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Pelasgians Arimii (Arimani, Arimaspi, Rami, Ramni, Rahmani ) Proto-Latins ? Migration into Asia and West, to entire Europe.

 

  

  TURDASH picture at: http://www.turdas.ro/images/uroi.jpg

Arimii had raised the military and political power of the Pelasgians to its highest glory. The territory once occupied by this nation in Europe, Asia and Africa, had been vast, and the name of the Arimi, Arimani, Rami or Ramni, as they were also called, has remained through traditions, legends and names of localities, in the memory of the various populations from these three continents.

                                                                             Ovid Densusianu

 http://www.archive.org/stream/hittitestheirins02campiala/hittitestheirins02campiala_djvu.txt

DENSUSIANU in a nutshell-WHAT LANGUAGE DID THEY SPEAK?

http://www.pelasgians.org/

The PELASGIAN nation was formed in fact by two great ethnic families:

1. ARIMII ALBI (the White Arimii) or LATINII, were the Albii of mythology (Homer), tall and fair skinned people, the heroes of mythology. They had colonized especially the north of Europe (for ex. Lituanii, Letonii, Iativingii, Samogitii, the ancient Prussians, Laetii and Letii in Germany and Gallia), reaching even Britannia (Albion). A branch of this population had descended though to the Danube, where old traditions speak of the “Latani de cei batrani” (Latins of the old ones), to Italy (in Latium they were “prisci latini”), to Mesia, Macedonia, Thessaly, Ithaca and the islands of the Aegean Sea.

2. ARIMII – the most numerous branch of the Pelasgian nation, scattered on the entire area of Europe, in Asia Minor, the Near East and India. Their presence is characterized by names deriving from the same root, like: Aramani, Arimani, Arm^ni, Arom^ni, Rumelia, Rutenia, Rhetia, Herminoni, Hermani, Armorica, Romania, Roma, Romulus, Remus, Rum, Rama, Rascia, Riscianii (Vlasii), Etruscii (Rasennae), Agathirsii, Ahriman, Sauromatii or Sarmatii, the ancient inhabitants of Scythia.  

 

 Text at: http://www.kroraina.com/sarm/jh/jh_index_geo.html

http://danlupu.wordpress.com/2009/08/14/arimi-arimani-rami-arimaspi-arimphaei-in-dacia-extras-din-dacia-preistorica-de-nicolae-densusianu/

http://casanoastra-romania-dacia.blogspot.com/2009/09/cucerirea-peninsulei-italice-de-catre.html

http://www.dacia.org/mag-2009-58.pdf

 Table of Contents-Cuprins:

The Country of the Arimi 

Arimi, Arimaspi, Hyperboreans

PELASGI DACI VALAHI ARYA BRAHMANI RAHMANI RAMANI RAMA CULTURA VEDICA LIMBA SANSCRITA GEORGE LIVIU TELOACA
Ramnes, Rassenae, Etruscans

Emishi, Caucasian Tribe in Japan, Descendends of Jomon, Ancestors of Ainu

Ainu Ramati 

Easter Arimi, Ramani, Rahmani in Asia 

South West Migration into Europe 

 

 

 

 

 

The Country of the Arimi

Homer’s Iliad (II.v.782-783), the most ancient monument of Greek literature, tells us that the country of Typhon or Typhoeu, as he calls him, was the country of the Arimi (the form Arimi corresponds to Rimi; the Greeks said ‘Aripes instead of ‘Ripes, to a population from Achaia), near the mountain Typhoeu, where was also the abode of this brave and legendary dragon.

These Arimi, as Hesiodus says (Theog. v.304-306; 731) dwelt at the northern edge of the earth known to the Greeks, the place where there was also the vast subterranean cave, in which this ancient and powerful monarch of the Istru was thrown. The placing of the Arimi in Asia Minor (cf. Strabo, XII.8.19; XIII.4.6) is completely unscientific and is in total contradiction with Homeric and Hesiodic geography, as well as with the Egyptian legends.

With the war between Osiris and Typhon though, the political role of the Arimi comes to an end. Their name disappears completely from Greek literature. They belonged to an ancient world and their memory appears only as a far away echo, even in the poems of Homer and Hesiod.

These Arimi, by the importance given them by Homer and Hesiod, were during the first heroic epoch, the most extended population of the lands of Thrace, the Lower Danube and Scythia, and westwards we find traces of ethnic settlements of the Arimi right to the Cotic Alps and beyond the Rhine valley.

Typhon is Arim or Ariman by nationality, and the dominant ethnic element in his empire was the nation of the Arimi. Under the name Ariman, Typhon is shown in the national religion of ancient Iran as the principle of evil. The great event that had happened at the Istru, had also a deep impact in the entire prehistoric world, right to the banks of the Ganges.

A great and united empire had been destroyed, the largest which had ever existed, founded by Saturn, the father of Typhon and Osiris; empire in the orbit of which fell a large part of Europe, of north Africa and of western Asia, which is what Apollodorus means when he says that Typhon reached to the stars with his head, with one hand to the west and with the other to the east.

This Ariman, the doctrines of Zoroaster tell us, had tried, under the shape of a dragon, to measure himself up with the sky. Ninety days and ninety nights all the gods fought against him, and at last, he was chased out by Ormazd, the god of light, and thrown into hell.

In essence and in form, the theology of Zoroaster did not contain anything new.

The personality of Ariman in Zendavesta is the same as the personality of Typhon of Greek and Egyptian theology (Dupuis, Origine de tous les cultes. Tome II.285).

Zoroaster, the founder of the ancient religion of the Persians, had lived with many centuries, we can say even thousands of years, after the memorable event happened at the Lower Danube, and he had only subsumed the ancient traditions, beliefs and legends of the west, transmitted to Media and Parthia by the migrations of the Scythians (Isidorus, Origines XIV.3.9).

As we said though, the ethnic name of the Arimi disappeared after their political ruin.

We find mentions of various geographical traces of their dwellings at the Danube and at the north of the Euxine Pontos, until late in historical times.

In the list of the various ethnic nations settled near the shores of the Black Sea, Pliny the Old (Hist. Nat. VI.7.1) mentions a population called Arim(ph)aei, a nationality with the same mores, and on the same level of civilization as the Hyperboreans, whose dwellings, as this author tells us, were near the Riphaei mountains, the ancient cradle of the just people; mountains which, from a geographical point of view, formed the western border of the plains called Scythia, and were therefore identical with the Carpathians (Justini, Historiarum Philippicarum lib. II. c.2).

The Carpathian mountain range view from above has a shape of a dragon.

Pliny again, this illustrious man of Rome, who, with his spirit and vast knowledge, wanted to cover the whole world, tells us also that, in a remote antiquity, various ethnic tribes of the Scythians had the name of Aramaei (Hist. Nat. VI.19.1)

These ethnic names of Arim(ph)aei and Aramaei, which luckily were preserved by the geographical sources of Pliny, present the Greek form of the name Arimi or Arimani, as, for example, the Greeks always used the expressions ‘Romaios and ‘Romaioi as correspondents for the terms Romanus and Romani.


Typhon, from the country of the Arimi, the son of Saturn, is shown here, according to the doctrines of Egyptian theology, half man, half dragon. He holds in his right hand the shepherd’s hook, the mblem of imperial authority with the northern Pelasgians. In his left hand he holds a staff, the symbol of kingly power over the southern countries.

After the Egyptian planisphere, discovered by Bianchini in Rome, and sent to the Academy of Sciences of Paris (Dupuis, Origine de tous les cultes. Atlas, pl.5) [5].

[5. The costume of Typhon, as results from this symbolic presentation, was composed of a shirt with large sleeves, and long embroidered tight trousers, having at the lower part the shape of two wings for each leg, like the traditional trousers worn in Oltenia today. Over the waist he had a leather belt. The Egyptian priests have also attributed to Typhon a celestial character. On the Egyptian Planisphere, the entire northern hemisphere bears the name of “Statio Typhonia”, or “Statio Typhonis”. And Plutarch (Oeuvres, XI, p.308) tells us that the Egyptian priests considered the constellation Ursa, as the astronomical symbol of Typhon. Under the “Big Ursa”, according to the ideas of the ancients, dwelt the Sarmatians and the Getae (Ovid, Trist. III. 11.8; V. 3.7-8)].

 

We find a precious ethnic data regarding the Arimi, with the learned Alexandrine geographer Ptolemy, who had lived in the time of Adrian and Marc Aurelius. He is the only one, among all the geographers of that epoch, who mentions an ancient ante-Roman city called Ramidava (Geogr. III.c.8), meaning the city of the Rami, located in the southern part of this province, namely close to the river called today Buzeu.

Another important group of prehistoric Rami had in those times their dwellings near the Meotic lake (Pliny, H.N.VI.7.2), and beyond the Rhine, Cesar’s expedition made known to us the Remi or Rhemi (‘Remoi), one of the largest, most noble and powerful populations of Belgian Gaul, friends and allies of the Roman people (Caesaris, B.G.II.3, III.5, VII.90; Pliny, lib. IV. 31).

Homer’s Iliad has also preserved the memory of a Pelasgian lord with the name of Rigm-os, the son of Pirous of Thrace, hero who had taken part in the war with the Greeks as ally of the Trojans (Ilias, XX.v.484-5).

Between Drava and Sava, there appears during the Roman epoch, a locality with the name of Ramista (Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum, Ed. Parthey, p.266), or Remista (Die Peutingersche Tafel, Segm. V.3, Ed.Miller, 1888); in upper Moesia there was Remisiana (Itiner. Antonini, Ed. Parthey, p.63) or Romesiana (Die Peuting.Tafel, Segm.Vii.5); eastwards from Philippopoli there were Ramlum (Ibid. Segm.VIII.2) and Rhamis (Itin. Hierosol. P.269), and at the foot of the Cotic Alps, in the Narbonnese Gaul, there was the town Ramae (Ibid.p.263) - geographical names the  origin of which goes back to the ancient, extensive and homogenous population of the Rimi or Arimi, which had become so famous in prehistoric times.

 

We find new geographical elements regarding the country of Typhon, and the power center of the ancient Arimi, in the important description preserved by Apollodorus.

The first battle with Typhon, this author tells us, took place at the mountain called Casiu, Kasion oros, and this time the success was on the part of Typhon. The titan king from the Istru, caught Jove, his adversary, and imprisoned him in the cave called Coryciu.

This mountain Casiu, which had become so famous in the war of Osiris (Jove) with Typhon, also had a historical role in the first war of Trajan with the Dacians.

Trajan, Suidas tells us, dedicated to Jove from the mountain Casiu (meaning to a sanctuary there), some silver craters and an enormous gilded ox horn, as gifts for his victory against the Getae. So, it is incontestable that this “Casion oros”, whose memory is preserved in two great wars which took place near the Istru, could not be in Antioch Syria, where the Greek authors have tried to place the first battles of Jove with Typhon, as well as the solemn sacrifices made by Trajan in gratitude for his victories against the Dacians [6].

 

[6. The mountain Casiu was, according to Apollodorus (I.6.3) in “Syria from beyond”. Which was though this Syria from beyond? The term yper… used in this case by the sources of Apollodorus, indicates quite exactly that here is not meant an Asiatic Syria, but a Syria from the north of the Greek regions (cf. Polyb. IV.29.1). Stephanos Byzanthinos mentions a city or a region (polis) in Thrace with the name Sirra, whose geographical situation is unfortunately unknown. And in ancient times, under the name of Thrace was understood the entire north of Europe, above Greece (St. Byz.Skythai)].

 

An important part of the crest of the Carpathians, which stretches from the Iron Gates up, towards Retezat mountains, had and still has today the name of Cosiu, name identical in essence and form with Kasion oros, mentioned by Apollodorus.

In the center of this vast semi-circle of the Carpathians, which encloses the western plains of Romania, and especially at the point of origin of the valley called Topolnita, we are presented with one of the most important natural defensive positions of this region, namely the mountain called Gradet, and at the foot of this mountain, another steep crest called Cosuri, term which belongs to the same type of names as Kasion and Cosiu. On the top of this high peak of Gradet, can be seen even today the ruins of an extensive gigantic wall called “Zidina Dachilor” (TN – zid = wall). The remains of this strong and colossal fortification belong to an archaic defensive system. It is a vast fortified enclosure, whose primitive function was to protect the inhabitants of western Oltenia against the enemy invasions, coming from the lower regions, or from the Danube.

 

“I have never seen until today”, writes Cesar Bolliac, “any other Dacian fortress, with such a size, strength and built on such a height. Here the stone is hewn from the neighboring mountains, and thrown on this peak with a titanic force, then gathered and tied together with a cement as strong as the rock” (Trompeta Carpatilor, nr. 785, 1869).

In the neighborhood of this strong defensive centre, strengthened by nature and by the hand of man, can be found even today various stone tools and Neolithic pottery. The traditions tell us that here was in antiquity the theater of a great war with a people from the southern regions (Spineanu, Dict. Geogr. Jud. Mehedinti, p.166). Here could be seen until our days, between the villages Balotesci and Scanteiesci, the enormous stone boulders of an extensive necropolis, called by the folk people “the graves of the Jidovi”, or of the giants (Spineanu, ibid. p.166; Filip, Studiu de geografie militara asupra Olteniei, p.96).

But what is of a special importance for the study of these historical events, is that, in this same region, between the villages Balotesci and Isvorul Barzei, not far from the mountain Gradet, there is the village and tableland called Curecea, and facing this tableland, there is a cavern with a particular folk tradition, analogous to that of Korikion antron, namely that in this cavern from Curecea there was a Jidov or a giant; imprisoned or not, the tradition doesn’t tell [7].

 

[7. This cave is situated in front of the tableland Curecea, on the hill called “Petra cu ciorele” (TN – the Rock with the crows), which is situated on the right bank of the river Topolnita, between the villages Balotesci and Isvorul Barzei, close to Severin.

The positive etymology of the name Korikion antron seems to be the word koraxi, Lat. Corax, raven, crow (TN – ciora). We find a similar name with the geographer Mela (lib. I.19; III.5), who mentions in a vague way a long chain of mountains called “mons Coraxicus”, which was connected to the Rhipaei mountains. We also find with Mela (I.13) an important topographical note regarding this cavern (specus Corycius). Near this cavern, he says, there is also a big river, which springs from a vast mouth and which, after flowing for a short distance, sinks and disappears again into the earth. Almost the same phenomenon presents today the river Topolnita, which flows along the foot of the hill, in which there is the cavern from nearby Curecea. Then this river sinks into the earth at the hill named Prosec, and reemerges at the mouth of the Cave facing Topolnita monastery].

 

 

Arimi, Arimaspi, Hyperboreans

 Arimaspi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Arimaspi -Arimaspians-were a legendary people of northern Scythia who lived in the foothills of the Riphean Mountains, variously identified with the Ural Mountains. All tales of their struggles with the gold-guarding griffins in the Hyperborean lands near the cave of Boreas, the North Wind (Geskleithron), had their origin in a lost work by Aristeas.The Arimaspi of northern Scythia, perhaps in the foothills of the Carpathians, were so utterly legendary to Greek writers that it was said they had a single eye in the center of their foreheads.

Legendary Arimaspi

Battles between griffons and warriors in Scythian tunics and leggings were a theme for Greek vase-painters. Spiritual descendants of the one-eyed Arimaspi of Inner Asia may be found in the  
decorative borderlands of medieval maps and in the monstrous imagery of Hieronymus Bosch.
Chalice-crater Louvre CA491.jpg

 

 

 The Arimaspi were described by Aristeas of Proconnesus in his lost archaic poem Arimaspea. Proconnesus is a small island in the Sea of Marmora near the mouth of the Black Sea, well situated for hearing travellers' tales of regions far north of the Black Sea. Aristeas narrates in the course of his poem that he was "wrapt in Bacchic fury" when he travelled to the north and saw the Arimaspians, as reported by Herodotus:

"This Aristeas, possessed by Phoibos, visited the Issedones; beyond these (he said) live the one-eyed Arimaspoi, beyond whom are the Grypes that guard gold, and beyond these again the Hyperboreoi, whose territory reaches to the sea. Except for the Hyperboreoi, all these nations (and first the Arimaspoi) are always at war with their neighbors..."[1]

Herodotus, "Father of History", admits the fantastic allure of the edges of the known world: "The most outlying lands, though, as they enclose and wholly surround all the rest of the world, are likely to have those things which we think the finest and the rarest." (Histories iii.116.1) Ignoring his scepticism, Strabo and Pliny's Natural History perpetuated the fables about the northern people who had a single eye in the center of their foreheads and engaged in stealing gold from the griffins, causing battles between the two groups. 

