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Jews in Romania

 

 

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History of the Jews in Romania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of Jews in Romania concerns the Jews of Romania and of Romanian origins, from their first mention on what is nowadays Romanian territory.

Minimal until the 18th century, the size of the Jewish population increased after around 1850, and more especially after the establishment of Greater Romania in the aftermath of World War I. A diverse community, albeit an overwhelmingly urban one, Jews were the favorite target of religious persecution and racism in Romanian society - from the late-19th century debate over the "Jewish Question" and the Jewish residents' right to citizenship, to the genocide carried out by Horty of Hungary in the lands of Romania as part of The Holocaust. The latter, coupled with successive waves of aliyah, (emigration to the state of Israel) has accounted for a dramatic decrease in the overall size of Romania's present-day Jewish community.

 
Early history

Jewish communities on what would later become Romanian territory were attested as early as the 2nd century, at a time when the Roman Empire had established its rule over Dacia. Inscriptions and coins have been found in such places as Sarmizegetusa and Orşova.

The existence of the Crimean Karaites, an ethnic group adherent of Karaite Judaism, and apparently of Cuman origins, suggests that there was a steady Jewish presence around the Black Sea, including in parts of today's Romania, in the trading ports from the mouths of the Danube and the Dniester (see Cumania); they may have been present in some Moldavian fairs by the 16th century or earlier.[1] The earliest Jewish (most likely Sephardi) presence in what would become Moldavia was recorded in Cetatea Albă (1330); in Wallachia, they were first attested in the 1550s, living in Bucharest.[2] During the second half of the 14th century, the future territory of Romania became an important place of refuge for Jews expelled from the Kingdom of Hungary and Poland by King Louis I. In Transylvania, Hungarian Jews were recorded in Saxon citadels around 1492.[3]

Prince Roman I (1391-1394?) exempted the Jews from military service, in exchange for a tax of 3 löwenthaler per person. Also in Moldavia, Stephen the Great (1457-1504) treated Jews with consideration. Isaac ben Benjamin Shor of Iaşi (Isak Bey, originally employed by Uzun Hassan) was appointed stolnic, being subsequently advanced to the rank of logofăt; he continued to hold this office under Bogdan the Blind (1504-1517), the son and successor of Stephen.

At this time both Danubian Principalities came under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, and a number of Sephardim living in Istanbul migrated to Wallachia, while Jews from Poland and the Holy Roman Empire settled in Moldavia. Although they took an important part in Ottoman government and formed a large part of a community of foreign creditors and traders,[1] Jews were harassed by the hospodars of the two Principalities. Moldavia's Prince Ştefăniţă (1522) deprived the Jewish merchants of almost all the rights given to them by his two predecessors; Petru Rareş confiscated Jewish wealth in 1541, after alleging that Jews in the cattle trade had engaged in tax evasion.[1] Alexandru Lăpuşneanu (first rule: 1552-61) persecuted the community alongside other social categories, until he was dethroned by Jacob Heraclides, a Greek Lutheran, who was lenient to his Jewish subjects; Lăpuşneanu did not renew his persecutions after his return on the throne in 1564. The role of Ottoman and local Jews in financing various princes increased as Ottoman economic demands were mounting after 1550 (in the 1570s, the influential Jewish Duke of the Archipelago, Joseph Nasi, backed both Heraclides and Lăpuşneanu to the throne); several violent incidents throughout the period were instigated by princes unable to repay their debts.[4]

During the first short reign of Peter the Lame (1574-1579) the Jews of Moldavia, mainly traders from Poland who were competing with locals, were taxed and ultimately expelled.[5] In 1582, he succeeded in regaining his rule over the country with the help of the Jewish physician Benveniste, who was a friend of the influential Solomon Ashkenazi;[5] the latter then exerted his influence with the Prince in favor of his coreligionists.

In Wallachia, Prince Alexandru II Mircea (1567-1577) engaged as his private secretary and counselor Isaiah ben Joseph, who used his influence on behalf of the Jews. In 1573 Isaiah was dismissed, owing to court intrigues, but he was not harmed any further, and subsequently left for Moldavia (where he entered the service of Muscovy's Grand Prince Ivan the Terrible). Through the efforts of Solomon Ashkenazi, Aron Tiranul was placed on the throne of Moldavia; nevertheless, the new ruler persecuted and executed nineteen Jewish creditors in Iaşi, who were decapitated without process of law.[5] At around the same time, in Wallachia, the violent repression of creditors peaked under Michael the Brave, who, after killing Turkish creditors in Bucharest (1594), probably enagaged in violence against Jews settled south of the Danube during his campaign in Rumelia (while maintaining good relations with Transylvanian Jews).[6]

Early Modern Age

In 1623, the Jews in Transylvania were awarded certain privileges by Prince Gabriel Bethlen, who aimed to attract entrepreneurs from Ottoman lands into his country; the grants were curtailed during following decades, when Jews were only allowed to settle in Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia).[7] Among the privileges granted was one allowing Jews to wear traditional dress; eventually, the authorities in Gyulafehérvár decided (in 1650 and 1741), to allow Jews to wear only clothing evidencing their status and ethnicity.[8]

The status of Jews who had converted to Eastern Orthodoxy was established in Wallachia by Matei Basarab's Pravila de la Govora and in Moldavia by Vasile Lupu's Carte româneascǎ de învăţătură.[9] The latter ruler (1634-1653) treated the Jews with consideration until the appearance of the Cossacks (1648), who marched against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and who, while crossing the region, killed many Jews; the violence, led many Ashkenazi Jews from Poland took refuge in Moldavia and Wallachia, establishing small but stable communities.[10] Massacres and forced conversions by the Cossacks occurred in 1652, when the latter came to Iaşi on the occasion of the Vasile Lupu's daughter marriage to Timush, the son of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and during the rule of Gheorghe Ştefan.[11]

According to Anton Maria Del Chiaro, secretary of the Wallachian princes between 1710-1716, the Jewish population of Wallachia was required to respect a certain dresscode. Thus, they were prohibited from wearing clothes of other color than black or violet, or to wear yellow or red boots.[12] Nevertheless, the Romanian scholar Andrei Oişteanu argued that such ethnic and religious social stigma was uncommon in Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as throughout the Eastern Orthodox areas of Europe.[13]

The first blood accusation in Moldavia (and, as such, in Romania) was made April 5, 1710, when the Jews of Târgu Neamţ were charged with having killed a Christian child for ritual purposes.[14] The instigator was a baptized Jew who had helped to carry the body of a child, murdered by Christians, into the courtyard of the synagogue[citation needed]. On the next day five Jews were killed, others were maimed, and every Jewish house was pillaged, while the representatives of the community were imprisoned and tortured. Meanwhile, some influential Jews appealed to Prince Nicholas Mavrocordatos (the first Phanariote ruler) in Iaşi, who ordered an investigation resulting in the freeing of those arrested. This was the first time that the Orthodox clergy participated in attacks on Jews. It was due to the clergy's instigations that in 1714 a similar charge was brought against the Jews of the city of Roman - the murder by a group of Roman Catholics of a Christian girl-servant to Jewish family was immediately blamed on Jews; every Jewish house was plundered, and two prominent Jews were hanged, before the real criminals were discovered by the authorities.

