two managed to persuade Petar to attend a personal meeting, during which he was enchained and carried off to Bulgaria, where he died in a dungeon. Simeon put Pavle Branović, prior to that an exile in Bulgaria, on the Serbian throne, thus restoring the Bulgarian influence in Serbia for a while.[82]

Meanwhile, the Byzantine military failures forced another change of government in Constantinople: the admiral Romanos Lekapenos replaced Zoe as regent of the young Constantine VII in 919, forcing her back into a convent. Romanos betrothed his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine and advanced to the rank of co-emperor in December 920, effectively assuming the government of the empire,[83][84] which was largely what Simeon had planned to do.[85]

No longer able to climb to the Byzantine throne by diplomatic means, the infuriated Simeon once again had to wage war to impose his will. Between 920 and 922, Bulgaria increased its pressure on Byzantium, campaigning in the west through Thessaly reaching the Isthmus of Corinth and in the east in Thrace, reaching and crossing the Dardanelles to lay siege on the town of Lampsacus.[15][86] Simeon's forces appeared before Constantinople in 921, when they demanded the deposition of Romanos and captured Adrianople, and 922, when they were victorious at Pigae, burned much of the Golden Horn and seized Bizye.[87][88] In the meantime, the Byzantines attempted to ignite Serbia against Simeon, but he substituted Pavle with Zaharije Pribisavljević, a former refugee at Constantinople that he had captured.[15][87]

Simeon sending envoys to the Fatimids, Madrid Skylitzes.

Desperate to conquer Constantinople, Simeon planned a large campaign in 924 and sent envoys to the Fatimid caliph Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, who possessed a powerful navy which Simeon needed. The caliph agreed and sent his own representatives back with the Bulgarians to arrange the alliance. However, the envoys were captured by the Byzantines at Calabria. Romanos offered peace to the Arabs, supplementing this offer with generous gifts, and ruined their union with Bulgaria.[15][89]

In Serbia, Zaharije was persuaded by the Byzantines to revolt against Simeon. Zaharije was supported by many Bulgarians exhausted from Simeon's endless campaigns against Byzantium.[90] The Bulgarian emperor sent his troops under Sigrica and Marmais, but they were routed and the two commanders beheaded, which forced Simeon to conclude an armistice with Byzantium in order to concentrate on the suppression of the uprising. Simeon sent an army led by Časlav Klonimirović in 924 to depose Zaharije. He was successful, as Zaharije fled to Croatia. After this victory, the Serbian nobility was invited to come to Bulgaria and bow to the new Prince. However, he did not appear at the supposed meeting and all of them were beheaded. Bulgaria annexed Serbia directly.[15][91]

In the summer of 924, Simeon nevertheless arrived at Constantinople and demanded to see the patriarch and the emperor. He conversed with Romanos on the Golden Horn on 9 September 924 and arranged a truce, according to which Byzantium would pay Bulgaria an annual tax, but would be ceded back some cities on the Black Sea coast.[92] During the interview of the two monarchs, two eagles are said to have met in the skies above and then to have parted, one of them flying over Constantinople and the other heading to Thrace, as a sign of the irreconcilability of the two rulers.[93] In his description of this meeting, Theophanes Continuatus mentions that "the two emperors… conversed", which may indicate renewed Byzantine recognition of Simeon's imperial claims.[94]

[edit] War with Croatia and death

Most likely after (or possibly at the time of) Patriarch Nicholas' death in 925, Simeon raised the status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church to a patriarchate.[95] This may be linked to Simeon's diplomatic relations with the Papacy between 924 and 926, during which he demanded and received Pope John X's recognition of his title as "Emperor of the Romans", truly equal to the Byzantine emperor, and possibly the confirmation of a patriarchal dignity for the head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.[96]

In 926, Simeon's troops under Alogobotur invaded Croatia, at the time a Byzantine ally, but were completely defeated by the army of King Tomislav in the Battle of the Bosnian Highlands.[8] Fearing a Bulgarian retribution, Tomislav accepted to abandon his union with Byzantium and make peace on the basis of the status quo, negotiated by the papal legate Madalbert.[97][98] In the last months of his life, Simeon prepared for another siege of Constantinople[86] despite Romanos' desperate pleas for peace.[99]