 

 Man (Arimaspus?) riding a griffin. Side A's neck of an Apulian red-figure volute-krater, ca. 340 BC. Krater neck griffin Antikensammlung Berlin 1984.42.jpg. Loebbecke Painter.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Krater_neck_griffin_Antikensammlung_Berlin_1984.42.jpg

   http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Arimaspos_griffin_woman_Louvre_M74.jpg

Woman and Arimaspus riding a griffin. Attic red-figure hydria in the Kerch style, ca. 370–350 BC. From Cyrenaica. Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Sully, first floor, room 44, case 3, Louvre,  Paris,France

The vases are thus named because a large quantity of them was found at Kerch (ancient Pantikapaeum) on the Black Sea, in Scythian Dacheans territory. At the time of their production, Kerch Style vases were exported to all of the Mediterranean region, but unlike earlier phases, the Black Sea area was the main market for this Late phase of Attic pottery export. Most of the previously current vase shapes were still painted, but kraters, lekanes (see Typology of Greek Vase Shapes) and pelikes were especially popular. The motifs are mostly scenes from the life of women (often exaggeratedly idyllic), dionysiac themes and subjects to do with Artemis and Demeter. Fighting griffins are another common subject.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerch_Style

File:ThracianCoin.JPG

Thracian coin, 2nd century BCE, from the city of Panticapaeum. Personal photograph 2006. I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ThracianCoin.JPG 

Historical Arimaspi

Modern historians speculate on historical identities that may be selectively extracted from the brief account of "Arimaspi". Herodotus recorded a detail recalled from Arimaspea that may have a core in fact: "the Issedones were pushed from their lands by the Arimaspoi, and the Scythians by the Issedones" (iv.13.1). The "sp" in the name suggests that it was mediated through Iranian sources to Greek, indeed in Early Iranian Arimaspi combines Ariama (love) and Aspa (horses)[2]— a designation that fits very well to any steppe people of riders. Herodotus or his source seems to have misunderstood the Scythian word as a combination of the roots arima ("one") and spou ("eye") and to have created a mythic image to account for it. 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Arimaspus_griffin_Louvre_G553bis.jpg

Arimaspus fighting a griffin. Attic red-figure pelike in the Kerch style, ca. 375–350 BC. From Italy (?). |H. 26.4 cm (10 ¼ in.), Diam. 17.9 cm (7 in.) |Tochon Collection, 1818 |G 553 bis |Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman ), Louvre,

 Paris, France

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The brief report of Herodotus seems to be very flimsy ground for making unequivocal statements about the historical background out of which the legend emerged. Notwithstanding these reservations, Tadeusz Sulimirski (1970) claims that the Arimaspi were a Sarmatian tribe originating in the upper valley of the River Irtysh, while Dmitry Machinsky (1997) associates them with a group of three-eyed figurines from the Minusinsk Depression, traditionally attributed to the Afanasevo and Okunevo cultures of Southern Siberia.[3]

  Mythological background

As philologists have noted, the struggle between the Arimaspi and the griffins has remarkable similarities to Homer's account of the Pygmaioi warring with cranes. Michael Rostovtzeff found a rendering of the subject in the Vault of Pygmies near Kerch, a territory that used to have a significant Scythian population.[4] Analogous representations were discovered at Volci and the fifth kurgan of Pazyryk.[5] A Hellenistic literary rendering of a battle with uncanny guardian "birds of Ares" is in Argonautica 1.

Cheremisin and Zaporozhchenko (1999), following the methodology of Georges Dumézil, attempt to trace parallels in Germanic mythology (Odin and the mead of poetry, the eagle stealing golden apples of eternal youth). They hypothesize that all these stories, Germanic, Scythian, and Greek, reflect a Proto-Indo-European belief about the monsters guarding the entrance to the otherworld who engage in battles with the birds conveying the souls of the newly dead to the otherworld and returning with a variety of precious gifts symbolizing new life.[6]

 References and notes

  1. ^ Herodotus 4.13.1
  2. ^ Compare "Hystaspes", or closer to the Greek world, "Philip"
  3. ^ Machinsky D. A. Уникальный сакральный центр III - середины I тыс. до н.э. в Хакасско-Минусинской котловине. // Окуневский сборник. St. Petersburg, 1997:3.
  4. ^ The 2nd-century BC tomb "shows the battle of human pygmies with a flock of herons".[1]
  5. ^ D.V. Сheremisin, A.V. Zaporozhchenko. The "Sacred Centres" of Eurasia and the Legend about the Arimaspi and the Griffins. // Итоги изучения скифской эпохи Алтая и сопредельных территорий. Barnaul, 1999:228-231.
  6. ^ Ibidem.

 External links

Further reading

  • J.D.P. Bolton, 1962. Aristeas of Proconnesus (reprinted 1992).
  • T. Sulimirski, 1970. The Sarmatians (Thames & Hudson, 1970)

 

 

 

PELASGI DACI VALAHI ARYA BRAHMANI RAHMANI RAMANI RAMA CULTURA VEDICA LIMBA SANCRITA,  GEORGE LIVIU TELOACA

http://www.ariminia.ro/geto-dacii/dacii.html 

This site has good documentary information, but we can not agree or condone the bad language and invectives spread in the text.

 

Valac, Dac, Român, marile etnonime ale aceluiaşi neam
 
De peste 150 de ani dicţionarele limbii sanscrite şi ulterior cele de mitologie generală spun lumii întregi că valahii au fost sacralizaţi ca zeitate colectivă a înţelepciunii denumită Valac-Hilya în mitologia vedică. Cu toate acestea continuă în mod absurd să se afirme de către filologi că etnonimul „valac” ne-ar fost atribuit după mai mult de două milenii de la această atestare de către slavii, – chiar şi grecii, nepoţii noştri, se lăudă că ne-ar fi atribuit ei  acest etnonim -care ar fi venit prin secolele VI-IX pentru a continua în spaţiul carpato-danubiano-pontic lecţiile de vorbire întrerupte în anul 271 d.Chr. de retragerea aureliană.
Prea a trecut, însă, mult timp de la formularea acestei explicaţii lipsită de orice temei pentru a nu respinge ca detestabilă aroganţa cu care Universitaţile din ţară şi mai ales Academia Română, refuză să accepte, după zeci şi zeci de ani de progrese în lumea tuturor ştiinţelor, că atestarea de cu 4000 de ani în urmă se referă la naţiunea română din moment ce toate dicţionarele alătură cuvântului „valac” şi pe cel de „dac”.
Prea ne este specific tandemul etnonimic „valac-dac” pentru a nu se remarca faptul că alături de zeitatea Valac-Hilya se află la mare preţ în mitologia vedică zeul Dakşa considerat zeu creator, „strămoşul primordial al tuturor fiinţelor lumii”, cum găsim înscris la V. Kernbach.
-  Cei care erau adoraţi ca zeitate colectivă în India sub denumirea de Valac, erau străbunii noştri Pelasgi, acei nobili Arya, preoţi,  care au devenit clasa conducătoare a Indiei, denumiţi şi Brahmani (Rahmani-Ramani-Rama). Cercetători de la Universitatea britanică Cambridge, în frunte cu renumitul Gordon Childe, au stabilit ca spaţiu de dezvoltare a Culturii Vedice, zona Carpaţilor, de unde aceasta a fost dusă în India de nobilii (preoţii) Pelasgi, ca dovadă pentru acestea, limba română are acum peste 1000 de cuvinte comune cu sancrita (limbă moartă), printre care şi cuvintele sacre ale vedelor, Om, Sa, Rama, Dakşa, Valac (valah), Vede, etc  -
Cu o nepăsare condamnabilă au trecut lingviştii, şi filologii noştrii în general, peste faptul că celebrul tandem „valac-dac” se regăseşte şi între cuvintele de uz comun ale limbii sanscrite: „valaka” având înţelesul de procesiune, iar „dakşa” pe cel de sărbătoare a solstiţiului de iarnă. Atunci cand este adjectiv „dakşa” mai are şi înţelesul de capabil, de priceput. Exista şi cuvântul „dikşa” care defineşte totalitatea pregătirilor pentru un act religios şi cu toate acestea sutele de cuvinte comune limbii române şi limbii sanscrite, printre care şi cele de mai sus, n-au făcut obiectul cuvenitelor cercetări, în ciuda faptului că lucrările meritorii ale autodidacţilor cu privire la acest fond româno-sanscrit au solicitat frecvent studierea şi includerea lui oficială în istoria limbii române începând cu anul 1909 (sic).
Revenind la problema în sine a etnonimelor valac şi dac, definitoriu este faptul că alături de teonimele Valac-Hilya şi Dakşa, cuvintele sanscrite de uz comun: „valaka, dakşa şi dikşa” au de asemenea semnificaţie sacră, ceea ce pune în evidenţă statutul sacru acordat vlahilor din Dacia, precum şi prestigioasa lor anterioritate în raport cu perioada apariţiei primelor scrieri vedice, cum este Rig-Veda datând din prima jumatate a mileniului doi înainte de Cristos.
Memoria colectivă a omenirii păstrează prin memoria nemuritoare a cuvintelor amintirea faptului că Valahia Dacică reprezenta Paradisul pentru toată omenirea de la Est la Vest şi că valahii numiţi şi daci erau considerati sfinţiţi pentru fervoarea cu care şi-au asumat rolul de misionari civilizatori în numele Dumnezeului Dumnezeilor lumii.
Această concluzie este confirmată şi de cercetările Institutului American pentru Drapelele Lumii pe baza cărora Whitney Smith a arătat în tratatul său de vexologie, din anul 1975, că sub semnul Dragonului Dacic s-a făcut istoria lumii din Persia până în Bretania timp de 2500 de ani. Or, aşa după cum am arătat în repetate rânduri, simbolul numit Dragonul Dacic este hieroglifă pentru numele lui Dumnezeu, care se citeşte la fel ca şi tetragrama sacră.
Pentru vlahii din sudul Dunării cuvântul Vlac urmează succesiunea de transformări Vlac→Dlac→Trac, iar pentru cei ajunşi în Mesopotamia cuvantul Dlac este citit în sens invers pentru a genera cuvântul Caldei numiţi şi Haldei în Cartea proorocului Daniel. Ei sunt cei care au răspuns împăratului în limba aramaică. Cuvântul „haldeu” s-a păstrat prin tradiţie şi în limba română de către călugării Daciei încreştinaţi ulterior, care îl mai atribuie uneori şi preoţilor de mir, aşa cum se arată în Micul Dicţionar Academic.
Spre deosebire de plăsmuirile admise până acum fără probe, aceaste explicări ale etnonimelor „valac” şi „dac” bazate pe atestări de mare prestigiu ne conferă nouă, celor care vieţuim de la Facerea Lumii pe pământul Daciei, statutul unic de entitate sacră etalon, atât pentru civilizaţiile din Orient, cât şi pentru cele din Occident, care împreună ne-au considerat în mod explicit Axis Mundi.
Poate că în spiritul acestei sacralităţi primordiale trebuie căutată şi originea reală a etnonimului „român” având în vedere că deducerea lui din „romanus” ar presupune un fapt istoric fără precedent în spaţiul cucerit de imperiu, cu atât mai greu de acceptat cu cât începând cu Maximus Thrax în anul 235 şi până la Focas (602-610) împăraţii au fost de origine illiro-tracă. Dacă vom mai avea în vedere şi marea revoltă a vlaho-tracilor declanşată în anul 257 de Ingenuus, dar continuată pe ambele maluri ale Dunării de Regalian (258-268) din neamul lui Decebal, care ajunge conducătorul marelui regat independent dintre Corint şi Vistula, Moravia şi Nipru cu capitala la Sarmisegetuza, unde a şi bătut monedă proprie, nu rămâne mai nimic din aşa numita mândrie a vlaho-dacilor de a renunţa la propriul lor etnonim şi de a-l adopta pe cel de „romanus”.
Şi totuşi românii ca vorbitori ai limbii române au fost până la sfârşitul secolului XIX populaţia dominantă în Peninsula Balcanică la nord de Corint şi cu toate fracturile provocate de istorie încă se mai regăsesc sub forma unor comuităţi străvechi până la mari distanţe dincolo de graniţele actuale ale României.
Pe acest fundal geo-istoric incompatibil cu asumarea la nivel de masă a lui „romanus”, atunci când Roma nici nu mai era o glorie, lingviştii ar trebui să reevalueze semnificaţia faptului că pentru etnonimul „român” au supravietuit şi forme rotacizate, nu numai în dialectul istro-român despre care se spune că ar fi rotacizat cuvintele de origine latină, ci chiar în limba albaneză care prin marea ei vechime a conservat în fondul traco-illir şi cuvântul „rrëmër”, sinonim pentru cuvântul „vlac” cu conotaţia sa de oier. Dar conform unui larg consens existent între lingvişti (Émile Benveniste, Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen, Paris, 1962, p. 3-22) tipul nominal în r/n este considerat cel mai arhaic vestigiu pentru străvechea flexiune indo-europeană, aşa încât prin însăşi formele sale rotacizate „rrëmër” sau „rumăr” cuvântul „român” provine din fondul prelatin fiind asociat celor mai arhaice vestigii ale fondului indo-european, de unde şi posibilitatea de a-i explica originea pe baza celor mai vechi atestări scrise, mult mai vechi decât bănuitul „romanus” asociat distrugerii şi jefuirii timp de 165 de ani a cel mult o cincime din teritoriul Daciei.
În fond, un foarte mare număr de autori antici (Homer, Herodot, Eniu, Amian, Quintilian, Plaut, Cato, Polibiu, Cicero, Ovidiu etc) şi unii autori din prima parte a evului mediu (Isidor de Sevilla, Papa Nicolae I, Suidas etc) ne-au considerat barbarofoni, adică vorbitori de limbă barbară, alături de locuitorii din jumătatea sudică a continentului european alcătuind astăzi zona limbilor romanice.
Dar în acest caz, remarcabil este faptul că ritualul Fraţilor Arvali de sfinţire a ogoarelor adresat zeului Mars era numit Ambarvalia (vezi Dicţionarul de mitologie generală al lui Victor Kernbach), ceea ce arată că denumirea de „barbar” a fost la origini un concept sacru (Ambarvalia = Ambarbaria) şi că denumirea sacră de Arvali este desprinsă chiar din numele sacru al ritualului: Amb-arvali-a. În mod similar numele de „rumăr” se regăseşte în cuvântul „B-arbar”, unde segmentul „arbar” a suferit trecerea B→M, adică „armar” rostit uneori în albaneză „rrëmër”, ca şi în istro-română „rumăr”, iar în daco-română „rumân” sau „român” prin trecerea lui r→n.
Foarte uşor se poate constata, însă, că cele două variante „Ambarvalia” şi „Barbar” provin si ele de la aceeaşi sintagmă teonimică arhetipală Valac-Valac atunci când este abreviată Val-Val, de unde şi Bar-Val din Ambarvalia, dar şi Bar-Bar pentru sonorizarea ambilor termeni ai sintagmei. Ca dovadă că această explicare pe baza limbii române a cuvântului „Arvali” este corectă, în cântecele Fraţilor Arvali au mai rămas prin uz religios antic cuvintele româneşti „berbece” (berbecez în loc de verveces) şi „descântec” (descindentes devenit ulterior carmen dicentes).
Tot pe seama abrevierii Val-Val devenită Var-Dal, prin trecerea V→D ilustrată în tabel, se explică originea sacră a străvechiului cuvânt dacic Vardal, devenit Ardal sau Ardeal prin pierderea lui V iniţial.
Pentru moment renunţăm la celelalte conexiuni care toate pun în valoare importanţa imensă a sintagmei teonimice arhetipale Valac-Valac, pentru a sublinia că pe seama ei au apărut în diferite epoci etnonimele „Valac, Dac, Rumân” perfect interşanjabile prin una şi aceeaşi semnificaţie sacră şi că limba română vorbită de purtătorii acestor etnonime este limbă liturgică, dar şi prima matrice reală a limbilor romanice. Dacă vom mai constata că Svenska se mai poate scrie (s)Velska, că Vlah se mai poate scrie Helv sau Horv, iar Vlas se mai poate scrie şi Slav atunci vom înţelege că importanţa limbii române este mult mai mare pe măsura a ceea ce înaintaşii, stăpâni pe ştiinţa originilor, au vrut să sugereze prin oronimul Himalaia (Hivalaia = Valahia) sau prin oronimul mitic Himli.
George Liviu Teleoacă
Etichete:LINGVISTICA ISTORIE PELASGI DACI VALAHI ARYA BRAHMANI RAHMANI RAMANI RAMA CULTURA VEDICA LIMBA SANCRITA GEORGE LIVIU TELOACA
 

 

 

Ramnes, Rassenae, Etruscans

Ramnes Rassenae

 Text at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscans

 Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy and Corsica whom the ancient Romans called Etrusci or Tusci.[1] The Attic Greek word for them was Τυρρήνιοι (Tyrrhēnioi) from which Latin also drew the names Tyrrhēni (Etruscans), Tyrrhēnia (Etruria) and Mare Tyrrhēnum (Tyrrhenian Sea).[2] The Etruscans themselves used the term Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or Raśna. 