The Great Synagogue in Iaşi, built ca.1670

Under Constantin Brâncoveanu, Wallachian Jews were recognized as a special guild in Bucharest, led by a starost.[15] Jews in both Wallachia and Moldavia were subject to the Hakham Bashi in Iaşi, but soon the Bucharest starost assumed several religious duties.[16] Overtaxed and persecuted under Ştefan Cantacuzino (1714-1716),[17] Wallachian Jews obtained valuable privileges during Nicholas Mavrocordatos' rule (1716-1730) in that country (the Prince notably employed the Jewish savant Daniel de Fonseca at his court).[18] Another anti-Jewish riot occurred in Bucharest in the 1760s, and was encouraged by the visit of Ephram II, Patriarch of Jerusalem.[19]

In 1726, in the Bessarabian borough of Oniţcani, four Jews were accused of having kidnapped a five-year old child, of killing him on Easter and of collecting his blood in a barrel. They were tried at Iaşi under the supervision of Moldavian Prince Mihai Racoviţă, and eventually acquitted following diplomatic protests. The event was echoed in several contemporary chronicles and documents — for example, the French ambassador to the Porte, Jean-Baptiste Louis Picon, remarked that such an accusation was no longer accepted in "civilized countries".[20] The most obvious effects on the condition of the Jewish inhabitants of Moldavia were witnessed during the reign of John Mavrocordatos (1744-1747): a Jewish farmer in the vicinity of Suceava reported the prince to the Porte for allegedly using his house to rape a number of kidnapped Jewish women; Mavrocordatos had his accuser hanged. This act aroused the anger of Mahmud I's kapucu in Moldavia, and the prince paid the penalty with the loss of his throne.[19]

Russo-Turkish Wars

During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 the Jews in the Danubian Principalities had to endure great hardships. Massacres and pillages in almost every town and village in the country. When peace was restored, both princes, Alexander Mavrocordatos of Moldavia and Nicholas Mavrogheni of Wallachia, pledged their special protection to the Jews, whose condition remained favorable until 1787, when both Janissaries and the Imperial Russian Army engaged in pogroms.

The community was also subject to persecutions by the locals. Jewish children were seized and forcibly baptized. The ritual-murder accusation became widespread; one made at Galaţi in 1797 led to exceptionally severe results - the Jews were attacked by a large mob, driven from their homes, robbed, waylaid on the streets, and many killed on the spot, while some were forced into the Danube and drowned; others who took refuge in the synagogue were burned to death in the building; a few escaped after being given protection and refuge by a priest. In 1803, shortly before his death, the Wallachian Metropolitan Iacob Stamati instigated attacks on the Bucharest community by publishing his Înfruntarea jidovilor ("Facing the Jews"), which pretended to be the confession of a former rabbi; however, Jews were offered refuge by Stamati's replacement, Veniamin Costachi.[21] A seminal event occurred in 1804, when ruler Constantine Ypsilanti dismissed accusations of ritual murder as "the unfounded opinion" of "stupid people", and ordered that their condemnation be read in churches throughout Wallachia; the allegations no longer surfaced during the following period.[22]

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812, the Russian invasion was again accompanied by massacres of the Jews. Kalmyk irregular soldiers in Ottoman service, who appeared in Bucharest at the close of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812, exercised terror on the city's Jewish population. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), "They passed daily through the streets inhabited by the latter, spitted children on their lances, and, in the presence of their parents, roasted them alive and devoured them". At around the same time, a conflict emerged in Wallachia between Jews under foreign protection (sudiţi) and local ones (hrisovoliţi), after the latter tried to impose a single administration for the community, a matter which was finally settled in favor of the hrisovoliţi by Prince Jean Georges Caradja (1813).[16]

In Habsburg-ruled Transylvania, the reforms carried out by Joseph II allowed Jews to settle in towns directly subject to the Hungarian Crown. However, pressured placed on the community remained stringent for the following decades.

[edit] Early 19th century

Lithograph of a cosmopolitan fair in Iaşi (ca. 1845); two Orthodox Jews are visible to the right

By 1825, Jewish population in Wallachia (almost completely Sephardi) was estimated at between 5,000 and 10,000 people - of these, the larger part resided in Bucharest (probably as much as 7,000 in 1839); around the same time, Moldavia was home to about 12,000 Jews.[23] In parallel, the Jewish population in Bukovina rose from 526 in 1774 to 11,600 in 1848.[24] In the early 1800s, Jews who sought refuge from Osman Pazvantoğlu's campaign in the Balkans established communities in Wallachian-ruled Oltenia.[18] In Moldavia, Scarlat Callimachi's Code (1817) allowed members of the community to purchase urban property, but prevented them from settling in the countryside (while purchasing town property became increasingly difficult due to popular prejudice).[18]

During the Greek War of Independence, which signalled the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and the Danubian Principalities' occupation by Filiki Eteria troops under Alexander Ypsilantis, Jews were victims of pogroms and persecutions in places such as Fălticeni, Hertsa, Piatra Neamţ, the Secu Monastery, Târgovişte, and Târgu Frumos; Jews in Galaţi managed to escape over the Prut River with assistance from Austrian diplomats.[22] Weakened by the clash between Ypsilantis and Tudor Vladimirescu, the Eterists were massacred by the Ottoman intervention armies - during this episode, Jewish communities engaged in retaliations in Secu and Slatina.[22]

Following the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople (which allowed the two Principalities to freely engage in foreign trade), Moldavia, where commercial niches had been largely left unoccupied, became a target for migration of Ashkenazi Jews persecuted in Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria - by 1838, their number seems to have reached 80,000,[25] and over 195,000, or almost 12% of the country's population, in 1859 (with an additional 50,000 passing through to Wallachia between the two estimates).[26]