On 27 May 927, Simeon died of heart failure in his palace in Preslav. Byzantine chroniclers tie his death to a legend, according to which Romanos decapitated a statue which was Simeon's inanimate double, and he died at that very hour.[100][101]

He was succeeded by his son Peter I, with George Sursuvul, the new emperor's maternal uncle, initially acting as a regent.[86] As part of the peace treaty which Bulgaria and Byzantium signed in October 927 and Peter's marriage to Maria (Eirene), Romanos' granddaughter, the existing borders were confirmed, as were the Bulgarian ruler's imperial dignity and the head of the Bulgarian Church's patriarchal status.[102]

[edit] Culture and religion

Ceramic icon of Theodore Stratelates dating to Simeon's reign
A new Ptolemy as he presented himself to them,

but not in faith — in desire mostly,
and due to his collection of all
divine and most precious books,
with which his palaces he'd filled,
he earned himself eternal memory.[103]

Praise to Tsar Simeon by an anonymous contemporary of the tsar

During Simeon's reign, Bulgaria reached its cultural apogee, becoming the literary and spiritual centre of Slavic Europe.[3][104] In this respect, Simeon continued his father Boris' policy of establishing and spreading Slavic culture and attracting noted scholars and writers within Bulgaria's borders. It was in the Preslav Literary School and Ohrid Literary School, founded under Boris, that the main literary work in Bulgaria was concentrated during the reign of Simeon.[105]

The late 9th and early 10th century constitute the earliest and most productive period of medieval Bulgarian literature.[105] Having spent his early years in Constantinople, Simeon introduced Byzantine culture to the Bulgarian court, but eliminated its assimilative effect by means of military power and religious autonomy.[105] The disciples of Cyril and Methodius, among whom Clement of Ohrid, Naum and Constantine of Preslav, continued their educational work in Bulgaria, actively translating Christian texts, such as the Bible and the works of John Chrysostom, Basil of Caesarea, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory of Nazianzus, Athanasius of Alexandria, as well as historic chronicles such as these of John Malalas and George Hamartolus, to Bulgarian.[105] The reign of Simeon also witnessed the production of a number of original theological and secular works, such as John Exarch's Six Days (Šestodnev), Constantine of Preslav's Alphabetical Prayer and Proclamation of the Holy Gospels, and Černorizec Hrabǎr's An Account of Letters.[105] Simeon's own contribution to this literary blossoming was praised by his contemporaries, for example in the Praise to Tsar Simeon preserved in the Zlatostruj collection and Simeon's Collection,[104] to which the tsar personally wrote an addendum.[106]

Simeon turned the new Bulgarian capital Preslav into a magnificent religious and cultural centre, intended more as a display of his realm's heyday and as a royal residence than as a military fortress.[104] With its more than twenty cross-domed churches and numerous monasteries, its impressive royal palace and the Golden (or Round) Church, Preslav was a true imperial capital.[104] The development of Bulgarian art in the period is demonstrated by a ceramic icon of Theodore of Amasea and the Preslav-style illustrated ceramics.[107]

[edit] Family

Simeon was married twice. By his first wife, whose identity is unknown, Simeon had a son called Michael,[108] who was born before 913. He was excluded from the succession in 927 and sent to a monastery. He died in 931, shortly after organizing a revolt.[86]

By his second wife, the daughter of the influential noble George Sursuvul, he had three sons: Peter, who succeeded as Emperor of Bulgaria in 927 and ruled until 969; Ivan, who rebelled against Peter in 928 and then fled to Byzantium;[86] and Benjamin (Bajan), who, according to Lombard historian Liutprand of Cremona, "possessed the power to transform himself suddenly into a wolf or other strange animal".[109]

Simeon also had several daughters, including one who was arranged to marry Constantine VII in 913, and was thus born before that date.[86] The marriage was annulled by Constantine's mother Zoe once she had returned to the court.[110]