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/Images/TheseusG67.jpg 

(Theseus is wearing a knot on his forhead).

Under Romulus and Numa the people were said to have been  divided into thirty curiae and three tribes. Very few words of Etruscan entered the Latin language, but the names of at least two of the tribes — Ramnes and Luceres — seem to be Etruscan. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory. The main hypotheses are that they are indigenous, probably stemming from the Villanovan culture, or that they are the result of invasion from the north or the Near East.  The origin of the Etruscan people has been a focus of major controversy for the past Etruscan Plates2,500 years and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their language and sophisticated culture as well as their origin. The research is thus considered to be an important development supporting the Etruscan people's Aegean/Anatolian origin or the direct genetic input from the Near East, a scenario in agreement with the Lydian origin of Etruscans.

The results were published in the “American Journal of Human Genetics."

Text at: http://ancient-anatolia.blogspot.com/2007/02/etruscans-anatolian-italians.html

 

While the Roman legions conquered region after region, the Etruscan cities were occupied by Veterans, and the citizens of the once proud Etruria bowed to the pressure and became part of Rome or died during numerous rebellious uprisings.

Those same legions were organised in accordance with Etruscan traditions, responded to the sound of the tuba (from Etruria), built their camps on a North/ South grid, as specified by the Etruscan sacred books, and carried a Standard inscribed with SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus. "Populus" is a word of Etruscan origin, -que (Etruscan -c with probably the same pronunciation) means "and", and even Romanus itself probably came from the Etruscan language. There are various theories among which connect it with the Etruscan gentilial name Rumlua.

The Etruscans referred to themselves as Rasenna, but to the Romans and Greeks they were Etrusci, Tusci, Tyrrheni, or Tyrseni. To the modern Italians they are still Etrusci and the name of the Etruscan Sea is still the Tyrrhenian, after perhaps 3,000 years.

http://mysteriousetruscans.com/history.html

 

The Conquest of the Italian Peninsula by the Carpatho - Danubians

According to Michael D. Le Monick's chromosomal theory of the migration and rapid spreading of the peoples (Time Magazine, 13 February 1995), as the human race appeared (approximately in 200,000 BC, in the south-east of Africa), the primitive men arrived in Europe around the year 40,000 BC, after crossing the strip of land connecting the Balkan Peninsula to Asia Minor. This corridor was to sink in the Mediterranean Sea around 4,000 BC, thus giving birth to the new Aegean Sea and to a big number of islands. The first men settled on an area bordering in the north upon present-day Czech Republic, and reaching south as far as the Balkan Mountains, thus marking the boundaries of the Carpatho - Danubian space. The Apennine or Italian Peninsula was occupied (by us) much later, in four waves:
1. the simple migration of the Carpatho-Danubians towards the south-west;
2. the arrival, on the Apennine area, of the Aryan Carpatho-Danubians (roughly 3,000 BC), under the name of the Etruscans;
3. the re-conquest of the peninsula by the Carpatho-Danubian Ramantes, led by the "Magnificent Aeneas";
4. the non-violent re-conquest of the Roman Empire that moved the capital to Salonika, under the rule of the Dacian leaders, Galerius the Elder and Galerius the Younger, and later, under that of the Dacian Constantine the Great who was to move the capital to Constantinople once again. As the ice cap covering the entire Europe, except for the Carpatho-Pontic area and the south of the Pyrenean Mountains, started melting, the local population - Paleo-European - left the Carpatho-Danubian space and set out to explore and settle down on the surrounding territories propitious to life. Europe started with us, so to speak. It started neither on the Rhine (in Germany), nor on the Seine's basin (France), nor on the Thames (England). It is we, Romanians, who gave birth to what bears today the name of Europe! Consequently, the first conquest of the Apennine Peninsula was nothing more than a simple peaceful migration. Much later, around the year 3,000 BC, the Carpatho-Danubian Aryans, politically and religiously organized, and thinking of themselves as "civilizers", were to take over (again) the Apennine Peninsula from their brothers. These "new" conquerors still make historians, archaeologists, linguists and art historians have certain doubts as to the axioms speaking of the Etruscans who are said to have made their appearance on the Apennine Peninsula around 3,000 BC, and who disappeared, once the Romans took over. Both the ancient and modern worlds described the Etruscans, the Carpatho-Danubian Aryans as "a strange people, possessing an advanced civilization, and having nothing in common with the neighboring populations" (Raymond Block, The Etruscans).
Herodotus (in the middle of the 5th century BC) considered them the descendants of the Lydians (a Thracian population). Vergil, Ovid and Horace shared the same theory, while in Nicolas Frere's opinion (the 18th century AD), the Etruscans were one and the same with the Indo-European invaders who stepped on the peninsula around the year 2,000 BC. The Etruscan language is not well known, although several theories have already been formulated. However, in 1885, two young people from the French school in Athens, Cousin and Durrback, discover on the Lemnos Island (in the Aegean Sea), in the nearby of the Kamina village, a decorated funeral stele, bearing an inscription. The funeral stele has the face of a warrior or god (Zalmoxes) carved on it, armed with a spear. Two texts are engraved: one around his head, and the other on one of the stele's side surfaces. This monument, product of the local archaic art dates back to the 7th century BC, that is about 200 years before the island was to be taken over by the Greeks (around 500 BC, in the reign of Themistocles) from the Thracian branch of the Cynthian people (also mentioned in the "Iliad").
The letters are Etruscan, while the writing system goes both from the right to the left and from the left to the right. If in 1963 Raymond Bloch (in Ancient Peoples and Places) could not award them any significance, A. Bunescu in Secret Dacia has something else to say. In his own translation, one of the texts speaks of the fact that Zalmoxes lived 42 years, and that his spirit was resurrected and was defended by 10 worthy nobles. As I have already said, mankind's prehistory (and especially ours) - surrounded by mysteries and veiled up in legends as it is - is still highly enigmatic. With every new scientific discovery we change our view of the past. I wonder will we ever give up the traditional medieval scholarly opinions and re-discover ourselves? Personally, I am fascinated by the mysteries of the Romanian antiquity and I am honestly decided, as far as my knowledge allows me, to raise the veil of indifference and show the past as I think it should be shown.
Going back to the Etruscans, to the Carpatho-Danubian Aryans, we should not forget that the Etruscan Tarquin Dynasty who ruled over Rome from 616 until 509 BC (when it merged with the Carthaginian Dynasties) prevented the Greeks from colonizing the south of Italy and defeated them in the Alatrian 535 BC sea war. The power of the Carpatho-Danubian Etruscans reached its apex then. In the ensuing years, as their sway started to run low, they were defeated by the Greeks, at Cunae, in the Bay of Naples, in 474 BC. The Roman Republic would annihilate, in what I consider a fratricidal war, the Uei people, in 396, and the Volscian people, in 265 BC; the Carpatho-Danubian Etruscans die out. For almost 2 milleniums, they represented a civilizing agent in the middle of the Apennine Peninsula, which they had rescued, from darkness and barbarism. Nevertheless, Rome, after liberating itself from the tyranny of the Carpatho-Danubian Etruscans, lived on under the cultural influence inherited from the Etruscans and handed it down to the Western Europe. Beside the great number of funeral monuments and an alphabet (rich source of inspiration for the Greek and Latin ones) let us see what else these Carpatho-Danubian Aryans left behind:
- the feminine name Rhama (it is well known that the Thracian "family" numbered over 200 tribes that included the Geto-Dacians as well as the Ramantes people), with its variants: Ramatha, Ramutha and Ramtha;
- a classical phrase of the then ruling class sounds extremely arrogant; unfortunately chances are that we hear it today as well: "the working class has no rights, but only duties";
- they believed in magi and in magic rituals; at Piacenza a bronze liver was found (of Etruscan origin), divided into 45 parts, each of the parts bearing the name of a god.
However, let us stop our inquiry into the Carpatho-Danubian Etruscan heritage here and see instead who were ... the Romans.
I shall start with the well-known legend of the twins Romulus and Remus, sons of Virgin Rhea Silvia. The latter - daughter of the parent town of Alba Longa (the Alba Longa family had been founded by the Thracian Ramantes Aeneas by his marriage to Lavinia, daughter of Latinus, a local king) - a vestal virgin in Mars's Temple, suddenly gets pregnant by Mars, the god. (History accustomed us to such wonders: I will only remind you of the Carpatho-Danubian legend of Meriem, The Apple Flowers' Mother, who got pregnant, as mysteriously, by a sunray, giving birth to the two Zalmoxes, brother and sister.)
Resuming our legend, Amulius, Silvia's uncle, wouldn't believe her and therefore imprisoned her, having the newly born twins killed. However, a charitable person laid them in a basket and sent them float down on the Tiber, wherefrom, as the legend has it, they were "fished out" and fed by a she-wolf. Returning to our Geto-Dacian legend, the two Zalmoxes twins were adopted by the noble Aisepos the Pastor and his wife Brito-Lagis (the Divine She-Wolf). Roman chroniclers of those times confessed that the she-wolf legend had been taken from the Thracians. However, let us trace back the real origin of the Romans.

Oltina - Altina - Latina - Latium


Thousands of years before the Romans conquered 14% of the Dacian territory (ruled by Trajan, "the forefather") WE, the Carpatho-Danubian Thracians, had already conquered the Apennine Peninsula. Vergil knew it, long ago, whereas we, today, do not! Traces were left over as the Carpatho-Danubians migrated from nowadays' Oltina, a region in today's Dobrogea. (Altina means "greatness" or "happiness" in the Geto-Dacian language, the so-called "Vulgar Latin".)
A group of Geto-Thracian emigrants, led by the Bright Aeneas - a Thracian Ramantes - left the Carpatho-Danubian area and got as far as the Apennine Peninsula, giving the place the name LATINA ... LATIUM. Their language was to be called Latina (the Language of Greatness, the Language of Happiness). Throughout the years, "prominent researchers" have been striving to find a different origin for this Latin people; Virgil himself admitted the claim to the Thracian origin of the Roman people as he chose Aeneas as protagonist in his epic of the Latin people's foundation, having his Thracian hero start from the Trojan ruins and reach as far as the Tiber's Valley. Yet, let us see what others think of this journey.
Gheorghe Musu, in The Thracian Mythology, Victor Kernbach, in The Essential Myths, Manfred Oppermann, in The Thracians between the Carpathian Range and the Aegean Sea, Adrian Bucurescu, in Secret Dacia, M. Gimbutas, in his Old Europe, ca. 7000 - 3500 BC: The Earliest European Civilization before the Infiltration of the Indo - European People, and V. Gordon Childe, in The History of Civilization: The Aryans - all of them consider the Thracians the nucleus of the Proto-European civilization.
The Magnificent Aeneas, leading the Carpatho-Danubian Ramantes emigrants from Oltina, Dobrogea, would reach Banat, cross the Danube and stop for a short while on its southern bank, at CURTU - ZURA (the Bright Court, the White City, nowadays' Belgrade) where the idyll between the Bright Aeneas and DIDO, the Lady, the queen of those lands, seemsto have taken place. Other hundred years passed until the legend of the Thracian Aeneas, although preserving its essential elements, changed its setting for a different geographical area, and had its characters undergo certain changes. Thus, Curtuzura became Carthage, Didona replaced Lady Dido, and Oltina changed into Troja, whose Thracian citizens were part of the Ramantes branch as well.  

 

 

 

 

Ainu Ramati

 Exhibit at Anchorage Museum of  History and Art.

 Picture at

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2347/2079897676_a9b4cd809b.jpg?v=1196606494

 http://tombenjey.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/ainu-at-worlds-fair1.jpg

 "Ainu" means "human." The Ainu people regard things useful to them or beyond their control as "kamuy"(gods). In daily life, they prayed to and performed various ceremonies for the gods. These gods include : "nature" gods, such as of fire, water, wind and thunder ; "animal" gods, such as of bears, foxes, spotted owls ; "plant" gods, such as of aconite, mush-room and mugwort ; "object" gods, such as of boats and pots ; and gods which protect houses, gods of mountains and gods of lakes. The word "Ainu" refers to the opposite of these gods.

Scholars have advocated various theories about the origin of the Ainu people. The theories include the Caucasoid (Caucasian) Theory, the Mongoloid Theory, the Oceania Race Theory, the Old Asian Race Theory, and the Solitary Race Theory.

The Ainu had many clothes : "birdskin" clothes made of birdskin with feathers of sea gulls, Temminck's cormorant, Staff-tree, and other birds ; "hide" clothes of hides of bear, deer, fox, seal, dog, and other beasts ; "fishskin" clothes of salmon and trout ; and "plant" clothes of flags and wild rye. The Ainu now do not wear these traditional clothes.

However, even now traditional "bark" clothes remain. Among bark clothes, "attush" fabrics are well known. Attush fabrics are made from fiber which is obtained from the endodermis of trees such as Elm. Those attush fabrics made from Staff-tree fiber or nettles are called "retarpe," which means white things, because the color of the fabric is white. The Sakhalin Ainu are noted for wearing these clothes. While the Ainu wore bark clothes appliqued or embroidered as formal clothes, they wore such clothes without patterns as everyday ones.
In the late Edo era, the Ainu obtained large volumes of cotton through trade with the Japanese who lived in Honshu (Japan's mainland) and through other activities. They wore appliqued or embroidered cotton clothes called "chikarkarpe," which means "the things we embroider"

http://www.ainu-museum.or.jp/english/english.html

 Cucuteni pottery photo at: http://www.neamt.ro/cmj/istorie/cucuteni/imagini/Cucuteni_002.jpg

Ainu Man photo at:

 http://www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/anthropology/anthro_sites/boone/ainu/ainu_full/face1.jpg

           Vinča-Turdaş, Cucuteni

 Kapar amip” (garment) . This ‘kapar amip” demonstrates the whorl pattern, called “morew” in one Ainu dialect, a specific design traditional to some Ainu regions. Makiri “Makiri” (man’s knife) . Made of deer antler, steel and cord. Traditionally, one of a man’s most treasured possessions was his belt knife.  The Ainu are the little-known indigenous people of Northern Japan. Traditionally living from Hokkaido to the Kuril Islands in what is now Russia, the Ainu were suppressed and assimilated by the people now considered Japanese. However, the religion, culture and art of the Ainu remain distinct from that of dominant Japan. Most of the pieces are utilitarian objects, such as carved trays and woven mats, but they are still beautiful and incredibly detailed. Even the simplest of the wall-length woven mats is visually striking and meticulously constructed. Particularly arresting are the appliquéd and embroidered garments that dominate the room, covered in spiraled, symmetrical patterns in bold colors.

The religious objects included give one a sense of the Ainu perception of the world. The Ainu believe that the gods imbue everything, but that direct communication with them is not possible for humans. Instead, elaborately carved libation sticks (ikupasuy) are used to make offerings of sake or barley wine and inaw, willow sticks carved with twisted shavings attached, symbolize birds and “fly” prayers to the gods. Animal imagery is reserved for religious items—none of the carvings or cloth use such images or symbols.

   http://sci.tech-archive.net/Archive/sci.archaeology/2006-08/msg00183.html

 http://www.dacia.org/history/conq-ew.html

Picture at http://www.akiraifukube.org/ainu_dance.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

      Early European Writings on Ainu Culture By Kirsten Refsing at:

http://books.google.com/books?id=B3U0w0YcbVAC&dq=AINU&source=gbs_navlinks_s

http://www.raccoonbend.com/languages/ainuenglish.html

   Ainu women tattoe their lips in a perpetual smile like the one seen on this ceramic from Gumelnita culture picture at:

http://archweb.cimec.ro/Arheologie/gumelnita/gumelnita_engl/foto/1/1/im/3inv64443_MNIR.jpg

                                 

  

Hora Nationala La "Armanji di tu Pind" at ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yWYxuYjHXtA

Cultural ties between Korea, and Thracia

 

 

 

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zptGfHHDR5U&NR=1

There are many small towns in the southeastern or Hidaka region where full-blooded Ainu may still be seen such as in Nibutani. In Sambutsu especially, on the eastern coast, many children of such marriages may be seen.