Despite initial interdictions under the Russian occupation of 1829 (when it was first regulated that non-Christians were not to be regarded as citizens), many of the new immigrants became leaseholders of estates and tavern-keepers, serving to increase both the revenue and demands of boyars - leading in turn to an increase in economic pressures over those working the land or buying products[27] (usual prejudice against Jews accused tavern-keepers of encouraging alcoholism). At the same time, several Jews rose to prominence and high social status - most families involved in Moldavian banking around the 1850s were of Jewish origin.[28] After 1832, following adoption of the Organic Statute, Jewish children are accepted in schools in the two Principalities only if they wore the same clothing as others. In Moldavia, authorities forced the community to abandon its traditional dress code through the 1847 decree of Prince Mihail Sturdza.[29]

Before the Revolutions of 1848, which found their parallel in the Wallachian revolution, many restrictive laws against the Jews had been enacted; although they had some destructive effects, they were never strictly enforced. In various ways, Jews took part in the Wallachian revolt - Constantin Daniel Rosenthal, the painter, distinguished himself in the revolutionary cause, and paid for his activity with his life (being tortured to death by Austrian authorities in Budapest). The major document to be codified by the 1848 Wallachian revolutionaries, the Islaz Proclamation, called for "the emancipation of Israelites and political rights for all compatriots of different faiths".[30]

After the close of the Crimean War the struggle for the union of the two principalities began. The Jews were sought after by both parties, Unionists and anti-Unionists, each of which promised them full equality; and proclamations to this effect were issued (1857-1858). In 1857, the community began issuing its first magazine, Israelitul Român, edited by the Romanian radical Iuliu Barasch. This process of gradual integration resulted in the creation of an informal Romanian identity assumed by Jews, while conversion to Christianity, despite encouragement by the authorities,[18] remained confined to exceptional cases.[22] 

 

 Under Alexander John Cuza

From the beginning of the reign of Alexander John Cuza (1859-1866), the first ruler (Domnitor) of the united principalities, the Jews became a prominent factor in the politics of the country. This period was, however, inaugurated by another riot motivated by blood libel accusations, begun during Easter 1859 in Galaţi.[31]

Regulations on clothing were confirmed inside Moldavia by two orders of Mihail Kogălniceanu, Minister of Internal Affairs (issues in 1859 and 1860 respectively).[29] Following adoption of the 1859 regulation, soldiers and civilians would walk the streets of Iaşi and some other Moldavian towns, assaulting Jews, using scissors to shred their clothing, but also to cut their beards or their sidelocks; drastic measures applied by the Army Headquarters put a stop to such turmoil.[29]

In 1864, Cuza, owing to difficulties between his government and the general assembly, dissolved the latter and decided to submit a draft of a constitution granting universal suffrage. He proposed creating two chambers (of senators and deputies respectively), to extend the franchise to all citizens, and to emancipate the peasants from forced labor (expecting to nullify the remaining influence of the landowners - no longer boyars after the land reform). In the process, Cuza also expected financial support from both the Jews and the Armenians - it appears that he kept the latter demand reduced, asking for only 40,000 Austrian guilder (the standard gold coins; about US$ 90,000 at the exchange rate of the time) from the two groups. The Armenians discussed the matter with the Jews, but they were not able to come to a satisfactory agreement in the matter.

While Cuza was pressing in his demands, the Jewish community debated the method of assessment. The rich Jews, for unclear reasons, refused to advance the money, and the middle class argued that the sum would not lead to tangible enough results; Religious Jews insisted that such rights would only interfere with the exercise of their religion. Cuza, on being informed that the Jews hesitated to pay their share, inserted in his draft of a constitution a clause excluding from the right of suffrage all who did not profess Christianity. 1860s and 1870s

When Charles von Hohenzollern succeeded Cuza in 1866 as Carol I of Romania, the first event that confronted him in the capital was a riot against the Jews. A draft of a constitution was then submitted by the government, Article 6 of which declared that "religion is no obstacle to citizenship"; but, "with regard to the Jews, a special law will have to be framed in order to regulate their admission to naturalization and also to civil rights".[32] On June 30, 1866, the Bucharest Synagogue was desecrated and demolished (it was rebuilt in the same year, then restored in 1932 and 1945). Many Jews were beaten, maimed, and robbed. As a result, Article 6 was withdrawn and Article 7 was added to the 1866 Constitution; it read that "only such aliens as are of the Christian faith may obtain citizenship".

Nicolae Grigorescu, Jew with Goose (ca. 1880) - a Hasidic Jew in Romania, holding a petition addressed to the Chamber of Deputies

For the following decades, the issue of Jewish rights occupied the forefront of the Regat's political scene. With few notable exceptions (including some of Junimea affiliates[33]Petre P. Carp, George Panu, and Ion Luca Caragiale), most Romanian intellectuals began professing anti-Semitism; its most virulent form was the one present with advocates of Liberalism (in contradiction to their 1848 political roots), especially Moldavians, who argued that Jewish immigration had prevented the rise of an ethnic Romanian middle class. The first examples of modern prejudice were the Moldavian Fracţiunea liberă şi independentă (later blended into the National Liberal Party, PNL) and the Bucharest group formed around Cezar Bolliac.[34] Their discourse saw Jews as non-assimilated and perpetually foreign - this claim was, however, challenged by some contemporary sources,[35] and by the eventual acceptance of all immigrants other than Jews.

Anti-Semitism was carried into the PNL’s mainstream, and was officially enforced under the premierships of Ion Brătianu. During his first years in office, Brătianu reinforced and applied old discrimination laws, insisting that Jews were not allowed to settle in the countryside (and relocating those that had done so), while declaring many Jewish urban inhabitants to be vagrants and expelling them from the country. According to the 1905 Jewish Encyclopedia: "A number of such Jews who proved their Romanian birth were forced across the Danube, and when [the Ottoman Empire] refused to receive them, were thrown into the river and drowned. Almost every country in Europe was shocked at these barbarities. The Romanian government was warned by the powers; and Brătianu was subsequently dismissed from office". Cabinets formed by the Conservative Party, although including Junimea's leaders, did not do much to improve the Jews' condition - mainly due to PNL opposition.