[edit] Legacy and popular culture

Tsar Simeon I has remained among the most highly valued Bulgarian historical figures, as indicated by popular vote in the Velikite Bǎlgari (a spin-off of 100 Greatest Britons) television programme, which in February 2007 placed him fourth among the greatest Bulgarians ever.[112] The last Bulgarian monarch, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was named after Simeon I.[113] A brand of high-quality grape rakija, Car Simeon Veliki, also bears his name,[114] and an Antarctic peak on Livingston Island of the South Shetland Islands was named Simeon Peak in his honour by the Antarctic Place-names Commission.[115]

Simeon the Great has also been regularly featured in fiction. Bulgarian national writer Ivan Vazov dedicated a children's patriotic poem to him, "Car Simeon", and it was later arranged as a song, "Kraj Bosfora šum se vdiga" ("A Clamor Rises by the Bosphorus").[116] An eleven-episode drama series filmed in 1984, Zlatnijat vek (Golden Age), retells the story of Simeon's reign. In the series, the tsar is played by Marius Donkin.[117] A historical drama play called Car Simeon — Zlatnijat vek and produced by Stefan Stajčev, director of the Silistra Theatre, debuted in December 2006. Ivan Samokovliev stars in the part of Simeon.[118]

The painting, "The Bulgarian Tsar Simeon" is part of the 20-canvas work by Alfons Mucha, The Slav Epic.[119]