Their most widely known ethnonym is derived from the word ainu, which means "human" (particularly as opposed to kamui, divine beings), basically neither ethnicity nor the name of a race, in the Hokkaidō dialects of the Ainu language; Emishi, Ezo or Yezo (蝦夷) are Japanese terms, which are believed to derive from the ancestral form of the modern Sakhalin Ainu word enciw or enju, also meaning "human". Today, many Ainu dislike the term Ainu because it had once been used with derogatory nuance, and prefer to identify themselves as Utari (comrade in the Ainu language). In official documents both names are used.

Origins

The origins of the Ainu have often been considered Jōmon-jin, natives to Japan from the Jōmon period. "The Ainu lived in this place a hundred thousand years before the Children of the Sun came" is told in one of their Yukar Upopo (Ainu legends).[17]

Ainu culture as it is known today dates from around 1200 CE[18] and recent research suggests that it originated in a merger of the Okhotsk and Satsumon cultures, one of the ancient Japanese cultures.[19] Their economy was based on farming as well as hunting, fishing and gathering.[20]

Ainu man, circa 1880.

Full-blooded Ainu are lighter skinned than their Japanese neighbors and have more body hair of a redish blond color.[21] Many early investigators proposed a Caucasian ancestry,[22] although recent DNA tests have not shown any major genetic similarity with modern caucasian Europeans. It has been scientifically suggested that the Ainu may be either distantly related to some form of Eastern European subpopulation that subsequently evolved genetic changes, or alternatively, that their caucasian-like phenotypic morphology came about as a result of convergent evolution in response to some form of natural selective pressure which was also existent in a similar presentation in Europe.[citation needed]

Genetic testing of the Ainu people has shown them to belong mainly to Y-haplogroup D2.[23] Y-DNA haplogroup D2 is found frequently throughout the Japanese Archipelago including Okinawa. The only places outside of Japan in which Y-haplogroup D is common are Tibet and the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean.[24]

In a study by Tajima et al. (2004), two out of a sample of sixteen (or 12.5%) Ainu men have been found to belong to Haplogroup C3, which is the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among the indigenous populations of the Russian Far East and Mongolia.[23] Hammer et al. (2006) have tested a sample of four Ainu men and have found that one of them belongs to haplogroup C3.[25] Some researchers have speculated that this minority of Haplogroup C3 carriers among the Ainu may reflect a certain degree of unidirectional genetic influence from the Nivkhs, a traditionally nomadic people of northern Sakhalin Island and the adjacent mainland, with whom the Ainu have long-standing cultural interactions.[23]

Based on analysis of one sample of 51 modern Ainus, their mtDNA lineages have been reported to consist mainly of haplogroup Y (11/51 = 21.6% according to Tanaka et al. 2004, or 10/51 = 19.6% according to Adachi et al. 2009, who have cited Tajima et al. 2004), haplogroup D (9/51 = 17.6%, particularly D4(xD1)), haplogroup M7a (8/51 = 15.7%), and haplogroup G1 (8/51 = 15.7%).[23][26][27]

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup Y is otherwise found mainly among Nivkhs, and with lower frequency among Tungusic peoples, Koreans, Mongols (including Kalmyks and Buryats), Chinese, Japanese, Central Asians, South Siberian Turkic peoples (e.g. Tuvans, Todjins, Soyots), Koryaks, Alyutors, Itelmens, Taiwanese aborigines, Filipinos, Indonesians, and Malaysians. MtDNA Haplogroup D is found frequently throughout East Asia and Central Asia, and is also common in some populations of North Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Americas; in addition, it has been found with low frequency in some populations of Europe and Southwest Asia. Haplogroup M7a has been found elsewhere mainly among Japanese and Ryukyuans, and with lower frequency among Udegeys, Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, Taiwanese aborigines, Buryats, Central Asians, and Waars of the Jaintia Hills in Meghalaya, India.[26][28][29][30][31][32] MtDNA Haplogroup G has been found most frequently among indigenous populations of easternmost Siberia, but it is also common among some populations of East Asia, Central Asia, the Altai-Sayan region of southern Siberia, and the sub-Himalayan region.

A recent reevaluation of cranial traits suggests that the Ainu resemble the Okhotsk[33] This agrees with the reference to the Ainu culture being a merger of Okhotsk and Satsumon cultures referenced above. more than they do the Jōmon.

Some have speculated that the Ainu may be descendants of a prehistoric group of humans that also produced indigenous Australian peoples. In Steve Olson's book Mapping Human History, page 133, he describes the discovery of fossils dating back 10,000 years, representing the remains of the Jōmon, a group whose facial features more closely resemble those of the indigenous peoples of New Guinea and Australia.

After a new wave of immigration, probably from the Korean Peninsula some 2,300 years ago, of the Yayoi people, the Jōmon were pushed into northern Japan. Genetic data suggest that modern Japanese are descended from both the Yayoi and the Jōmon.

Geography

The Ainu were distributed in the northern and central islands of Japan, from Sakhalin island in the north to the Kurile islands and the island of Hokkaidō and Northern Honshū, although some investigators place their former range as throughout Honshū and as far north as the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula in what is now Cape Lopatka. The island of Hokkaido was known to the Ainu as Ainu Moshir, and was formally annexed by the Japanese at the late date of 1868, partly as a means of preventing the intrusion of the Russians, and partly for imperialist reasons.

According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, 1446 persons in the Russian Empire reported Ainu language as their mother tongue, 1434 of them in Sakhalin Island.[34]

The southern half of Sakhalin was acquired by Japan as a result of the Russo–Japanese War of 1904–05, but at the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviets declared war on Japan and took possession of the Kurile islands and southern Sakhalin. The Ainu population, as previously Japanese subjects, were "repatriated" to Japan.

There are, however, a small number of Ainu living on Sakhalin[citation needed], most of them descendants of Sakhalin Ainu who were evicted and later returned. There is also an Ainu minority living at the southernmost area of the Kamchatka Peninsula and on the Kurile Islands.

However, the only Ainu speakers remaining (besides perhaps a few partial speakers) live solely in Japan. There, they are concentrated primarily on the southern and eastern coasts of the island of Hokkaidō.

Due to intermarriage with the Japanese and ongoing absorption into the predominant culture, there are no truly Ainu settlements existing in Japan today. The town of Nibutani in Hidaka area (Hokkaido prefecture) has a number of Ainu households and a visit to some of the Ainu owned craft shops close to the Ainu museums (there are two of them in Nibutani) is an opportunity to interact with the Ainu people. Many "authentic Ainu villages" advertised in Hokkaido such as Akan and Shiraoi are tourist attractions and provide an opportunity to see and meet Ainu people.

Language

Today, it is estimated that fewer than 100 speakers of the language remain,[35] while other research places the number at fewer than 15 speakers – the language has been regarded as “endangered”.[36] As a result of this the study of the Ainu language is limited and is based largely on historical research.

The Ainu language is significantly different from the Japanese language in its syntax, phonology, morphology, and vocabulary. Although there have been attempts to show that they are related, modern scholars have rejected that the relationship goes beyond contact, such as the mutual borrowing of words between Japanese and Ainu.[37] In fact, no attempt to show a relationship with Ainu to any other language has gained wide acceptance, and Ainu is currently considered to be a language isolate.[38]

Words used as prepositions in English such as: to, from, by, in, and at are postpositional in Ainu; they come after the word that they modify. A single sentence in Ainu can be made up of many added or agglutinated sounds or morphemes which represent nouns or ideas.

The Ainu language has had no system of writing, and has historically been transliterated by the Japanese kana or the Russian Cyrillic and now Latin alphabets by investigators. The unwieldy nature of the Japanese kana with its inability to accurately represent terminal consonants has contributed to the degradation of the original Ainu. For example, with such words as "Kor" (meaning to hold), is now being pronounced with a terminal vowel sound as "Koro".

Many of the Ainu dialects, even from one end of Hokkaido to the other, were not mutually intelligible; however, the classic Ainu language of the Yukar, or Ainu epic stories, was understood by all. Without a writing system, the Ainu were masters of narration, with the Yukar and other forms of narration such as the Uepeker (Uwepeker) tales, being committed to memory and related at gatherings, often lasting many hours or even days.[39]

Culture

Ainu ceremonial dress. British Museum.

Traditional Ainu culture was quite different from Japanese culture.

Never shaving after a certain age, the men had full beards and moustaches. Men and women alike cut their hair level with the shoulders at the sides of the head, trimmed semicircularly behind. The women tattooed their mouths, and sometimes the forearms. The mouth tattoos were started at a young age with a small spot on the upper lip, gradually increasing with size. The soot deposited on a pot hung over a fire of birch bark was used for color. Their traditional dress was a robe spun from the inner bark of the elm tree, called attusi or attush. Various styles of clothing were made, and consisted generally of a simple short robe with straight sleeves, which was folded around the body, and tied with a band about the waist. The sleeves ended at the wrist or forearm and the length generally was to the calves. Women also wore an undergarment of Japanese cloth.

Modern craftswomen weave and embroider traditional garments which command very high prices. In winter the skins of animals were worn, with leggings of deerskin and in Sakhalin, boots were made from the skin of dogs or salmon. Both sexes are fond of earrings, which are said to have been made of grapevine in former times, as also are bead necklaces called tamasay, which the women prized highly.

Their traditional cuisine consists of the flesh of bear, fox, wolf, badger, ox or horse, as well as fish, fowl, millet, vegetables, herbs, and roots. They never ate raw fish or flesh; it was always boiled or roasted.

Their traditional habitations were reed-thatched huts, the largest 20 ft (6 m) square, without partitions and having a fireplace in the center. There was no chimney, only a hole at the angle of the roof; there was one window on the eastern side and there were two doors. The house of the village head was used as a public meeting place when one was needed.

Instead of using furniture, they sat on the floor, which was covered with two layers of mats, one of rush, the other of flag[clarification needed]; and for beds they spread planks, hanging mats around them on poles, and employing skins for coverlets. The men used chopsticks when eating; the women had wooden spoons. Ainu cuisine is not commonly eaten outside Ainu communities; there are only a few Ainu-run restaurants in Japan, all located in Tokyo or Hokkaidō, serving primarily Japanese fare.

The functions of judgeship were not entrusted to chiefs; an indefinite number of a community's members sat in judgment upon its criminals. Capital punishment did not exist, nor did the community resort to imprisonment. Beating was considered a sufficient and final penalty. However, in the case of murder, the nose and ears of the culprit were cut off or the tendons of his feet severed.

Hunting

The Ainu hunted from late autumn to early summer. The reasons for this were, among others, that in late autumn, plant gathering, salmon fishing and other activities of securing food came to an end, and hunters readily found game in fields and mountains in which plants had withered. A village possessed a hunting ground of its own or several villages used a joint hunting territory (iwor) . Heavy penelties were imposed on any outsiders trespassing on such hunting grounds or joint hunting territory. The Ainu hunted bear, Ezo deer, rabbit, fox, raccoon dog and other animals. Ezo deer were a particularly important food resource for the Ainu as were salmon. They also hunted sea eagles such as white-tailed sea eagles, raver and other birds. The Ainu hunted eagles to obtain their tail feathers which were used in trade with the Japanese. The Ainu hunted with arrows and spears whose points were coated with poison. The poison, called "surku", was obtained from the roots and stalks of aconites. The recipe for making this poison was a household secret, differing from family to family. To enhance the effect of the poison, roots and stalks of dog's bane, boiled juice of Mekuragumo, Matsumomushi, tobacco, and other ingredients were mixed. Furthermore stingray's deadly poisonous stingers or skin covering stingers were used. Hunting was done with dogs by several hunters who got on well with each other. Before the Ainu went hunting for animals like bear in particular, they prayed to the god of fire and the house guardian god to convey their wishes for a large catch, and safe hunting to the god of mountains.

The Ainu usually hunted bear during the time of the spring thaw. At that time bears were weak because they had not fed at all during long hibernation. Ainu hunters caught hibernating bears or bears which had just left hibernation dens. When they went bear hunting in summer, they used a spring trap loaded with an arrow, called "amappo".

The Ainu usually used arrows to hunt deer. Also they often used traps, including spring traps loaded with arrows. Furthermore they drove deer into the river or sea and shot them with arrows. When aiming at a large catch, a whole village would drive a herd of deer off a cliff and club them to death.

Religion

For more information see Ainu creation myth.

The Ainu are traditionally animists, believing that everything in nature has a kamui (spirit or god) on the inside. There is a hierarchy of the kamui.

The most important is grandmother earth (fire), then kamui of the mountain (animals), then kamui of the sea (sea animals), lastly everything else. They have no priests by profession.

The village chief performs whatever religious ceremonies are necessary; ceremonies are confined to making libations of rice beer, uttering prayers, and offering willow sticks with wooden shavings attached to them. These sticks are called inau (singular) and nusa (plural).

They are placed on an altar used to "send back" the spirits of killed animals. The Ainu people give thanks to the gods before eating and pray to the deity of fire in time of sickness. They believe their spirits are immortal, and that their spirits will be rewarded hereafter by ascending to kamui mosir (Land of the Gods).

Some Ainu in the north are members of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Ornaments

Men wore a crown called "sapanupe" for important ceremonies. Sapanupe was made from wood fiber with bundles of partially-shaved wood. This crown had wooden figures of animal gods and other ornaments on its center. Men carried an "emush" (sword) secured by an "emush at" strap to their shoulders.

Women wore a "matanpushi" (embroidered headband) and "ninkari" (earrings).

Ninkari was a metal ring with a ball. Women wore it through a hole in the ear. Matanpushi and ninkari were originally worn by men. However, women wear them now. Furthermore, aprons called "maidari" now are a part of women's formal clothes. However, some old documents say that men wore maidari. Women sometimes wore a bracelet called "tekunkani."

Women wore a necklace called "rekutunpe," a long, narrow strip of cloth with metal plaques. Furthermore, they wore a necklace reaching the breast called "tamasay" or "shitoki." Glass balls were usually used for tamasay. Some glass balls were brought to the Ainu through trade with the Asian continent. The Ainu also obtained those which were secretly made by the Matsumae Clan.

Housing

A village is called "kotan" in the Ainu language. Kotan were located in river basins and seashores where food was readily available, particularly in the basins of rivers through which salmon went upstream. A village consisted basically of a paternal clan. The average number of families was four to seven, rarely reaching more than ten. In the early modern times, the Ainu people were forced to labor at the fishing grounds of the Japanese. Ainu kotan were also forced to move near fishing grounds so that the Japanese could secure a labor force. When the Japanese moved to other fishing grounds, Ainu kotan were also forced to accompany them. As a result, the traditional kotan disappeared and large villages of several dozen families were formed around the fishing grounds.

Kotan houses were made of cogon grasses, bamboo grass, barks, etc. The length lay east to west or parallel to a river. A house was about seven meters by five with an entrance at the west end that also served as a storeroom. The house had three windows, including the "rorun-puyar," a window located on the side facing the entrance (at the east side) , through which gods entered and left and ceremonial tools were taken in and out. The Ainu have regarded this window as sacred and have been told never to look in through it. A house had a fireplace near the entrance. The husband and wife sat on the fireplace's left side (called "shiso") . Children and guests sat facing them on the fireplace's right side (called "harkiso"). The house had a platform for valuables called "iyoykir" behind the shiso. The Ainu placed "shintoko"(hokai) and "ikayop" (quivers) there.

Outbuildings included separate lavatories for men called "ashinru" and for women called "menokoru", a "pu" (storehouse) in which food was stored, a "heper set" (cage for young bear) , and drying-racks for fish and wild plants. An altar "nusasan" faced the east side of the house (rorunpuyar). The Ainu held such ceremonies there as "lyomante. " a ceremony to send the spirit of a bear to the gods.