Nonetheless, during this same era, Romania was the cradle of Yiddish theatre. The Russian-born Abraham Goldfaden started the first professional Yiddish theatre company in Iaşi in 1876 and for several years, especially during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 Romania was the home of Yiddish theatre. While its center of gravity would move first to Russia, then London, then New York City, both Bucharest and Iaşi would continue to figure prominently in its history over the next century.[36]

Treaty of Berlin and aftermath

A Greek pie-maker and his Jewish client in Bucharest, ca. 1880

When Brătianu resumed leadership, Romania faced the emerging conflict in the Balkans, and saw its chance to declare independence from Ottoman suzerainty by dispatching its troops on the Russian side in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The war was concluded by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), which stipulated (Article 44) that the non-Christians in Romania (including both Jews and Muslims in the newly-acquired region of Northern Dobruja) should receive full citizenship. After a prolonged debate at home and diplomatic negotiations abroad, the Romanian government ultimately agreed (1879) to abrogate Article 7 of its constitution. This was, however, reformulated to make procedures very difficult: "the naturalization of aliens not under foreign protection should in every individual case be decided by Parliament" (the action involved, among others, a ten-year term before the applicant was given an evaluation).[37] The gesture was doubled by a show of compliance - 883 Jews, participants in the war, were naturalized in a body by a vote of both chambers.

Fifty-seven persons voted upon as individuals were naturalized in 1880; 6, in 1881; 2, in 1882; 2, in 1883; and 18, from 1886 to 1900; in all, 85 Jews in twenty-one years, 27 of whom in the meantime died; ca. 4,000 people had obtained citizenship by 1912.[38] Various laws were passed until the pursuit of virtually all careers was made dependent on the possession of political rights, which only Romanians could exercise; more than 40% of Jewish working men, including manual labourers, were forced into unemployment by such legislation. Similar laws were passed in regard to Jews exercising liberal professions.[39]

In 1893, a piece of legislation was voted to deprive Jewish children of the right to be educated in the public schools - they were to be received only if and where children of citizens had been provided for, and their parents were required to pay preferential tuition fees. In 1898, it was passed into law that Jews were to be excluded from secondary schools and the universities. Another notable measure was the expulsion of vocal Jewish activists as "objectionable aliens" (under the provisions of an 1881 law), including those of Moses Gaster and Elias Schwarzfeld.[40]

The courts exacted the Oath More Judaico in its most offensive form - it was only abolished in 1904, following criticism in the French press. In 1892, when the United States addressed a note to the signatory powers of the Berlin treaty on the matter, it was attacked by the Romanian press. The Lascăr Catargiu government was, however, concerned - the issue was debated among ministers, and, as a result, the Romanian government issued pamphlets in French, reiterating its accusations against the Jews and maintaining that persecutions were deserved in exchange for the community's alleged exploitation of the rural population.

 

 20th century

Before and after World War I

The Synagogue of Braşov (built 1901)

The emigration of Romanian Jews on a larger scale commenced soon after 1878; numbers rose and fell, with a major wave of Bessarabian Jews after the Kishinev pogrom in Imperial Russia (1905). The Jewish Encyclopedia wrote in 1905, shortly before the pogrom, "It is admitted that at least 70 per cent would leave the country at any time if the necessary traveling expenses were furnished". There are no official statistics of emigration; but it is safe to place the minimum number of Jewish emigrants from 1898 to 1904 at 70,000.

Land issues and predominantly Jewish presence among estate leaseholders accounted for the 1907 Romanian Peasants' Revolt, partly anti-Semitic in message.[41] During the same period, the anti-Jewish message first expanded beyond its National Liberal base (where it was soon an insignificant attitude),[42] to cover the succession of more radical and Moldavian-based organizations founded by A.C. Cuza (his Democratic Nationalist Party, created in 1910, had the first anti-Semitic program in Romanian political history).[43] No longer present in the PNL's ideology by the 1920s, anti-Semitism also tended to surface in on the left-wing of the political spectrum, in currents originating in Poporanism - which favoured the claim that peasants were being systematically exploited by Jews.[44]

World War I, during which 882 Jewish soldiers died defending Romania (and 825 were decorated), brought about the creation of Greater Romania after the 1919 Paris Peace Conference and subsequent treaties. The enlarged state had an increased Jewish population, corresponding with the addition of communities in Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transylvania. On signing the treaties, Romania agreed to change its policy towards the Jews, promising to award them both citizenship and minority rights, the effective emancipation of Jews.[38] The 1923 Constitution of Romania sanctioned these requirements, meeting opposition from Cuza's National-Christian Defense League and rioting by far right students in Iaşi;[45] the land reform carried out by the Ion I. C. Brătianu cabinet also settled problems connected with land tenancy.

Political representation for the Jewish community in the inter-war period was divided between the Jewish Party and the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania[46] (the latter was re-established after 1989). During the same period, a division in ritual became apparent between Reform Jews in Transylvania and usually Orthodox ones in the rest of the country[47] (while Bessarabia was the most open to Zionism and especially the socialist Labor Zionism).

Jewish population per county in Greater Romania, according to the 1930 census, which counted 728,115 Jews by ethnicity and 756,930 Jews by religion

The popularity of anti-Jewish messages was, nevertheless, on the rise, and merged itself with the appeal of fascism in the late 1920s - both contributed to the creation and success of Corneliu Zelea Codreanu's Iron Guard and the appearance of new types of anti-Semitic discourses (Trăirism and Gândirism). The idea of a Jewish quota in higher education became highly popular among Romanian students and teachers.[48] According to Andrei Oişteanu's analysis, a relevant number of right-wing intellectuals refused to adopt overt anti-Semitism, which was ill-reputed through its association with A. C. Cuza's violent discourse; nevertheless, a few years later, such cautions were cast aside, and anti-Semitism became displayed as "spiritual health".[49]

The first motion to exclude Jews from professional associations came on May 16, 1937, when the Confederation of the Associations of Professional Intellectuals (Confederaţia Asociaţiilor de Profesionişti Intelectuali din România) voted to exclude all Jewish members from its affiliated bodies, calling for the state to withdraw their licenses and reassess their citizenship.[50] Although illegal, the measure was popular and it was commented that, in its case, legality had been supplanted by a "heroic decision".[50] According to Oişteanu, the initiative had a direct influence on anti-Semitic regulations passed during the following year.[50]

The threat posed by the Iron Guard, the emergence of Nazi Germany as a European power, and his own fascist sympathies, made King Carol II, who was still largely identified as a philo-Semite,[51] adopt racial discrimination as the norm. On January 21, 1938, Carol's executive (led by Cuza and Octavian Goga) passed a law aimed at reviewing criteria for citizenship (after it cast allegations that previous cabinets had allowed Ukrainian Jews to obtain it illegally),[38] and requiring all Jews who had received citizenship in 1918-1919 to reapply for it (while providing a very short term in which this could be achieved - 20 days);[52] in 1940, the Ion Gigurtu cabinet adopted Romania's equivalent to the Nuremberg Laws, forbidding Jewish-Christian intermarriage, and defining Jews after racial criteria (a person was Jewish if he or she had a Jewish grandparent on one side of the family).[53]