[edit] Timeline

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ For example in Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans.
  2. ^ This article uses the United Nations-authorized scientific transliteration system to romanize Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.
  3. ^ a b Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp. 23–25.
  4. ^ (in Bulgarian) Enciklopedija Bǎlgarija. Akademično izdatelstvo "Marin Drinov". 1988. OCLC 75865504. 
  5. ^ "The First Bulgarian Empire". The First Bulgarian Empire. Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761556147_8/Bulgaria.html#p48. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  6. ^ Hart, Nancy (PDF). Bulgarian Art and Culture: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. University of Texas at Austin. p. 21. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070810191242/http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/creees/content/outreach/fulbright/final_projects/hart.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  7. ^ Weigand, Gustav (1924). "1 Istoriko-geografski obzor: 4 Srednovekovie" (in Bulgarian). Etnografija na Makedonija. trans. Elena Pipiševa. Leipzig: Friedrich Brandstetter. http://knigite.abv.bg/gw/gw_1_4.html. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Bakalov, Istorija na Bǎlgarija, "Simeon I Veliki".
  9. ^ "About Bulgaria" (PDF). U.S. Embassy Sofia, Bulgaria. http://sofia.usembassy.gov/uploads/images/9slwbq67Sfo4dBuR2WMVfg/about_bulgaria1.PDF. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  10. ^ Castellan, Georges (1999) (in Bulgarian). Istorija na Balkanite XIV–XX vek. trans. Liljana Caneva. Plovdiv: Hermes. p. 37. ISBN 954-459-901-0. 
  11. ^ "Цѣсарь Блъгарѡмъ". Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 367.
  12. ^ a b c d Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 280.
  13. ^ Dimitrov, Božidar. "Hramǎt “Sveti Četirideset mǎčenici”" (in Bulgarian). National Historical Museum. http://www.historymuseum.org/upload/fck_editor/40%20mazenizi(6).htm?PHPSESSID=c3baefb9cf4c28b27bbb7c03d78cfeec. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 132.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
  16. ^ "From the Greek form of the Hebrew name שִׁמְעוֹן (Shim'on) which meant "hearkening" or "listening"." Campbell, Mike. "Biblical Names". Behind the Name. http://www.behindthename.com/nmc/bibl2.php. Retrieved 2007-03-04. 
  17. ^ "Hunc etenim Simeonem emiargon, id est semigrecum, esse aiebant, eo quod a puericia Bizantii Demostenis rhetoricam Aristotelisque sillogismos didicerit". Liutprand of Cremona. Antapodosis, cap. 29, p. 66. Cited in Drinov, Marin (1876) (in Russian). Južnye slavjane i Vizantija v X veke. p. 374. 
  18. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 132.
    * Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 282.
  19. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 281.
  20. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 133.
  21. ^ This is not to be understood literally, as the mouth of the Tiča lies to the east, on the Black Sea coast. Researchers link the word ustie ("river mouth") in the sources to a narrow section of the river or to the Ustie pass near the city. Nikolova, Bistra (2002). "Veliki Preslav" (in Bulgarian). Pravoslavnite cǎrkvi prez Bǎlgarskoto srednovekovie. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. p. 88. ISBN 954-430-762-1. 
  22. ^ Annales Fuldenses, p. 408. Cited in Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 133.
  23. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 283.
  24. ^ Todt, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.
  25. ^ Crampton, R.J. (2005). "The Reign of Simeon the Great (893–927)". A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0521850851. 
  26. ^ Kalojanov, Ančo (2005-05-11). "Slavjanskata pravoslavna civilizacija" (in Bulgarian). http://liternet.bg/publish/akaloianov/civilizacia.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  27. ^ John Skylitzes. Skylitzes–Kedrenos, II, p. 254.4–16
  28. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 144–145.
  29. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 289.
  30. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, p. 312., cited in Vasil'ev, A. (1902) (in Russian). Vizantija i araby, II. pp. 88, p. 104, pp. 108–111. 
  31. ^ a b c Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 198.
  32. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 289–291.
  33. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 145.
  34. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 294–295.
  35. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 146.
  36. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 295.
  37. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 296–297.
  38. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 297.
  39. ^ According to toponymic evidence. Kuun, Géza (1895) (in Latin). Relationum Hungarorum cum oriente gentibusque originis historia antiquissima. p. 23. 
  40. ^ a b Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 298–299.
  41. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 199.
  42. ^ Bakalov, Istorija na Bǎlgarija, "Simeon I Veliki".
    * Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
    * Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 199.
  43. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 301–304.
  44. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 304.
  45. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 304–311.
  46. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 147.
  47. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 315.
  48. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 316.
  49. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 317.
  50. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 148.
  51. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 318–321.
  52. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 141.
  53. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 321.
  54. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 324.
  55. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 152.
  56. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 334–337.
  57. ^ "In the year 6412 since the creation of the world, indict 7 (904). Border between Byzantines and Bulgarians. In the time of Simeon, by the grace of God Prince of the Bulgarians, under Olgu Tarkan Theodore and under Komit Drista." Border marking inscription from Narǎš (modern Greece). Uspenskij, F.I. (1898). "Pograničnyj stolb meždu Vizantiej i Bolgariej pri Simeone" (in Russian). Izvestija russkogo arheologičeskogo instituta v Konstantinopole: 184–194. 
  58. ^ Todt, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.
    * Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 155.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 352.
    * Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija, 1.2.
  59. ^ Cited in Dimitrov, Bulgaria: illustrated history.
  60. ^ Todt, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.
    * Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 155.
    * Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 212.
  61. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 156.
  62. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 353.
  63. ^ a b c Bǎlgarite i Bǎlgarija, 1.2.
  64. ^ a b Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 359.
  65. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 157.
  66. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, pp. 144–148.
  67. ^ Ostrogorsky, George (1935). "Avtokrator i samodržac" (in Serbian). Glas Srpske kraljevske akademije (CLXIV): 95–187. 
  68. ^ Loud, G.A. (1978). "A re-examination of the ‘coronation’ of Symeon of Bulgaria in 913". The Journal of Theological Studies (Oxford University Press) xxix (XXIX): 109–120. doi:10.1093/jts/XXIX.1.109. 
  69. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 367–368.
  70. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 158–159.
  71. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 159.
  72. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 375–376.
  73. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 160–161.
  74. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 376–377.
  75. ^ Dimitrov, Bulgaria: illustrated history.
  76. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, trans. Paul Stephenson. "Symeon of Bulgaria wins the Battle of Acheloos, 917". http://homepage.mac.com/paulstephenson/trans/theocont2.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  77. ^ Leo the Deacon, History, p. 12410–12. Cited in Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 216.
  78. ^ According to Čolpanov, Boris (1988) (in Bulgarian). Slavata na Bǎlgarija: istoriko-hudožestven očerk. Sofia: Voenno izdatelstvo. OCLC 22276650. 
  79. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 370.
  80. ^ De Boor, Сarl Gothard (1888). Vita Euthymii. Berlin: Reimer. p. 214. 
  81. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 382.
  82. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 385–386.
  83. ^ Alexander Kazhdan, ed (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. 
  84. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 163.
  85. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 217.
  86. ^ a b c d e f Cawley, Charles (2006–2007). "Bulgaria: Symeon I 893–927". Medieval Lands. Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BULGARIA.htm#_Toc137439346. 
  87. ^ a b Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 164–165.
  88. ^ Vita S. Mariae Junioris.
  89. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 168–169.
  90. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 446–447.
  91. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 459.
  92. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 169–172.
  93. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, pp. 405–407.
  94. ^ "tôn basileôn omilountôn". Discussed in Stephenson, Paul. "The peace agreed between Romanos Lekapenos and Symeon of Bulgaria, AD 924 (translation of Theophanes Continuatus)". http://homepage.mac.com/paulstephenson/trans/theocont3.html. Retrieved 2007-03-11. 
  95. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 156.
  96. ^ Mladjov, Ian (1999). "Between Byzantium and Rome: Bulgaria and the West in the Aftermath of the Photian Schism". Byzantine Studies/Études Byzantines: 173–181. 
  97. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 225.
  98. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 176.
  99. ^ Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, pp. 489–491.
  100. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, pp. 176–77.
  101. ^ Canev, Bǎlgarski hroniki, p. 226–227.
  102. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans.
  103. ^ Ivanova, "Pohvala za car Simeon", Tǎržestvo na slovoto.
  104. ^ a b c d Delev, Zlatnijat vek na bǎlgarskata kultura.
  105. ^ a b c d e Ivanova, "Introduction", Tǎržestvo na slovoto.
  106. ^ Ivanova, "Pribavka ot samija hristoljubiv car Simeon", Tǎržestvo na slovoto.
  107. ^ "Risuvana keramika". Muzej Preslav. Archived from the original on January 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070127095604/http://www.museum-preslav.com/colectr.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  108. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 160.
  109. ^ Antapodosis, p. 309.
  110. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, p. 148.
  111. ^ Cawley, Medieval Lands.
    * Zlatarski, Istorija na Pǎrvoto bǎlgarsko carstvo, p. 280, p. 495.
    * Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 133, p. 177.
  112. ^ "Vasil Levski beše izbran za naj-velikija bǎlgarin na vsički vremena" (in Bulgarian). Velikite Bǎlgari. 2007-02-18. http://velikite.bg/index.php?p=4&id=58. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  113. ^ "Simeon Sakskoburggotski (Car Simeon Vtori)" (in Bulgarian). OMDA.bg. http://www.omda.bg/bulg/news/personal/simeon.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  114. ^ "Grozdova rakija: Car Simeon Veliki" (in Bulgarian). Vinex. Archived from the original on October 21, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061021033212/http://www.vinexbg.com/bg/main/grape-brandy/brandy.html. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  115. ^ "Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer: Simeon Peak". Antarctic Place-names Commission. Republic of Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on February 04, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070204040647/http://apc.mfa.government.bg/peaks/simeon.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  116. ^ "Večnite pesni na Bǎlgarija" (in Bulgarian). Novoto vreme. http://www.novotovreme.bg/?cid=15&spid=126&PHPSESSID=f48bebc98a0238f47871e0f5c3b9ee6e. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  117. ^ ""Zlatniyat vek" (1984)". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0369188/. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  118. ^ "Tazi večer v Silistra e premierata na grandioznija istoričeski spektakǎl "Zlatnijat vek — Car Simeon Veliki"" (in Bulgarian). bTV Novinite. 2006-12-07. http://btv.bg/news/?magic=bulgaria&story=54704&page=2. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  119. ^ Bozhkov, Atanas (1994). Bulgarian contributions to European civilization. Bulvest 2000. p. 324. ISBN 9789548112581. 

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[edit] External links

Preceded by
Vladimir
Tsar of Bulgaria
893–927
Succeeded by
Peter I

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