Life of Ainu

The Ainu people had various types of marriage. A child was promised in marriage by arrangement between his or her parents and the parents of his or her betrothed or by a go-between. When the betrothed reached a marriageable age, they were told who their spouse was to be. There were also marriages based on mutual consent of both sexes. In some areas, when a daughter reached a marriageable age, her parents let her live in a small room called "tunpu" annexed to the southern wall of her house. The parents chose her spouse from men who visited her.

The age of marriage was 17-18years old for men and 15–16 years for women, who were tattooed. At these ages, both sexes were regarded as adults.

When a man proposed to a woman, he visited her house, ate half a full bowl of rice handed to him by her, and returned the rest to her. If the woman ate the rest, she accepted his proposal. If she did not, and put it beside her, she rejected his proposal. When a man became engaged to a woman or they learned that their engagement had been arranged, they exchanged gifts with each other. He sent her a small engraved knife, a workbox, a spool and other gifts. She sent him embroidered clothes, coverings for the back of the hand, Ieggings, and other handmade clothes. According to some books, many "yomeiri" marriages, in which a bride went to the house of a bridegroom with her belongings to become a member of his family, were conducted in the old days.

The yomeiri marriage was conducted in the following manner. A man and his father brought to the house of a woman betrothal gifts, including a sword, a treasured sword, an ornamental quiver, a sword guard, and a woven basket (hokai). If they agreed to marry, the man and his father would bring her to their house or the man would stay at her house for a while and then bring her to his house.

At the wedding ceremony, participants prayed to the god of fire. Bride and bridegroom respectively ate half of the rice served in a bowl, and other participants were entertained.

The worn-out fabric of old clothing was used for baby clothes because soft cloth was good for the skin of babies and worn-out material protected babies from gods of illness and demons due to these gods' abhorrence of dirty things. Before a baby was breast-fed, he/she was given a decoction of the endodermis of alder and the roots of butterburs to discharge impurities. Children were raised almost naked until about the ages of four to five. Even when they wore clothes, they did not wear belts and left the front of their clothes open. Subsequently they wore bark clothes without patterns, such as "attush," until coming of age.

New born babies were named "ayay" (a baby's crying), "shipo," "poyshi" (small excrement), "shion"(old excrement), etc. Children were called by these "temporary" names until the ages of two to three. They were not given "permanent" names when they were born. Their tentative names had a portion meaning "excrement" or "old things" to ward off the demon of ill-health. Some children were named based on their behavior or habits. Other children were named after impressive events or after parents' wishes for the future of the children. When children were named, they were never given the same names as others.

Men were regarded as adults at the age of 15–16. They wore loincloths and had their hair dressed properly for the first time. Women were also considered adults at the age of 15–16. They wore underclothes called "mour" and had their hair dressed properly and wound waistcloths called "raunkut," "ponkut," etc. around their bodies. When women reached age 12–13, the lips, hands and arms were tattooed. When they reached age 15–16, their tattoos were completed. Thus were they qualified for marriage.

American continent connection theory

In the late 20th century, much speculation arose that people of the group related to the Jomon may have been one of the first to settle North America. This theory is based largely on skeletal and cultural evidence among tribes living in the western part of North America and certain parts of South America.

It is possible that North America had several peoples among its early settlers—these relatives of the Jomon being one of them. The best-known evidence that may support this theory is probably Kennewick Man.[40][41]

Groundbreaking genetic mapping studies by Cavalli-Sforza have shown a sharp gradient in gene frequencies centered in the area around the Sea of Japan, and particularly in the Japanese Archipelago, that distinguishes these populations from others in the rest of eastern Asia and most of the American continent.

This gradient appears as the third most important genetic movement (in other words, the third principal component of genetic variation) in Eurasia (after the "Great expansion" from the African continent, which has a cline centered in Arabia and adjacent parts of the Middle East, and a second cline that distinguishes the northern regions of Eurasia and particularly Siberia from regions to the south), which would make it consistent with the early Jōmon period, or possibly even the pre-Jōmon period.[42]

Subgroups

  • Hokkaido Ainu (the predominant community of Ainu in the world today)
  • Tokyo Ainu (a modern age migration of Hokkaido Ainu highlighted in a documentary film released in 2010, http://www.2kamuymintara.com/film/top.htm)
  • Tohoku Ainu (from Honshū, no known living population)[citation needed]
  • Sakhalin Ainu
  • Kuril Ainu (no known living population)
  • Kamchatka Ainu (extinct since pre-historic times)[citation needed]
  • Amur Valley Ainu (probably none remain)[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Poisson, B. 2002, The Ainu of Japan, Lerner Publications, Minneapolis, p.5.
  2. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. OCLC 224749653. . OCLC 60338097.
  3. ^ Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education, Volume 1997 By Colin Baker, Sylvia Prys Jones
  4. ^ "The Boone Collection – Image Gallery: Ainu Artifacts". http://www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/anthropology/anthro_sites/boone/ainu/ainu_map/ainu_map6.html. Retrieved on May 8, 2008.
  5. ^ a b c Sato, Takehiro; et al. (2007). "Origins and genetic features of the Okhotsk people, revealed by ancient mitochondrial DNA analysis". Journal of Human Genetics 52 (7): 618–627. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0164-z
  6. ^ Weiner, M (eds) 1997, Japan’s Minorities: The Illusion of Homogeneity, Routledge, London.
  7. ^ "NOVA Online – Island of the Spirits – Origins of the Ainu". Retrieved on May 8, 2008.
  8. ^ a b Brett L. Walker, The conquest of Ainu Lands:Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion 1590-1800-University of California Press,2001,Pages 49–56,61–71 and Pages 172–176
  9. ^ Sjöberg, K 1993, The Return of the Ainu, Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland.
  10. ^ Loos, N & Osani, T 1993, Indigenous Minorities and Education, Sanyusha Publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo.
  11. ^ a b Fogarty, Philippa (June 6, 2008). "Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7437244.stm. Retrieved June 7, 2008. 
  12. ^ Hohmann, S 2008, ‘The Ainu’s modern struggle’ in World Watch, Vol 21, No. 6, pp. 20–24.
  13. ^ Sjöberg, K 1993, The Return of the Ainu, Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland, p. 117.
  14. ^ Levinson, David (2002). Encyclopedia of modern Asia, Volume 1. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 72. ISBN 9780684806174. 
  15. ^ Ito, M 2008, ‘Diet officially declares Ainu indigenous’, Japan Times, June 7, viewed April 29, 2009, <http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20080607a1.html>
  16. ^ The Japan Times | Diet officially declares Ainu indigenous
  17. ^ Sjöberg, Katarina V. (1993). The Return of the Ainu: Cultural Mobilization and the Practice of Ethnicity in Japan. Studies in Anthropology and History. 9. Chur: Harwood Academic Publ.. ISBN 3718654016. OCLC 27684176. 
  18. ^ "The Boone Collection – Image Gallery: Ainu Artifacts". http://www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/anthropology/anthro_sites/boone/ainu/ainu_map/ainu_map6.html. Retrieved May 8, 2008. 
  19. ^ Sato, Takehiro; et al. (2007). "Origins and genetic features of the Okhotsk people, revealed by ancient mitochondrial DNA analysis". Journal of Human Genetics 52 (7): 618–627. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0164-z. PMID 17568987. 
  20. ^ "NOVA Online – Island of the Spirits – Origins of the Ainu". http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/hokkaido/ainu.html. Retrieved May 8, 2008. 
  21. ^ Travis, John "Jomon Genes:Using DNA, researchers probe the genetic origins of modern Japanese" Science News February 15, 1997 Vol. 151 No. 7 p. 106 [1]
  22. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Ainu
  23. ^ a b c d Tajima, Atsushi; et al. (2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human Genetics 49 (4): 187–193. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. PMID 14997363. 
  24. ^ http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf
  25. ^ Hammer, Michael F.; et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: Common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082. 
  26. ^ a b Tanaka, Masashi; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan". Genome Research 14 (10A): 1832–1850. doi:10.1101/gr.2286304. PMID 15466285. 
  27. ^ Noboru Adachi, Ken-ichi Shinoda, Kazuo Umetsu, and Hirofumi Matsumura, "Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Jomon Skeletons From the Funadomari Site, Hokkaido, and Its Implication for the Origins of Native American," American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138:255–265 (2009)
  28. ^ Han-Jun Jin, Ki-Cheol Kim, and Wook Kim, "Genetic Diversity of Two Haploid Markers in the Udegey Population From Southeastern Siberia," American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2010)
  29. ^ Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Tomasz Grzybowski, Galina Denisova, Irina Dambueva, Maria Perkova, Choduraa Dorzhu, Faina Luzina, Hong Kyu Lee, Tomas Vanecek, Richard Villems, and Ilia Zakharov, "Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations," American Journal of Human Genetics, 2007 November; 81(5): 1025–1041.
  30. ^ Toomas Kivisild, Helle-Viivi Tolk, Jüri Parik, Yiming Wang, Surinder S. Papiha, Hans-Jürgen Bandelt and Richard Villems, "The Emerging Limbs and Twigs of the East Asian mtDNA Tree," Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:1737–1751 (2002).
  31. ^ Reddy BM, Langstieh BT, Kumar V, Nagaraja T, Reddy ANS et al. (2007), "Austro-Asiatic Tribes of Northeast India Provide Hitherto Missing Genetic Link between South and Southeast Asia." PLoS ONE 2(11): e1141. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001141
  32. ^ Yong-Gang Yao, Qing-Peng Kong, Hans-Jürgen Bandelt et al., "Phylogeographic Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese," American Journal of Human Genetics 70:635–651, 2002.
  33. ^ Shigematsu, Masahito; et al. (2004). "Morphological affinities between Jomon and Ainu: Reassessment based on nonmetric cranial traits". Anthropological Science 112 (2): 161–172. doi:10.1537/ase.00092. 
  34. ^ Russian Empire Census of 1897: Totals Russian Empire Census of 1897: Sakhalin (Russian)
  35. ^ Hohmann, S. 2008, 'The Ainu's modern struggle' in World Watch, Vol 21., No. 6, pp. 20–24.
  36. ^ Vovin, A. 1993, A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu, Brill, p. 3
  37. ^ Shibatani, M. 1990, The Languages of Japan, Cambridge university Press, London, p. 3
  38. ^ Shibatani, M. 1990, The Languages of Japan, Cambridge university Press, London, p. 5
  39. ^ Omniglot, 2009, “Ainu”, retrieved August 2, 2009, http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ainu.htm
  40. ^ Kennewick Man Skeletal Find May Revolutionalize Continent's History, Science Daily
  41. ^ ANTHROPOLOGY: Kennewick Man's Contemporaries, Science
  42. ^ "The synthetic maps suggest a previously unsuspected center of expansion from the Sea of Japan but cannot indicate dates. This development could be tied to the Jōmon period, but one cannot entirely exclude the pre-Jōmon period and that it might be responsible for a migration to the Americas. A major source of food in those pre-agricultural times came from fishing, then as now, and this would have limited for ecological reasons the area of expansion to the coastline, perhaps that of the Sea of Japan, but also father along the Pacific Coast" "The History and Geography of Human Genes" p253, Cavalli-Sforza ISBN 0-691-08750-4
  43. ^ Links to these organizations needed, also Tokyo Ainu documentary, http://www.2kamuymintara.com/film/top.htm, and http://www.2kamuymintara.com/film/groups.htm has links to Tokyo area Ainu groups.
  44. ^ Toward a Genuine Redress for an Unjust Past: The Nibutani Dam Case – [1997] MurUEJL 16
  45. ^ Citation to Levin and Tsunemoto in Oklahoma Law Review
  46. ^ Citation to Siddle's book
  47. ^ Citation to ACL translation in Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal
  48. ^ Citation to Siddle's book
  49. ^ Citation needed

References and further reading

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  • Batchelor, John (1901). "On the Ainu Term `Kamui". The Ainu and Their Folklore. London: Religious Tract Society. 
  • Etter, Carl (2004) [1949]. Ainu Folklore: Traditions and Culture of the Vanishing Aborigines of Japan. Whitfish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417976977. 
  • Fitzhugh, William W.; Dubreuil, Chisato O. (1999). Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295979127. OCLC 42801973. 
  • Honda Katsuichi (1993) (in Japanese). Ainu Minzoku. Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun Publishing. ISBN 4022565772. OCLC 29601145. 
  • Ichiro Hori (1968). Folk Religion in Japan: Continuity and Change. Haskell lectures on History of religions. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  • Junko Habu (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521776708. OCLC 53131386. 
  • Kayano, Shigeru (1994). Our Land Was A Forest: An Ainu Memoir. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1880-7. ISBN 978-0-8133-1880-6.
  • Landor, A. Henry Savage (1893). Alone with the Hairy Ainu. Or, 3,800 miles on a Pack Saddle in Yezo and a Cruise to the Kurile Islands. London: John Murray. 
  • Levin, Mark, Essential Commodities and Racial Justice: Using Constitutional Protection of Japan’s Indigenous Ainu People to Inform Understandings of the United States and Japan (2001). New York University of International Law and Politics, Vol. 33, p, 419, 2001 . Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1635451
  • Levin, Mark (trans.), Kayano et al. v. Hokkaido Expropriation Committee: ‘The Nibutani Dam Decision’ (1999). International Legal Materials, Vol. 38, p. 394, 1999. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1635447
  • Siddle, Richard (1996). Race, Resistance and the Ainu of Japan. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415132282. OCLC 33947034 243850790 33947034. 
  • Starr, Frederick (1905). "The Hairy Ainu of Japan". Proceedings of the Second Yearly Meeting of the Iowa Anthopological Association (Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa). 
  • Walker, Brett (2001). The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590–1800. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520227360. OCLC 59471355 70749620 45958211 59471355 70749620. 
  • Article on the Ainu in Japan's Minorities: The Illusion of Homogeneity.

External links

 
 

South West Migration into Europe

South-west migration

(instant computer translation from Rumania)
The Spanish culture has been written since the fifth century that the fourth virt dismounting of Spain by the Goths, Dacians who are former (Geta et illi qui nunc Gothic) led to the formation of nation state and Iberian Spanish.In the following centuries, the legend grows reaching a true historical reference, cultural and moral development of Spanish society. Like any home mioritic mind I put a natural question: have gone bad on our lands this nation or a disgraceful thing stinks worse?
Let us also clarify why they say finished, we must look into our history so old falsified mentors professed hatred of the nation! Much of the answer to this question is still on tablets of reserchers from the Institute of Archaeology in Bucharest. Romanian historians who knew something about his Getica Iordanes have slapped a short, Goth is a confusion between the Roman Empire Dacians who broke down and Goths who came to our lands centuries mm-mmm. And their full of flavor called prophecy was cast in stone, incense, and put as unsettled for deep gratitude to Our Lady!But these are no longer zăluzenii recorded in history books do not ask someone if a trial is fair or muss.