The Holocaust

Victims of the Iaşi pogrom

Between the establishment of the National Legionary State and 1942, 80 anti-Jewish regulations were passed. Starting at the end of October, 1940, the Iron Guard began a massive anti-Semitic campaign, torturing and beating Jews and looting their shops (see Dorohoi Pogrom), culminating in the failed coup and a pogrom in Bucharest, in which 120 Jews were killed.[54] Antonescu eventually stopped the violence and chaos created by the Iron Guard by brutally suppressing the rebellion. By the time Romania entered the war, however, atrocities against the Jews had become common, most notably in the Iaşi pogrom, where over 10,000 Jews were killed in July 1941.

After the fall of the Iron Guard, the Antonescu regime, allied with Nazi Germany, continued the policy of oppression and massacre of Jews, and, to a lesser extent, Roma.[citation needed]

In July-August 1941, the yellow badge was imposed by local initiatives in several cities (Iaşi, Bacău, Cernăuţi). A similar measure imposed by the national government lasted only five days (between September 3 and September 8, 1941), before being annulled on Antonescu's order.[55] However, on local initiative, the badge was still worn especially in the towns of Moldavia, Bessarabia and Bukovina (Bacău, Iaşi, Câmpulung, Botoşani, Cernăuţi, etc.).[56]

According to an international commission report released by the Romanian government in 2004, Romania murdered in various forms, between 280,000 to 380,000 Jews in Romania and in the war zone of Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transnistria.[57][58] Until 2004, when researchers made numerous documents publicly available, many in Romania denied knowledge that their country participated in the Holocaust.[59] Some deny it to this day.

In 1941, following the advancing Romanian Army after Operation Barbarossa, and alleged attacks by Jewish "Resistance groups", Antonescu ordered the deportation to Transnistria, of all Jews of Bessarabia and Bukovina (between 130,000 and 145,000), who were considered en mass "Communist agents" by the official propaganda. "Deportation" however was an euphemism, as part of the process involved killing many Jews before deporting the rest in the "trains of death" (in reality long exhausting marches on foot) to the East. Of those who escaped the initial ethnic cleansing in Bukovina and Bessarabia, only very few managed to survive "trains" and the concentration camps set up in Transnistria. Further killings perpetrated by Antonescu's death squads (documents prove his direct orders) targeted the Jewish population that the Romanian Army managed to round up when occupying Transnistria. Over one hundred thousand of these were in massacres staged in such places as Odessa (see the Odessa Massacre, when Romanian troops shot tens of thousands of Jews during the autumn of 1941), Bogdanovka, Akmecetka in 1941 and 1942.

Antonescu did halt deportations despite German pressure in 1943, as he began to seek peace with the Allies, although at the same time he levied heavy taxes and forced labor on the remaining Jewish communities. Also, sometimes with the encouragement of Antonescu's regime, thirteen boats left Romania for the British Mandate of Palestine during the war, carrying 13,000 Jews (two of these ships sunk, and the effort was discontinued after German pressure was applied).

Half of the estimated 270,000 to 320,000 Jews living in Bessarabia, Bukovina, and the former Dorohoi County in Romania were murdered between June 1941 and spring of 1944. After a wave of random initial killings, Jews in Moldavia were subject to pogroms, while those in Bessarabia, Bukovina and Dorohoi were concentrated into ghettos from which they were deported to concentration camps in Transnistria, including camps built and run by Romanians. Romanian soldiers also worked with the German Einsatzkommando to massacre Jews in conquered territories east of the Romania's 1940 border. The total number of deaths is not certain, but even the lowest respectable estimates run to about 250,000 Jews (plus 25,000 deported Roma, of which half perished). At the same time, 120,000 of Transylvania's 150,000 Jews died at the hands of the Fascist Hungarians later in the war (see Northern Transylvania). Also, Antonescu's government made plans for mass deportations from the Regat to Belzec, but never carried them out.

Nonetheless, in stark contrast to many countries of Eastern and Central Europe, the majority of Romanian Jews (if restricted to rump Romania, outside the territories occupied in 1940 by Hungary and the Soviet Union) survived the war, although they were subject to a wide range of harsh conditions, including forced labor, financial penalties, and discriminatory laws. The number of victims, however, makes Romania count as, according to the Wiesel Commission, "Of all the allies of Nazi Germany, [responsible] for the deaths of more Jews than any country other than Germany itself".[58]

Romanian Fascism had been all too viciously and murderously antisemitic; however, unlike its Nazi ally, it had not formulated a "Final Solution" of systematically hunting down and killing every single Jew, and there was no Romanian equivalent to the Wannsee Conference. The killing of Jews was unsystematic, taking place in some places and times but not in others - especially, far more intensively where the Romanian Army was acting as an occupying force rather than in Romania's own sovereign territory. Fortunately for the Romanian Jews, the Nazis never got a chance to take direct control of the process and "systematise" it, as they did in Hungary at mid-1944.

 Post-War

According to the World Jewish Congress, there were 428,312 Jews in Romania in 1947. Mass emigration ensued, much of it to the British Mandate of Palestine and later Israel, and much of it technically illegal (see Berihah). By 1956, there were 144,236 Jews in Romania. From 1948 until 1960, more than 200,000 Romanian Jews went to Israel, reducing the population in Romania to less than 100,000 by the 1960s.

During the period of transition towards a communist regime in Romania, following Soviet occupation (see Soviet occupation of Romania), Jewish society and culture were subject to the same increasingly tight control by the authorities. The community leader Wilhelm Filderman was arrested in 1945, and had to flee the country in 1948.[60] On April 22, 1946, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej attended a meeting of Jewish organizations and called for the creation of a new body, the Jewish Democratic Committee, which was in reality a section of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).[61]

After the proclamation of the People's Republic, the government formed by the PCR outlawed all Jewish organizations at a meeting on June 10June 11, 1948, stating that "the party must take a stand on every question concerning the Jews of Romania and fight vigorously against reactionary nationalist Jewish currents [that is, Zionism]". In 1952-1953, the Stalinist anti-Semitic charge of "rootless cosmopolitanism" brought the purging of the party's own leadership (including Ana Pauker);[62] the charge was then inflicted on the larger part of the Jewish community, beginning with a trial engineered by Iosif Chişinevschi.[63] Jews who were perceived as Zionists were given harsh labour sentences in communist prisons such as Piteşti (where they were subject to torture and brainwashing experiments; several died).[60] The 1952 trial of engineers made responsible for the failure of the Danube-Black Sea Canal project also involved allegations of Zionism (notably aimed at Aurel Rozei-Rozenberg, who was eventually executed).[64]

The situation for the Jews of Romania later improved, but the community has shrunk, mainly through aliyah - today only 9,000-15,000 Jews live in Romania.