The Visigoth kings tombs of Old Castile is written for posterity,

"Rex Godorum Gaetorum et  Dacorum Hispaniae Rex and that is our meaning,"

king of the Goths, the Dacians, the Dacians and the King of Spain! They did not know who these kings had as subjects in their kingdom and would be decorated with liftele mioritical 'hemp Resistant Collar "for," virtue "of high treason! Bastarns tablets say they arrived in the middle Getae Glia lV century BC where they underwent a strong process, "getizare" I century BC and the beginning of our ancestors have been in contact to the east, with iazigii / Goths. Mythology show us that it took many elements of religion and culture and the Dacians Bastarns Germans were regarded by the other one of their own race but after the customs of the Dacians descending.
Martial (cca.40 - approx. 103), in Pharsala, put in a single line name Dacula, getului and Iberia - Hincesti Dacus Getes ocurrat Hiberis independent premature. This verse was interpreted by Isidore in the seventh century as a prophecy and Spain was to be invaded by the Dacians, but not only her world would be invaded by the Dacians. History begins to go into legend. Spanish writer, Paulus Orosius, a refugee in Africa for fear we Goths leaves ending in 417 stories about migration and emphasizes the Goths in Spain, "Geta et illi qui nunc Gotha (who now calls Getae Goths) and Dacia ubi et Gothia - Dacia where and Goths. He does a description of the tribes that troop from side to side of Europe and toward the east is clear that Alan, where's the middle Dacia and the Goths, then comes Germany, where most of a mastered suevii - these all are 54 nations in number.Land north of the Danube Barbaricum calls and the south of the Danube, Romania, which includes Pannonia, Moesia, Dalmatia, Istria, Macedonia, Thrace. Remember the battles with the Dacians and Domitian Diurpaneus driver appears to be mentioned in all the Spanish chronicles. Romanian historians have taken it on the Orosius Diurpaneus but passed over in silence the rest of the information. The former Dacia, now Goths out great invasions that destroyed the ancient world and with it the collapse of the Roman Empire as they sniffed a Seneca (4 BC - 65 AD) Lucan both in Spain and a yet unknown premonition Romanian culture! Hispanic philosopher like having a prophetic prediction, saying that fury, fatal day "will come from the land Getae, when the Danube waters unleashed will ascend to heaven, and a steep one including an immense whirlwind stretch of lands and cities.The sky will pour endless torrents, rivers swell its waters and come in jelly, the seas will rise from the river bed and flood the earth to destroy humanity. "How do you think will be Rhone, Rhine and Danuviul, whose course is rough even in the queen's, when banks will cut in November and breaking down the earth, will leave all of their bed? ... When Danuviul not reach, not just the foot or mountain belt, but it beats the peaks, dragging with it povîrnişurile flood and capes snatched costişele vast lands, which, from the depths, it will come off the continent? And then, finding out - for yourself and shut them all - is back and includes a whirlpool in one whirlwind suddenly a huge expanse of lands and cities? "The picture continues to thunder storms and rough seas until it rises to beat into the sky and destructive over the desolate land.The unfortunate survivors of the human race like creatures clinging to the last jagged infirm - lost in the ocean - which are no longer capable of any pain. Note that Seneca wrote these lines at 60 years and are very similar with the Bible but then the Jewish writings were not anything to Roman culture. Is it just a hunch or philosopher known myths and legends about which we know nothing! Ciency speak of the terrible arrow flew to heaven - Talis Getica arundo in exile dream coelum dimitti handbook sows death where wonders. His nephew, Lucan mentions the fame arc made hardwood getic in Armenia, "bow Armeniosque Geticis neruis intende. May says, "Massagetia the Scythian Ister, and Dacians Dacians who watched the fall of Rome," unknown nations will follow the struggles of Latin Kings and other stars are under the sea separates them from us will join the Roman wars, and I one will live peacefully? O gods, keep me away from this madness! How?Fall of Rome and move to the Dacians and the Dacians and I stay away from worry? ... Feuding with all the people we only deviate from the civil war. Let us part in the Dacian threat of another getul; to năvălească Iberian one in the way, to turn the other flags of dawn tolbele arrows. But the world was a world Getae mysterious and frightening and represent a border Ister penetrated so hard for both Greeks and Romans. Terrible cold, dark woods and no end, people get religion and bravery of Getae was more a legend than a realm of the ancient Mediterranean world could understand. To their mind, however was not only a land that inspires fear, but something magic that flowed from the genius of that people and came in his defense.
Fabulous history that fills the medieval Spanish chronicles is gathered from the legends and myths East Mediterranean and especially about the enigmatic lands of the Caucasus and the mouth of the Danube, shrouded in mist Arctic and unsearchable Thracian mysteries that are lost in the night time. There in the mist of the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea and the Bosporus Cimerian (Crimea), there lived a generation that is the name Iberia and Iberia could not be alienated from beyond the columns of Hercules. Eschyl (525-455), father of Greek tragedy Scythians say that the nation is kept strong in their motherland in a region, "Thrace near the northern Caucasus near the Ister" mioritical that our lands! Greek writer writes this information to nearly 900 years before Orosius and has the advantage of direct knowledge of these lands. It must be admitted that his information is correct Eschyl that statement is found in other ancient Greek and Roman sources.Medieval chroniclers could not say clearly if people here had gone there, or if not everyone here is pulling tribe of Caucasian Iberia, come to Spain in time immemorial, which carried with them a system of laws which boasted that it would be old 6000 years! World fabulous lands of those trampled in Spain in May. Amazons, which Homer says Thracian origin were pregetaseră not go to sea and earn fame and Hispanic lands. And in the mists of time are those Iberian tribe that migrated mioritic XVll BC centuries after the catastrophic eruption of Santorini. And they all went and Turdetano Tartesico discovered writing.
Isidore, bishop of Seville wrote in the early seventh century, the Historia Regibus Gothorum, et Suevorum Vandalorum as a tribute to the formation of the Germanic peoples and the nation's Hispanic culture.He was an ardent admirer of the Goths as he got home and his information is based on ancient sources other than his Getica Iornandes he did not know her. The author wishes to make an apology to the descendants of Dacians Goths that starting from the Orosius, but the saying goes the way of etymological and genealogical reconstructions giving them a symbolist value of his speculations on the names and words. Etymologies allows us to see what he thought about the erudite prelate Sevillana Getae distant country, so mysteriously linked to the destiny of Spain. Geography is a very vague with information gathered from several ancient writers. World wide was horsemen roamed by bands of rough barbarians who passed over the ruins of former settlements. Dacia dropped by the Roman legions, was occupied in turn by the Goths, Gepyds, Huns, Avars and when Isidore wrote his opera, the masters were temporal lands Carpathian Slavic tribe.In Isidore tells us stories that Dacia was tall mountains in the vicinity where the Goths were the kingdoms of Scythian incursions across the Danube in the Roman provinces. They shared with other nations, these high mountains. There are information about the history of the Goths along the Danube and their migration to the west until arriving in Spain. The paper ends with a recap: "Living in the frozen northern lands near the Scythian kingdom where there are high mountains, they had acquired these mountains together with other nations, where, driven by the rush of the Huns, crossed the Danube and were subjected Romans. But unable to bear their iniquities, they choose a king of their nation, invaded Thrace, eating into Italy, Gaul goes on, and passed without opposition Pyrenees, end up in Spain, where they settled abode of life and their Empire " . Race and got praised features of writing to the word 'Dacians;blond and wearing their heads uncovered - flavent capitibus invectis Geta, skilled riders after about a poet - Getes, Inquire, Pergamon equo quo, contemptuous word to death after another poet. Glorify virtuous nation that has made, "Rome itself, the conqueror of all nations" to serve, obedient and to receive triumph getic yoke. " Happiness is the country where it flourishes once the joy of the glorious fecundity getic people - Geticae gentis fecunditas glorious. Sevillana prelate histories and etymologies can find important notes about the Dacians Dacians or that even distorted, echoing a historical realities were sometimes reflected in ancient sources. St. Eugene is reminiscent of a dispute between Eleazar Paulo Alvaro and the first able to speak about the turmoil of the Black Sea and literary praise in verse Leovigild's library because it shone, "ciency light."As they say, but we hold that such information is not hard to get out of mioritic bit! Towards the end Xlll century, the myth tems, the image's fabulous Deceneu great form as he learned to King Alfonso Sabio him in the General Chronicle. This king is the father of Spanish culture and the arts by cultivating science to poetry and music up to astronomy and astrology, to his masterly Under getul Diçeneo or Dicineo is almost a saint and philosopher, is not only a wise counselor viforosului Boruista (Bisto boero ) but is really the model of King Alfonso, who, through the merits of listed and taken from his Getica Iornandes, help shape the foundations Spanish culture calling him he Sabio - Wiseman. Only respect for the Catholic Church led the king to put him in a discreet shade Deceneu pre-Christian or had information which we know nothing!Myth getic gains attributed to the Goths and moral significance, leaving traces in all Hispanic writers and historians of the Middle Ages is the myth of the Wise Deceneu or Goths, which makes Rada Jimenez toledanul Myth cîrmuiri Wisdom and good founders of the new Spain. Zamolxe appears he is considered king of the Goths and a marvel of wisdom and philosophy "so that the deaf ear! Spanish author says he has collected so much information from ancient writers, from Iornandes and oral traditions and songs of the Goths, a procedure that they used and got writer. Iornandes say about these songs that preserved the memory of Deceneu they must have themselves been a legacy of the Dacians! Alonso CartajenaEnrique wrote during the LV-century Spain and tells us that the kings descended from the Dacians princes, taking his name from the only place where they live, because it was more illustrious than that of the ancestors and the name of Geta is encountered in medieval writings and is considered a title of nobility! In heraldry symbols appear Getae Spanish kings, arrows and yoke frightened world as evidence of wealth in cattle. If Orosius said that Dacians are Goths who conquered Spain, two centuries after Isidore argues strongly identity with the Dacians and Goths in the centuries that followed, to prove their nobility, scholars and the ruling class had to show descent from the Dacians. From Isidore of Seville, the legend has grown, has taken root in all parts of the history and chronicles Getae / Dacians in fabulous form entered into the history of Spain.Name or Buruista Boruista Getae, Diurpaneus,'s Decebalo Zamolxis and meet in the St. Isidore Deceneu at Archbishop Rodrigo Jimenez Rada, to King Alfonso Sabio him, taking place in the genealogy of the Spanish people themselves and arrived in Spain because the Gothic nations. They inherited the Spanish culture and no culture Getae Germanic nations with Odin, the supreme god, Thorr, the god of thunder and war, Loki, the god of fire damage and death underground, Baldr, god of justice and reborn after the great catastrophe of nature! Core of culture and history of migration carried Carpathian Gothic nations in Spain, a legend and he turns the color of the other facts that make up lost in the mists of history. No Spanish history under the name recognized some ancestral forefathers of our nation! We would find today because of the book written by Alexander Busuioceanu Zamolxis wandering printed in Spanish and Romanian in 1985.It is a miracle that lead tablets from the Institute of Archaeology in Bucharest and helps us to know this venerable form of chronicles written by archbishops and kings of Spain, Romanian unread until today. Our historians researching these columns and if they hit the seizures would go to a suspect and would yell out of all minds: they are fakes as lead and slates Tărtăria discovered, and thus fandasia is ready!
To destroy forever the idiocy of our nation Latin niscaiva I will use the information gathered with great sîrg Spanish răulenii remember before. Tell them that in ancient toriştea - Iberia, the natives were so crude as that the Romans had not yet arrived to enlighten them - is writing a joy. But archeology has discovered more evidence of trouble writing, appreciating them Vlll-ll-century BC but their age may be higher.They come from the east region and Turdetano Tartesico (new cemeteries remind us of tartaric and Turdaş) south-east and south-west of Iberia. Between the Dacians used 46 points in their polojeniile lead tablets are identical or similar points of these writings and 34 of the timber growing signs that are identical or similar plutaşii Bistrita used by ancient Iberian letters! To see what we are restless nation especially as we sit with deep roots planted in our land! To be finches on branches by the end cîntării Iberian remember that old writings have 12 identical signs Tărtăria writing and 13 common signs of Sumerian writing (Ki-en-gi) where stray Carpathian part of the second generation lV millennium BC Maul forever to cut them to spell those bitter birthday present given several names from the Christian Spanish: Antonio Diaz, Diego, Durao, Aurelio and some tablets collected from non-Christians Getae Antonio, Tiaz, Diegio, Duro, Orelio.When they left the population in Iberia mioritical difficult to answer but can say that they have had some time to organize their social structure which requires the use of writing and they were quite numerous for such an action requires more brains and skill of craftsmen.  I believe that by the middle millennium BC ll take these năbădăioşi anxiety started to leave their ancestral toriştea the Carpathians and elsewhere in May put on a civilization! This is the first migration of carpaticilor in Iberia, the two have made it to the early fifth century with Bastarns 'getizaţi' and other Germanic tribes and the third is made nowadays!

Another direction of migration in the mid-century Carpathian i.e. XVll. N. is to the west, southwest and most restless until they arrived in North Africa.The oldest population of the territory between Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean formed getulii as a source of ancient writing. Peerless horsemen, divided into several tribes, lived from large herds of sheep and the hunters and when the opportunity arose to something robberies were not fussy. Salustiu said, "Africa has taken a first and libienii getulii, harsh and uncivilized people who are fed with meat and herbs wild beasts." And Isidore of Seville writes, "About getuli Dacians are said to have been that too many of them went with their ships and took Syrtele of Lybia and because the lands had come Getae getuli name has been applied." Amazing similarity of the alphabets used by the populations that we know today call name Berbers, the Tuareg and Libyan alphabets on tablets of lead Getae fully acknowledge this information and investigate when the Vlachs Burada Galician found that they've been digging his flock with the expressionber, ber, we use the term forced labor, forced labor! Berber women have a dress very similar to that of Romanian women in the mountains (shepherds). They have a head wrap of seamless white cloth, the body is covered with a white shirt, hot all the way up above the knee coming close to having the shoulder short sleeves. He wears all white skirt that falls to near the ankle and the front is an apron. The body is wrapped in a woolen fabric similar to that worn by shepherds in the back forming a sort of hood.Men have a simple white shirt glowing in the middle, with long sleeves and large, over bearing a bundle with colorful stitching and tassels like those of Osensei and pants are loose, white and rounded with a thread at the bottom of the trouser-legs . There are folk in their music, pieces that are similar to our popular music.

Emishi, Caucasian Tribe in Japan, Descendends of Jomon, Ancestors of Ainu

Emishi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the tribes. For the statesman at the Yamato imperial court, see Soga no Emishi. For the fictional character, see Emishi Haruki.
Emishi
Family name
PronunciationEmishi
Region of originJapanese
Footnotes: from Namio, Egami, et al., Ainu to kodai Nippon. Japan: Shogakukan, 1982, p. 92.

The Emishi or Ebisu (蝦夷?) were a group of people who lived in northeastern Honshū in what is today known as the Tōhoku region. They are referred to as michi no oku (道の奥?) in contemporary sources. Some Emishi tribes opposed and resisted the rule of the Japanese Emperors during the late Nara and early Heian periods (7th–10th centuries AD). More recently, scholars believe that they were natives of northern Honshū who were descendants of those who produced the Jōmon culture. They are thought to have been related to the Ainu. The separate ethnic status of the Emishi is not in doubt, based on a separate language from Japanese that scholars have not been able to reconstruct, but can be inferred from the use of interpreters who were needed to communicate between the Japanese and the Emishi, and the many Ainoid place names left in the Tōhoku. The famous Emishi generals who fought in the Thirty-Eight Years' War (AD 774 to 811), Moro and Aterui, have non-Japanese names as well.

Contents

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[edit] Origin of the word "Emishi"

The record of Emperor Jimmu on Nihon Shoki mentions about the people called "Emishi"—written as 愛瀰詩 with ateji—who his armed forces defeated before he was enthroned the Emperor of Japan.[1] According to Nihon Shoki, Takenouchi no Sukune in the era of Emperor Keikō proposed that they should subjugate Emishi (蝦夷) of Hitakami no Kuni (日高見国) in the eastern Japan.[1] The first mention of Emishi from a source outside Japan was in the Chinese book of Song in 478 which referred to them as "hairy people" (毛人). The book refers to "the 55 kingdoms (国) of the hairy people (毛人) of the East..." as a report by King Bu—one of the Five kings of Wa. The Japanese used this kanji to describe these people, but changed the reading from "kebito" or "mojin" to "Emishi" most likely by the seventh century AD. Furthermore, the kanji character also changed to 蝦夷 which is a combination of the character for "shrimp" and "barbarian" in the same century. This is thought to refer to the long whiskers of a shrimp, however, this is not certain. The barbarian aspect clearly described an outsider, living beyond the border of the emerging empire of Japan which saw itself as a civilizing influence, and thus justifying their conquest. This kanji was first seen in the T'ang sources that describe the meeting with the two Emishi that the Japanese envoy brought with him to China (see below). The kanji character may have been adopted from China, but the reading "Ebisu" and "Emishi" were Japanese in origin, and most likely came from either the Japanese "yumishi" which means bowman (their main weapon), or "emushi" which is sword in the Ainu tongue.[2] Other origins have been proposed such as the word "enchiu" for man in the Ainu tongue, however, the way it sounds is almost phonetically identical to emushi so it may most likely have had an Ainoid origin.[3]

[edit] Relationship to the Jōmon

Recent scholarship has created a much more complicated portrait of this people. By and large, they are seen as indigenous to Japan and not simply as ancestors to the Ainu, but descendants of the Jōmon. Even though historically they emerge as serious challengers to the nascent Japanese state they had inherited a rich and separate tradition that went back several millennia before the Japanese speakers came to the islands of Japan.

In the study of Jōmon skeletal remains dating from thousands of years ago, a direct connection with the modern Ainu was confirmed, showing a definite linkage between the two groups. This linkage however, shows that the Jōmon people were very different from modern Japanese and other modern East Asians. The physical appearance of a number of the Ainu who were first encountered by the Europeans in the 19th Century were similar to Caucasians, and thus caused quite a stir among contemporary academics, and has spurred debate about their origins. It is thus surmised that the Jōmon also were physically unlike other East Asians. This said, physical anthropologists have found that diachronically, and geographically, the skeletal structure of the Jōmon population changed over time from southwest to northeast, paralleling the actual migration of Japanese speakers historically, so that more Jōmon traits are preserved in the north.

Studies have also shown that skeletal remains from larger settlements in the Tōhoku corresponding to where burial mounds (kofun) were built have traits that are halfway between Ainu and present day Japanese, so the idea that the Emishi were made up solely of Ainoid ancestors is untrue. The Emishi were a mix of both Ainoid and types of people scholars have called "Kofun people" who were not a separate race or ethnic group, but were a mixture of both native Jōmon and the more recent groups identified with the Yayoi culture. This dovetails nicely with the "transformation" theory that native Jōmon peoples changed gradually with the infusion of Yayoi immigrants into the Tōhoku rather than the "replacement" theory which posits that one population (Jōmon) was replaced by another (Yayoi).[4]

The Emishi were composed of two main populations, the Jōmon Ainoid who were the majority and a smaller group the Kofun united by a common Ainoid language distinct from Japanese. These two populations were not distinguished by contemporaries, but rather by present-day physical anthropologists. Historically, they were seen as one group by contemporaries, mainly those who were descendants of the natives (the Jōmon) called Emishi and Ebisu who also had in their population those of mixed ethnicity, most likely descendants of early Japanese colonists. In addition, the contemporary Japanese for their part looked upon the Emishi as foreigners and barbarians whose lands they desired to conquer and incorporate into the Japanese state.

Though it is not known how much the Emishi population changed as Japanese settlers and frontiersmen began to live in their territories even before the conquest, the existence of Emishi Kofun types attests to some form of ethnic mixing. The Japanese established trading relations with the Emishi where their horses were imported and iron tools and weapons exported to their territories. To complicate matters, some ethnic Japanese allied themselves with the Emishi in their wars against the Yamato court. The latter were known in the Nihon Shoki as "Japanese captives" of the Emishi.

[edit] History

The Emishi were represented by different tribes, some of whom became allies of the Japanese (fushu, ifu) while others remained hostile (iteki).[5] The Emishi in northeastern Honshū relied on their horses in warfare. They developed a unique style of warfare where horse archery and hit and run tactics proved very effective against the slower contemporary Japanese imperial army that relied on mostly heavy infantry. Their livelihood was based on hunting and gathering as well as the cultivation of grains such as millet and barley. Recently, it is thought they practiced rice cultivation as well in areas where rice could be grown readily. The first major attempts to subjugate the Emishi in the 8th century were largely unsuccessful. The imperial armies modelled after the mainland Chinese were no match for the guerrilla tactics of the Emishi.[6] The Nihon Shoki's entry for Emperor Yūryaku (Ohatsuse Wakatake) records an uprising after the Emperor's death of Emishi troops levied for an expedition to Korea; the date (and indeed reality) of Yūryaku are uncertain, and the Korean reference may be anachronistic, but the compilers clearly felt that Emishi troops were credible in such a context.

It was the development of horse archery and the adoption of Emishi tactics by the early Japanese warriors that led to the Emishi defeat. The success of the gradual change in battle tactics came at the very end of the 8th century in the 790's under the command of the general Sakanoue no Tamuramaro.[7] They either submitted themselves to imperial authority as fushu and ifu, or migrated further north, some to Hokkaidō. By the mid-9th century most of their land in Honshū was conquered and they ceased to be independent. However, they continued to be influential in local politics as powerful Emishi families who submitted themselves to Japanese rule eventually created feudal domains in the north that became semi-autonomous. In the two centuries following the conquest a few of these became regional states that came into conflict with the central government. The following is a brief chronology of the main events in the relations between the Emishi and the Japanese.

[edit] Early conquest by Imperial army

AD 658: Abe no Hirafu's naval expedition of 180 ships reaches Aguta (present day Akita) and Watarishima (Hokkaidō). Alliance with Aguta Emishi, Tsugaru Emishi and Watarishima Emishi is formed by Abe who then storms a settlement of Mishihase (Su-shen in the Aston translation of the Nihongi) a people of unknown origin, who are defeated. This is one of the earliest reliable records of the Emishi people extant. At this early age it is almost certain that the Emishi encountered here are ancestors of the Ainu since the territories covered by the expedition are in areas where these people are thought to have lived. The Mishihase may have been another ethnic group who competed with the ancestors of the Ainu for Hokkaidō. Ironically, the earliest expedition happens to be the furthest northern penetration of the Japanese Imperial army until the 16th century, and that later settlement was from a local Japanese warlord who was independent of any central control.[8][9]

AD 709: The fort of Ideha was created close to present day Akita. This was a bold move since the intervening territory between Akita and the northwestern countries of Japan was not under government control. The Emishi of Akita in alliance with Michinoku attacked Japanese settlements in response. Saeki no Iwayu was appointed Sei Echigo Emishi shōgun. He used 100 ships from the Japan sea side countries along with soldiers recruited from the eastern countries and successfully defeated the Echigo (present day Akita) Emishi.[10]

AD 724: Taga Castle was built by Oono no Omi Azumahito near present day Sendai and became the largest administrative fort in the northeast region of Michinoku. As Chinju shogun he steadily built forts across the Sendai plain and into the interior mountains in what is now Yamagata prefecture. Guerilla warfare was practiced by the horse riding Emishi who kept up pressure on these forts, but Emishi allies ifu and fushu were also recruited and promoted by the Japanese to fight against their kinsmen.

AD 758: After a long period of stalemate, the Japanese army under Fujiwara no Asakari penetrated into what is now northern Miyagi prefecture, and established Momonofu Castle on the Kitakami River. The fort was built despite constant attacks by the Emishi of Isawa (present-day southern Iwate prefecture).

[edit] Thirty-Eight Years' War

AD 774 marked the beginning of the Thirty-Eight Years' War (三十八年戦争) with the defection of a high ranking Emishi officer of the Japanese army based in Taga Castle, Korehari no kimi Azamaro. The Emishi counterattacked along a broad front starting with Momonohu Castle, destroying the garrison there before going on to destroy a number of forts along a defensive line from east to west established painstakingly over the past generation. Even Taga Castle was not spared. Large Japanese forces were recruited, numbering in the thousands, the largest forces perhaps ten to twenty thousand strong fighting against an Emishi force that numbered at most around three thousand warriors, and at any one place around a thousand. In 776 a huge army of over 20,000 men was sent to attack the Shiwa Emishi, but failed to destroy the enemy who then successfully counterattacked their cumbersome foes in the Ōu Mountains. In 780 the Emishi attacked the Sendai plain successfully torching Japanese villages there. The Japanese were in a near panic as they tried to tax and recruit more soldiers from the Bandō.[11]

In the AD 789 Battle of Koromo River (also known as Battle of Sufuse) the Japanese army under Ki no Kosami Seito shogun was defeated by the Isawa Emishi under their general Aterui. A four thousand strong army was attacked as they tried to cross the Kitakami River by a force of a thousand Emishi. The imperial army suffered its most stunning defeat, losing a thousand men, many of whom drowned.

AD 794: Many key Shiwa Emishi including Isawa no kimi Anushiko of what is now northern Miyagi prefecture become allies of the Japanese. This was a stunning reversal to the aspirations of those Emishi who still fought against the Japanese. The Shiwa Emishi were a very powerful group and were able to attack smaller Emishi groups successfully as their leaders were promoted into imperial rank. This had the effect of isolating one of the most powerful and independent Emishi, the Isawa confederation. The newly appointed general Sakanoue no Tamuramaro then attacked the Isawa Emishi relentlessly using soldiers trained in horse archery. The result was a desultory campaign that eventually led to Aterui's surrender in 802. The war was mostly over and many Emishi groups submitted themselves to the imperial government. However, skirmishes still took place and it was not until 811 that the so-called Thirty-Eight Years' War was over.[12] North of the Kitakami River the Emishi were still independent, but the large scale threat that they posed ceased with the defeat of the Isawa Emishi in 802.

[edit] Abe clan, Kiyohara clan and Northern Fujiwara

After their conquest, some Emishi leaders became part of the regional framework of government in the Tōhoku culminating with the Northern Fujiwara regime. This regime and others such as the Abe and Kiyohara were created by local Japanese gōzoku and became regional semi-independent states based on the Emishi and Japanese people. However, even before these emerged, the Emishi people progressively lost their distinct culture and ethnicity as they became minorities.

The Northern Fujiwara were thought to have been Emishi, but there is some doubt as to the lineage of them, and if they were descended from local Japanese families who resided in the Tōhoku (unrelated to the Fujiwara of Kyoto) then the study would confirm this. Both the Abe and Kiyohara families were almost certainly of Japanese descent, both of whom represented gōzoku, powerful families who had moved into the provinces of Mutsu and Dewa perhaps during the ninth century though when they emigrated is not known for certain. They were likely a Japanese frontier family who developed regional ties with the descendants of the Emishi fushu, and may have been seen as fushu themselves since they had lived in the region for several generations.

Soon after World War II, mummies of the Northern Fujiwara family in Hiraizumi (the capital city of the Northern Fujiwara), and hence were thought to have been related to the Ainu were studied by scientists. However, the researchers concluded that the rulers of Hiraizumi were like other Japanese of the time, and certainly not related to the ethnic Ainu.[13] This was seen as evidence that the Emishi were not related to the Ainu. This had the effect of popularizing the idea that the Emishi were like other contemporary ethnic Japanese who lived in northeast Japan, outside of Yamato rule.

[edit] Downfall of Emishi and emergence of Ainu

Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of Emperor Seiwa, finally defeated the Northan Fujiwara in 1189 and established the Kamakura shogunate in 1192.

The people who migrated to the northern tip of Honshū and Hokkaidō region retained their identity and their separate ethnicity, and their descendants eventually formed the Satsumon culture in Hokkaidō. Historically, they became a distinctly different population from those who were conquered and integrated into the Japanese state. The Emishi except them became more like other ethnic Japanese while the Hokkaidō Emishi, known by contemporaries as Watarishima Emishi, or 'Emishi who crossed to the island', eventually became known as the Ezo, and later in the modern period the Ainu.

[edit] Emishi envoys to the Tang court

The evidence that the Emishi were also related to the Ainu comes from historical documents. One of the best sources of information comes from both inside and outside Japan, from contemporary Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty histories as these describe dealings with Japan, and from the Shoku Nihongi. For example, there is a record of the arrival of the Japanese foreign minister in AD 659 where conversation is recorded with the Tang Emperor. In this conversation we have perhaps the most accurate picture of the Emishi recorded for that time period. This episode is repeated in the Shoku Nihongi in the following manner.

Two Emishi, a man and woman, from contemporary Tōhoku accompanied the minister Sakaibe no Muraji to Tang China. The emperor was delighted with the two Emishi because of their "strange" physical appearance. This was an emperor who was most likely the illustrious Emperor Tang Taizong who was familiar with many ethnic groups throughout his Empire, from Uyghurs and Turks to Middle Eastern traders. However, he probably did not have any contact with Europeans. The Japanese envoy for his part describes the contemporary relationship with the various Emishi: those who had allied themselves with the Yamato court (known as 和蝦夷 niki-emishi, i.e. 'gentle Emishi'), those who remained as enemies staunchly opposed to Yamato (known as 荒蝦夷 ara-emishi, i.e. 'rough Emishi' or 'wild Emishi'), and the distant Tsugaru Emishi (located in present-day northern Aomori and in southern Hokkaidō). All Chinese documents from the T'ang and Sung refer to them as having a separate state north of Japan and call them 毛人 (Mandarin máo rén, Sino-Japanese mōjin), literally 'hairy people'. This is also corroborated in the Shoku Nihongi, in which they are described consistently as having long beards and as kebito, or 'hairy people', characteristics that have been used to describe the Ainu in the modern period. These same kanji characters were read as 'emishi' before the Nara period.

[edit] Emishi in popular culture

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b "朝廷軍の侵略に抵抗" (in Japanese). Iwate Nippo. September 24, 2004. http://www.iwate-np.co.jp/sekai/sekaiisan/sekaiisan6.htm. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  2. ^ Takahashi, Takashi, 蝦夷 (Emishi) (Tokyo: Chuo koron, 1986), pp.22-27. Good discussion on the various possible origins of the name.
  3. ^ I use "Ainoid" here to distinguish between the people who are related to, or are ancestors of the Ainu from the Ainu themselves who first emerge as "Ezo" in Hokkaido in the Kamakura period, and then become known as Ainu in the modern period.
  4. ^ Ossenberg, Nancy (see reference) has the best evidence of this relationship with the Jōmon. Also, a newer study, Ossenberg, et al., "Ethnogenesis and craniofacial change in Japan from the perspective of nonmetric traits" (Anthropological Science v.114:99-115) is an updated analysis published in 2006 which confirms this finding.
  5. ^ Takahashi,pp.110-113.
  6. ^ Farris, William Wayne, Heavenly Warriors(Cambridge: Harvard University Press,1992),p.117.
  7. ^ Farris, pp.94-95,108-113.
  8. ^ Aston, W.G. trans. Nihongi(Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle), pp.252,260,264.
  9. ^ Nakanishi, Susumu, エミシとは何か(Emishi to wa nanika),(Tokyo:Kadokawa shoten,1993), pp.134-140. Modern analysis of the expedition.
  10. ^ Farris,p.86. Farris's account does not have all the details, but is a readily available source for the war's chronology in English.
  11. ^ Farris,pp.90-96.
  12. ^ Takahashi,pp.168-196. Very detailed analysis of the end of the war and the effects on the former Emishi territory.
  13. ^ Farris, p.83.

[edit] References

  • Aston, W.G. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from Earliest Times to A.D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, 1924. Originally published in 1896. The standard English translation of the ancient Japanese compilation known as the Shoku Nihongi.
  • Farris, William Wayne. Heavenly Warriors: The Evolution of Japan's Military: 500–1300. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1996. ISBN 9780674387034, ISBN 9780674387041.
  • Nagaoka, Osamu. 古代東国物語 (Kodai Tōgoku Monogatari). Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1986. For readers of Japanese, a detailed account of the campaign against Aterui. ISBN 9784047031708.
  • Nakanishi, Susumu. エミシとは何か: 古代東アジアと北方日本 (Emishi to wa nani ka: kodai higashiajia to hoppō nihon). Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1993. Japanese source that conducted a study of the skeletal remains of persons who lived in the Tōhoku region both during the Jōmon and Yayoi periods. Limited coverage of skeletal remains of the historical period, but covers the history. ISBN 9784047032477.
  • Ossenberg, Nancy S., "Isolate Conservatism and Hybridization in the Population History of Japan" in Akazawa, T. and C.M. Aikens, eds., Prehistoric Hunter Gatherers in Japan: New Research Methods. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1986. ISBN 9780860083955.
  • Takahashi, Takashi. 蝦夷: 古代東北人の歴史 (Emishi: kodai Tōhokujin no rekishi). Tokyo: Chūō Kōronsha, 1986. ISBN 9784121008046.