Hasidic dynasties originating from today's Romania

Major groups

Other groups

See also

 Notes

  1. Rezachevici, September 1995, p.60
  2. Djuvara, p.179; Giurescu, p.271
  3. Rezachevici, September 1995, p.59
  4. Rezachevici, September 1995, p.60-61
  5.  Rezachevici, September 1995, p.61
  6. Rezachevici, September 1995, p.61-62
  7. Rezachevici, October 1995, p.61-62; 64-65
  8. Oişteanu (1998), p.239
  9. Rezachevici, October 1995, p.62
  10. Rezachevici, October 1995, p.62-63
  11. Rezachevici, October 1995, p.63
  12.  Del Chiaro; Oişteanu (1998), p.239-240
  13. Oişteanu (1998), p.242-244
  14. Oişteanu (2003), p.2; Rezachevici, October 1995, p.66
  15. Cernovodeanu, p.25; Giurescu, p.271
  16. Cernovodeanu, p.25
  17. Rezachevici, October 1995, p.66
  18. Cernovodeanu, p.26
  19. Cernovodeanu, p.27
  20. Oişteanu (1998), p.211-212
  21. Cernovodeanu, p.27; Oişteanu (2003), p.3
  22.  Cernovodeanu, p.28
  23. Djuvara, p.179; Giurescu, p.272
  24. Hitchins, p.226-227
  25. Cernovodeanu, p.28; Djuvara, p.179-180
  26. Ornea, p.387
  27. Djuvara, p.180-182
  28.  Djuvara, p.182
  29. Oişteanu (1998), p.241
  30. Islaz Proclamation, art.21
  31.  Oişteanu (2003), p.2
  32. Ornea, p.389; Veiga, p.58-59
  33.  Panu, p.223-233
  34. Ornea, p.389; Panu, p.224
  35. For example, Panu (p.226) stated that "the issue of [the Jews'] assimilation or the mere possibility of their assimilation were never mentioned [by anti-Semites], being considered an impossible occurrence altogether [...]"; in the 1890s, Caragiale evidenced the paradox in his editorial Trădarea românismului! Triumful străinismului!! Consumatum est!!!, mimicking the tone of Liberals in opposition to the Petre P. Carp government: "Yesterday, February 5, '93, yesterday, fateful and cursed day! was voted that anti-social, anti-economical, anti-patriotic, anti-national, anti-Romanian law, that law through which poverty-stricken Jews may no longer be prevented from training in certain careers!"
  36.  Israil Bercovici, O sută de ani de teatru evreiesc în România ("One hundred years of Yiddish/Jewish theater in Romania"), 2nd Romanian-language edition, revised and augmented by Constantin Măciucă. Editura Integral (an imprint of Editurile Universala), Bucharest (1998). ISBN 973-98272-2-5. passim; see the article on the author for further publication information.
  37. Ornea, p.390; Veiga, p.60
  38.  Ornea, p.391
  39. Ornea, p.396; Veiga, p.58-59
  40.  Ornea, p.396
  41. Veiga, p.24-25
  42.  Veiga, p.56
  43. Ornea, p.395
  44.  The Jewish-Romanian Marxist Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea criticised Poporanist claims in his work on the 1907 revolt, Neoiobăgia ("Neo-Serfdom"), arguing that, as favorite victims of prejudice (and most likely to be retaliated against), Jews were least likely to exploit: "[The Jewish tenant's] position is inferior to that of the exploited, for he is not a boyar, a gentleman, but a Yid, as well as to the administration, whose subordinate bodies he may well be able to satisfy, but whose upper bodies remain hostile towards him. His position is also rendered difficult by the anti-Semitic trend, strong as it gets, and by the hostile public opinion, and by the press, overwhelmingly anti-Semitic, but mostly by the régime itself - which, while awarding him all the advantages of neo-serfdom on one hand, uses, on the other, his position as a Yid to make of him a distraction and a scapegoat for the régime's sins."
  45. Veiga, p.62-64
  46.  Veiga, p.61
  47.  Veiga, p.61-62
  48. Ornea, p.396-397
  49. Oişteanu (1998), p.252-253; Nichifor Crainic declared in 1931 "We were not, are not and will not be anti-Semites"; nevertheless, only two years later, in 1933, he wrote "The new spirit is healthy because is anti-Semitic, anti-Semitic in doctrine and anti-Semitic in practice". Barbu Theodorescu, the secretary and bibliographer of historian Nicolae Iorga, wrote in 1938: "Romanian anti-Semitism is 100 years old. To fight against the Jew is to walk the straight line of the Romanian nation's normal development. Anti-Semitism animated the heart of the Romanian intellectual elite. Anti-Semitism is the most vital problem of Romanian prosperity." (Oişteanu (1998), p.253)
  50.  Oişteanu (1998), p.254
  51. Ornea, p.397; Veiga, p.246, 264
  52.  Royal Decree, 1938, art.6
  53.  Decree, 1940; Ornea, p.391-393
  54.  Veiga, p.301
  55.  Oişteanu (1998), p.230-231; Andrei Oişteanu suggested Wilhelm Filderman, the Jewish community's president, influenced Antonescu's decision
  56. Oişteanu (1998), p.231
  57.  Ilie Fugaru, Romania clears doubts about Holocaust past, UPI, November 11, 2004
  58.  International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (2004-11-11). "Executive Summary: Historical Findings and Recommendations" (PDF). Final Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania. Yad Vashem (The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority). http://yad-vashem.org.il/about_yad/what_new/data_whats_new/pdf/english/EXECUTIVE_SUMMARY.pdf. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  59.  Romania mayor outrages Jews after parading as Nazi By Reuters
  60. Wexler (2000)
  61.  Gordon, p.299; Wexler (1996), p.83
  62.  Gordon, p.300
  63.  Gordon, p.300; Wexler (2000)
  64.  Gordon, p.299

[edit] References

External links

This page was last modified on 11 November 2009 at 05:58.