[edit] External links

Deutsch

 

Easter Arimi, Ramani, Rahmani in Asia

Eastern Ariminii - Meals and Ainu

(instant computer translation from Rumanian)

Hittite writings XVlll-Xll century BC say they have faced  geska or kaska tribes. But the great adventure of these nations is filling the whole region between the Tigris and Euphrates in 1530 BC and set up a powerful kingdom which lasted until 1150 BCis known in history as the period kaşită region. Akadiene writings are referred to as the kaski or Kasi. These tribes are mentioned in the May Hittite tablets under the name of musk. Misia mass or small kingdom is referred to as neo-Hittite empire in the documents (1450 - 1200 BC). in the west, near Troy.
Land Hajasa or Azzi, located in north-eastern rebel Hittite empire seeking support from family Karanni kasca but the king is being replaced with King defeated Marija. Muscles (Mosca) after the Assyrian documents are identicii with Phrygians (Thracians) Hati as the population of the country, which led by their leader dealing Mitas Hajasa kingdom. The name appears later that the Greek form of Midas. In Asia Minor, says Homer, Phrygians and Hittites were replaced quickly becoming the dominant power. On the Xll century BC Hittite empire were subject peoples sniffed the wind of a riot, and blood in his veins were swollen and cried to Hattusa:or his band, or blonde, until all the sheep to be? Restless natures had their abodes in southeast and eastern Black Sea is organized into small kingdoms such as mass / mass and Arzawa were Dacians north branch of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Nation kasca longer found in southern and eastern Hittite empire in năbădăile their being tolerated by them because they were the only ones who knew the secret of ironwork that was a big military advantage. Tumulus necropolis at Lapus, Maramures iron ax was found dated to 1200 BC which shows that we keep close to these restless of kaska or Mosca. Sarduk of lll, King of Urartu in the early calculations Vlll unclear BC family have something kaska / musk and boasts that it has solved their land conquering sword. In north Dobrogea were discovered more coins dated lll century BC with the inscription, Emperor conos Santa "and read the wrong king Moscone.In Greek word meaning king basileus was much later in the Byzantine empire, designating it the old public office. In the seventh century BC in Athens under the reign there were nine archons for different areas of public activity. In order of importance, the second was arhontele basileus dealing with administration, organization and supervision of the religious cult! For the supreme political power, used the word Mato Dacians and the army commander called him basileo. These coins come from the kingdom as it appears in the table or Mosca Hittite texts as they were saying and was located in south-eastern and eastern Black Sea. The text should read as such, Emperor + musk + on (race) + os (strong), ie, Musk, head of powerful people and their dating is something hundreds of years earlier. A similar formula is found in Table 14. Remember this city on the banks of the Siret MOTCA in Iasi and surnames Mosca met in Satu-Mare as subjects for historians mind.We have an age cuvinţel we show our people that these lands and traitors tîmpiţii say they were filled with urdorile Romans their empire. Moscal old instrument is flute or singing with the god Pan, but our nation transhumant shepherds said to whistle and flute by shaking the mountains and hills and streams of tears shed springs. And this tool comes word that is moscalagiu artisan who has moscalului mînuirii scientist who was made reeds. And Ovid says that the Dacians were great craftsmen of the pan flute played with tubes which were sealed with pitch. These guys we are, people mioritic wistful and full of the superfluous man I came to our house. The Greeks called such and calib răuleni plimbăreţi or Cabir.And his presence on the island of Samos Zamolsiu to pass on these reverence Cabir, which flies at the Cross of the Saviour's religion proves that the visit was the high priest get a chance, you are interested in religious reform progress that has done it in Getae. Herodotus the stories tell us that after crossing the river Tanais (Don) and virt go east for 18 days, you're nose to nose with Massagetia, ie the kingdom of mass Dacians. On Massagetia who lived beyond the river in Scythia Araxes calls them, "milk drinkers." (The river flows from south-eastern Black Sea sources of the Euphrates, flows eastward through the crescent land fertility, crosses a short distance from Yerevan city and flows into the Kura River near the Caspian Sea). How the Greeks lacked then and now sound and have sisi name after their vices. And he tells us that those north of the tribe hălăduieşte Massagetia evergeţilor. Geloniiwhich gives us some information about all Greek history, were of the same nation with the Maris agathîrşii, stowed away in the country during the Hercules and lived at a distance above Lake Maeotis 15 days. Lucan, Spanish poet says Nero's time 'Massagetia the Scythian Ister "Dacians Dacians and watched the fall of Rome. In De bello civilians say that our ancestors passed through Europe, Egypt and Etruria and reached their boats including the Lacus Maeotis Scythia Minor, dark swamp filled with all sorts of nations. I called and the hands that volucres sagittiferi geloni arrows which fly as birds and are a population gelonii Scythian. He says that the Scythians as gelonii Massagetia are found around Lake Maeotis (Sea of ​​Azov). ... Does not stop Massagetia Scythian Ister, he crosses into the far north on the Suevii the blond with white bodies. "These names do not faithfully reflect the ethnic composition of the populations concerned and even the author recognizes that there were all sorts of nations, reminding him that only those Roman world knew anything about the information collected at this time are quite vague. Apollinaris Siddonius poet, in the lyrics of the Carmina V, devoted to the years 474-479 Maiorianus General Julius Valerius wars on the Danube which says that he brought to obedience, "bastarni, Suevus, Panonius, Neurus, Chunus, Geta, Dacus, Alanus , Bellonothus, Rugus, Burgundio, Vesus, Alites, Bisalta, Ostrogothus,  Procustes, wire, Moschus, "that is our nation or Massagetia Mosca. They were the ones who spread the alphabets of the peoples of Eastern Europe Dacians up in Siberia.On one side of the Hittite nation chronicles Mosca noted, severely defeat the evils of others, forcing them to soar above all to northern Europe where one nine torişte Saru. Ill-intentioned and some mystical Sobors say that it was Moscva principality. The Chronicle of Pseudo writes Nicholas Costin 1707 Mr Michael Racoviţă Moldova, is agiunse Musk to flee to the Emperor. "Chronicles the Russian and Polish Volohs remember, held in south-eastern border of Poland inhabited by Volohs or vlohi ie Romanian. The word is in Russian and direction of prediction, magician, wizard and pre-Christian cult of the Russians was ordained by these Volohs. The introduction of Christianity in 988 by Prince Vladimir gave out on these ancestors of ours who have put all năduful in a riot in 1071 but was beat bad.Many of them preferred to retreat to the upper Volga Ural in wooded areas are reminiscent of ancestral lands and to remain the religion of the ancient Dacians. Peter the Great learned they have not lost pious orthodoxy ears and placed them with the sword iahvist light path of Christianity. William Monk Rubruquis minorities, sent by the French king in the Tartar 1253 peace agreement with some writing, I have finally arrived in ethanol (Volga) a very big river ... but throughout the country and beyond, live aşanumiţii gaff, a people akin to the Romans. In the North Sea is where it comes from the Volga Bulgaria and in the south Caspian Sea. " Ascelin's writing since 1246 that this nation is called kangitae Dacians who lived under the tutelage kanului (inn). Today those nations of our living on the upper Volga Autonomous Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation and are known aserzia and mocşa. On the border between Czech Republic and Germany is the place Moldavia, in Moravia have river Moldau (Moldova Germanization word) and in the Bulgarian city Muldava were discovered more archaeological cultures of the Dacians. These nations have been carriers in the world of alphabets Getae Siberia, cross the power of religion in Ili Saviour Slavic tribes in Eastern Europe and beyond. The word is Sanskrit moksha (mocşa) in respect of origin, birth, liberation. Popular traditions in Eastern Romania speak of a mythical people had once lived on these lands. Legends of Moldova, Bessarabia and Bukovina say or rahmanii rohmanii were Romanian and took their country called Country Rohmanilor which was located on the south of Moldova. They were old people that have replaced the Romanians today.Rohmani These are depicted as a kind of hermits, men of great piety and kindness, venerable and holy still live today in a desert somewhere on the sea shore. By leading an ascetic life, they thought they would reach eternal life. After another legend, the cranes were Rahmani homes. Vedic Mythology says that the Brahman race of Bharata had come to India they have conquered in the mid-century BC XVll Mahabhrarata, writing Sanskrit which tells this great adventure of migration from the region Rahmani Eastern Carpathians a sense of great (maha) ancestor (thread: father, ancestor) of Bihar and the western part of Bihar state of India is to remember that the Aryans (ariminii) from their ancestral toriştea Bihor / Bihar. Makar in Sanskrit means dolphin, crocodile, sea monster, is a fabulous group of beings with Vedic mythology and a gigantic crocodile and shark hybrid aspect, however, often taking the elephant-headed high trunk.Brahman and the Dacians nations were also met once in the sixth century BC at the end of history where the results Brahmi alphabet used by Buddhist sacred pillars in their writings. Alphabet to reach India because of the variety can even get Zamolxe, which has led many ideas that have reformed Brahmanism Buddhism was born out of the womb which Bhudda or Gautama (563-483 BC) made a visit in July Getae toriştea years where he got both taste and wisdom as mioritic writing. Table 6 tells Gomtaro found in Persian or Oriental clergy who can even get Gautama. Remembering those rohmani and keep it as a derivation of the name Roman aspiration or removal of the letter h in the delivery of rohman. In another legend or gentle Rahmani are these mythical population consists of the first people on earth who live at the end of the earth, or water beyond the other side of Saturday. Since the creation of the world took part in her support the pillars of the earth.Imagine that blond people happy, they live a carefree life Humble, based on virtue and the inability to do evil. Romanians make alms in memory of their first Saturday after Easter called Low Sunday. Another legend says gentle / Rahmani that Christians are a people who walk naked and live on an island surrounded by water of Saturday. They feed only on fruit and vegetables. The best hermits go there and never come back. They are at the gates of heaven, living water and dead water. Other sayings taken from mythology Romanian Marcel rohmani Olinescu said: Under our land .. there is another world. There are other realms and not up there yet no one, only men as Prince Charming rogue. In those realms reside a number of people who call or rugmani rohmani.They are men like us Romanians, but smaller in being and shall adopt the state and we are all Christians but they took faith in the Son of the Sheep, that is no longer cotim finger after our ancestors knew that before plăsmuirii Pharisees, there true religion of the cross made ​​by Lamb. In another myth we learn that the Romanians could read sloveneşte rudiments of Jews during / giants who were the first humans created by God but because they were wicked were destroyed in the flood. Last legend Gheorghe D. Chirileanu published in 1909 says that a bunch of Moldovans have left with a boat on the Black Sea. After several days of sailing, they saw a high mountain which drew an iron boat and poisoned - magnet. The boat capsized and dropped a single lad who came to this mountain. From here he took another boat and after a very long journey has reached a large island. The island was inhabited by blajinii orrohmanii saints. He began to visit places. What more marveled Moldovan rohmanilor water was taken from a mill that burned himself to one when a wick. A rohman meets him and asks him to be his servant. Moldavian provided he accepts to teach him to fire water. They understand and Moldavian serve seven years and learn how to prepare for fire water. These legends related to the collective memory of the Black Sea flood that occurred in the mid-sixth millennium BC, the migration of Emesa in Ki-en-gi (Sumer) of our lands from 3500 BC  and that our ancestors knew the family to read and write from the very creation of the world as a show and tablets of lead, because you were the first humans.Rohmanii walked naked from the waist up, their country was surrounded by water and the road was so long that other realm is used because the left did not know if it comes back. They were the sacred symbol of the cross with equal arms inscribed in a circle, or free and therefore they were called Christians. They used asphalt construction and insulation and oil for burning or lighting. In mythology they were dead and the living water and the water was coveted by those worthy heaven. Ramman Divine wisdom and protect weak people. They had links with West Indian civilization, Mohenjo-Daro which country called Magan and the similarity of the signs used in the writings in this area with those of Sumer and tartar, that they were related nations and many common cultural elements

Ainu people in their language that has meaning, "man"is the aboriginal population of Japan and lived long before the whole archipelago, where archaeological evidence early in Japanese mythology millennium BC lll the history taken by the cult of Shinto, he says that in the year 660 BC was formed by the first imperial dynasty Jummu Tenno or Iware, grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, who reigns today. He manages to drive out, the spider earth "later identified with the Ainu and a new capital bases, which guards the plains at the foot of the island of Honshu Yamato, and receives the title of Sumer (who governs the sky). But this title is reminiscent of the old civilization of Sumeru or Ki-en-gi in Emega, one of the cradles of modern civilization. The word is mentioned in the Bible where it says that the king of Babylonia Amraphel Lot makes slave but it will be issued by the brother of Abraham and fog warriors accompanying him. Battles were fought somewhere north of the Dead Sea and the text saysthe land of Shinar is a mountainous region to the left of Damascus. The Buddhist cosmogony mioritic inspired epic, is the world's central mountain Sumeru Sineru in Sanskrit and Pali, the terms show a mountain and a land around him as he was writing and that of Christians. How Brahman family have the same origin as emeşii the Carpathians and their religions worship deities of some height, showing the origin of cultures and time it took akadienii using it to describe Emese territory inhabited only by showing that they came from somewhere out there in the mountains. In Emese mythology spirit we Sumugan / Sumukan - mountain king - who was a deity of vegetation in the plains and protector of herds of domesticated or wild animals feed on these sites. In both terms sum / sumu meaning is the great power of deities of the high and ru and gan / kan means to guide, to lead, rule.Sumer title is taken from the safe Ainu people living in the mountainous region as Japanese mythology says. And when we Simeria, town near the mountains which were military and spiritual center of the Dacians. But historically, the migration of tribes of warriors from Korea in this island was the first century AD by the Ainu people and scaring the extreme north Hokaido and Sakhalin islands where it is today, lasted a long time. Ainu population subjected by tribes of warriors and led to the massacre of large parts of it, that explains very small number of them today. Their language is related to some Native American languages, but Basque and Sumerian. Tradition says that they are their descendants (as much as they escaped the Japanese sword) to a numerous and powerful people of the mythical character created Aeoina, its founder and first teacher and the people who came from the country Siren-ku. Aeoina created man - Ainu- The willow for the frame, the earth as meat, herbs for hair, but was forced to abandon work and returned when he learned the main crafts, hunting, fishing, building houses, farming, manufacturing garments. Their pantheon is populated by ghosts who inhabit the animals, which are released from the body of the Ainu hunters and returned to their state of mind called Kamui. But they are also found in plants, objects or landforms and natural phenomena. They have two groups of spirits, the heavenly (Passing Kamui): Kim A Kamui (Koro), bears the spirit protector of the mountains (they bear a ritual dance that brings a lot of us bear practiced New Year!) Shiramba, spirit of vegetation; Wakkaush spirit of water (in Romanian we have playfully) Kara Kamui, the manufacturer of land (in Emega kara: to uplift, to try, to light); Chise Kamui, family spirit (in emgi kisi: room for storing food), and earthly spirits: Kamui Fuchi, female spirit of fire;Hash-Inau-Uk, female spirit of hunting, Sarak Kamui spirit troubles, Ru-Koro, the spirit of men latrine; press Kamui, protective spirit of man enters the hut (click - to droop when entering houses or churches, homes us where entry was more than to delineate a particular sacred space or altar sacred hearth due).

Ainu creation myth of the primeval chaos mention made ​​of a mixture of water and land. A god created land separating it from water, being helped by a wagtail who, with her tail moving ever, the dry earth. Rocks, plains, water and other riches are made by god. We have a myth but there is also wagtails. Ainu believe that earthquakes are due to movements of a fish which sits on the back ground. Myth and the new form is identical. Spirits and ancestors reside in the six worlds beneath the earth. For us living in the seven heavens above the earth.But we find Aeoina creator myth and mythology Phoenician!
Aion first appears in the writings of the Phoenician history History Sanchoniaton Phoenicians, who lived in Xll century BC was taken by Philon of Byblos, text quoted by Eusebius of Caesarea. Thanks to a pair of runaway cosmic Pirjol Kolpia - wind force that male primary - and Baau (At night, the same divinity exists in Sumerian mythology) the first humans were born and Protogonos Aion. Aion has the meaning of eternity or time cycle and the myth occurs primarily Mot genitar mîlul of this version of which formed the universe, but later will be considered and the god of death. Aion found edible art fruit orchards being deified by the Phoenicians under the name Beelsamen (Lord, lord, king of heaven, creator of the universe and the supreme court). Accompanying is the Protogonos, born on genos and Gene is determined in Phoenicia. Aion appears in the Mithraic cult and the Gnostics is the creator of human spirituality and embodiment of eternal time (A:creation, ancestors, heirs + i: out, birth, prayer + on: race, clan, in the sense of the eternal, without beginning and without at the end).
Ainu population (released as they appear in ancient Japanese chronicles of Sumeru and our people were saying Emesa) say they came from Siretacu (Siren: to twist, to rotate, stories, yarn, to bind + ku: noble, to purify, brilliant, holy, white, fish, food). We Siret River in Moldova to the east of the Eastern Carpathians, which is a holy water in the ancient culture of our nation and the country Siren-ku Siretu holy water or holy Siretu country near the holy mountain. The eagle they say Oasi, ie zburătoarea Oas city from the sky reminding us. These data show unequivocally that the Ainu race once left on our land.

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