 

Text at: http://www.biblediscovered.com/people-and-demographics/romanian-jews/

The history of Jews in Romania concerns the Jews of Romania and of Romanian origins, from their first mention on what is todays Romanian territory. Jewish communities on what would later become Romanian territory were attested as early as the 2nd century, at a time when the Roman Empire had established its rule over Dacia. Inscriptions and coins have been found in such places as Sarmizegetusa and Orşova. Jewish tombstones dating from Roman times have been found in the present day territory of Romania. The first wave of immigrants settled in the principality of Walachia in the 1300's.  Shortly thereafter, Jews settled in Moldavia

Early History as Part of the Ottoman Empire: From the Middle Ages to the modern times the Romanians lived in three distinct but neighbouring principalities: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania. Located in an area of intersection of the borders of several powerful kingdoms and empires, their territory became an area of dispute and, at the same time, of cultural confluence. In the second half of the 14th century a new threat against the independent Romanian lands emerged: the Ottoman Empire. After first setting foot on European soil in 1354, the Ottoman Turks began their rapid expansion on the continent.

The whole Balkan Peninsula became a Turkish-ruled territory, Constantinople was captured by Mohammed II (1453), Suleiman the Magnificent captured the city of Belgrade (1521), and the Hungarian kingdom disappeared following the battle of Mohacs (1526). Therefore, Wallachia and Moldavia were surrounded and they had to recognize for over three centuries the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.

The end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century brought about changes in the politics of Central and Eastern Europe. The Ottoman Empire failed to capture Vienna in 1683 and following that, the Hapsburg Empire began its expansion to the southeast of Europe. The Austrian-Turkish peace treaty of Karlowitz (1699) sanctioned the annexation of Transylvania and its organization as an autonomous principality to Hapsburg Austria (since 1765 great principality), ruled by a governor. The Ottoman Empire, in an attempt to defend its old position, introduced in Moldavia (1711) and Wallachia (1716) the “Phanariot regime,” (until 1821), under which the Sublime Porte appointed in the two principalities Greek voivodes recruited from the Phanar district of Istanbul and considered faithful to the Turks. That was a time when the Ottoman political control and economic exploitation increased and corruption spread;

Many wars were fought by Austria and Russia against the Ottoman Empire (1710-1711, 1716-1718, 1735-1739, 1768-1774, 1787-1792, 1806-1812, 1828-1829, 1853-1856): those battles took place on Romanian soil, always accompanied by a foreign military occupation, which was often maintained long after the war proper was over. Thus the Romanian lands endured not only through devastation and irrecoverable losses, but also through population displacements and painful territory amputations.

Romania proclaimed its independence from the Ottoman Empire on May 9, 1877, and participated alongside Russia in the war against the Turks. In 1881 Romania became a kingdom, an event that marked of the country both domestically and internationally. The continual threat posed by Russia determined the leadership of the country to enter into an alliance with the Central Powers in 1883. With the achievement of national independence, Romanians in neighboring territories still under foreign domination began to look to Bucharest for inspiration.

Modern History: The peace treaty of 1829 signed at Adrianople (today Edirne) ended the Russian-Turkish conflict of 1828-1829, which had broken out in the final stage of the war for national liberation fought by the Greeks; this treaty greatly weakened the Ottoman suzerainty. In the first half of the 19th century, the Romanian principalities began to distance themselves from the Islamic Ottoman world and tune into the spiritual space of Western Europe. Ideas, currents, attitudes from the West were more than welcome in the Romanian world, which was undergoing an irreversible process of modernization. An awareness that all Romanians belong to the same nation was generalized, and the union into one single independent state became the ideal of many Romanians. The modern Romanian nation was founded in the winter of 1862; its capital was chosen to be Bucharest.

Sephardic Romania: Documents demonstrate Spanish Jews in Wallachia as early as 1496. These most likely stemming as a result of the Iberian diaspora, and the acceptance into (Ottoman) Romania and other Bakan states by Sultan Beyazid II. In 1718 the first Hahambasi (Betalel Cohen) the son of Rabbi Naftali Cohen, Sultan Mustafa III’s protege, was appointed by Romanian Prince Alexandre Ipsilanti. These Hahambasi would be in charge of all the Jews in the entire country. His office was in Jassy, but he still had juristdiction of Jews in the southern territories of Wallachia. This cheif Rabbi had officers spread through out the Romanian state called vekil Hahambasi, which were located in major cities. The office of the Hahambasi lasted until 1834 when it dissolved. Instead of the Prince making a Rabbi the Hahambasi, it was now up to the Jewish people to elect their own spiritual leader. In losing the title of Hahambasi, future spiritual leaders also lost the rights (and protections) that came along with it.

Most of the original Jewish population of Romania arrived from Turkey and the Balkans and was made up of Sephardim. However, by the nineteenth century, the majority of the Jewish population of Romania was made up of Ashkenazim, the result of waves of Yiddish speaking immigrants from Galicia and Russia. Transylvania was on a trade route between the orient and the west, and northern and southern Europe. Because of this, the first Jews arrived on these trade routes to Transylvania from Turkey and the Balkans. The first Jewish community was in Alba Julia, which has records of Jewish residency as early as 1591. At one time an independent state, Transylvania was later incorporated as part of Hungary, and then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Jews continued to migrate to Transylvania in small numbers throughout the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, even though there were residency restrictions until 1848.

The number of Jews in historic Transylvania jumped from two thousand in 1766, to thirty thousand in 1880. Timosoara, a city bordering the Balkan states in the Banat region of Transylvania, was first settled by Turkish Sephardim, prior to German culture becoming dominant in later centuries. In 1762, both Sephardi and Ashkenazi synagogues were built in Transylvania, with many Sephardic Jews known to be living in various towns such as Dej, Carei and Cluj. For many years small Sephardic communities of Ladino speakers functioned in the port towns of the Danube and in Southern Dobrudja.

Romania’s Jewish population entered the principalities in the 1800s, moving south out of the Russian Empire: for that reason the northern province of Moldavia became center of Jewish life. In 1803 there were only 15,000 Jews in Moldavia, but by 1859 there were 118,000; and in 1899 there were 197,000. Fewer Jews lived in Wallachia: 4,000 in 1831; in 1859 the figure was 9,000; and in 1899, the total reached 61,000. Another 75,000 Romanian Jews emigrated in the period 1881-1914, mostly to the United States. Many Jews of Romania absorbed the naming practices of their community; this is not unlike elsewhere throughout history. Many of the Jews took the typical Romanian suffixes of -escu, -eanu and -aru and Romanianized their original traditional surnames. The various Sephardic-specific surnames of Romania demonstrated the multi-ethnic roots of the Sephardim. This includes the names: Aftakion, Alcaly, Alfanderi, Behar, Graniani, Medina, Mitani, Nahmias, Papo, and Semo. These representing Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and the Arabic countries.

The Holocaust and Beyond: In the summer of 1940 Romania succumbed to German pressure and transferred Bessarabia and part of Bukovina to the Soviet Union, northern Transylvania to Hungary, and southern Dobrudja to Bulgaria (the territory that remained being called Old Romania). Anti-Semitism flared, and in 1941 many pogroms occured. Jewish homes were looted, shops burned, and many synagogues desecrated, including two that were razed to the ground (the Great Sephardi Synagogue [Kahal Grande] and the old bet ha-midrash). Some of the leaders of the Bucharest community were imprisoned in the community council building, and worshipers were ejected from synagogues by force. Over 264,000 Jews perished in Nazi death camps during World War II. Most of the survivors fled postwar communism and emigrated to Israel or the United States.

Following is a more detailed account of the horrors of xenophobia that Romanian Jews experienced;

Minimal until the 18th century, the size of the Jewish population increased after around 1850, and more especially after the establishment of Greater Romania in the aftermath of World War I. A diverse community, albeit an overwhelmingly urban one, Jews were the favorite target of religious persecution and racism in Romanian society - from the late-19th century debate over the “Jewish Question” and the Jewish residents’ right to citizenship, to the genocide carried out by Romania as part of The Holocaust. The latter, coupled with successive waves of aliyah, has accounted for a dramatic decrease in the overall size of Romania’s present-day Jewish community.

The earliest Jewish presence in what would become Moldavia was recorded in Cetatea Albă (1330); in Wallachia, they were first attested in the 1550s, living in Bucharest. During the second half of the 14th century, the future territory of Romania became an important place of refuge for Jews expelled from the Kingdom of Hungary and Poland by King Louis I. In Transylvania, Hungarian Jews were recorded in Saxon citadels around 1492.

Prince Roman I (1391-1394) exempted the Jews from military service, in exchange for a tax of 3 löwenthaler per person. Also in Moldavia, Stephen the Great (1457-1504) treated Jews with consideration. Isaac ben Benjamin Shor of Iaşi (Isak Bey, originally employed by Uzun Hassan) was appointed stolnic, being subsequently advanced to the rank of logofăt; he continued to hold this office under Bogdan the Blind (1504-1517), the son and successor of Stephen.

At this time both Danubian Principalities came under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, and a number of Sephardim living in Istanbul migrated to Wallachia, while Jews from Poland and the Holy Roman Empire settled in Moldavia. Although they took an important part in Ottoman government and formed a large part of a community of foreign creditors and traders, Jews were harassed by the hospodars of the two Principalities. Moldavia’s Prince Ştefăniţă (1522) deprived the Jewish merchants of almost all the rights given to them by his two predecessors; Petru Rareş confiscated Jewish wealth in 1541, after alleging that Jews in the cattle trade had engaged in tax evasion. Alexandru Lăpuşneanu (first rule: 1552-61) persecuted the community alongside other social categories, until he was dethroned by Jacob Heraclides, a Greek Lutheran, who was lenient to his Jewish subjects; Lăpuşneanu did not renew his persecutions after his return on the throne in 1564. The role of Ottoman and local Jews in financing various princes increased as Ottoman economic demands were mounting after 1550 (in the 1570s, the influential Jewish Duke of the Archipelago, Joseph Nasi, backed both Heraclides and Lăpuşneanu to the throne); several violent incidents throughout the period were instigated by princes unable to repay their debts.

During the first short reign of Peter the Lame (1574-1579) the Jews of Moldavia, mainly traders from Poland who were competing with locals, were taxed and ultimately expelled. In 1582, he succeeded in regaining his rule over the country with the help of the Jewish physician Benveniste, who was a friend of the influential Solomon Ashkenazi; the latter then exerted his influence with the Prince in favor of his coreligionists.

In Wallachia, Prince Alexandru II Mircea (1567-1577) engaged as his private secretary and counselor Isaiah ben Joseph, who used his influence on behalf of the Jews. In 1573 Isaiah was dismissed, owing to court intrigues, but he was not harmed any further, and subsequently left for Moldavia (where he entered the service of Muscovy’s Grand Prince Ivan the Terrible). Through the efforts of Solomon Ashkenazi, Aron Tiranul was placed on the throne of Moldavia; nevertheless, the new ruler persecuted and executed nineteen Jewish creditors in Iaşi, who were decapitated without process of law. At around the same time, in Wallachia, the violent repression of creditors peaked under Michael the Brave, who, after killing Turkish creditors in Bucharest (1594), probably enagaged in violence against Jews settled south of the Danube during his campaign in Rumelia (while maintaining good relations with Transylvanian Jews).

Modern Age: In 1623, the Jews in Transylvania were awarded certain privileges by Prince Gabriel Bethlen, who aimed to attract entrepreneurs from Ottoman lands into his country; the grants were curtailed during following decades, when Jews were only allowed to settle in Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia). Among the privileges granted was one allowing Jews to wear traditional dress; eventually, the authorities in Gyulafehérvár decided (in 1650 and 1741), to allow Jews to wear only clothing evidencing their status and ethnicity.

The status of Jews who had converted to Eastern Orthodoxy was established in Wallachia by Matei Basarab’s Pravila de la Govora and in Moldavia by Vasile Lupu’s Carte româneascǎ de învăţătură. The latter ruler (1634-1653) treated the Jews with consideration until the appearance of the Cossacks (1648), who marched against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and who, while crossing the region, killed many Jews; the violence, led many Ashkenazi Jews from Poland took refuge in Moldavia and Wallachia, establishing small but stable communities. Massacres and forced conversions by the Cossacks occurred in 1652, when the latter came to Iaşi on the occasion of the Vasile Lupu’s daughter marriage to Timush, the son of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and during the rule of Gheorghe Ştefan.

According to Anton Maria Del Chiaro, secretary of the Wallachian princes between 1710-1716, the Jewish population of Wallachia was required to respect a certain dresscode. Thus, they were prohibited from wearing clothes of other color than black or violet, or to wear yellow or red boots. Nevertheless, the Romanian scholar Andrei Oişteanu argued that such ethnic and religious social stigma was uncommon in Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as throughout the Eastern Orthodox areas of Europe.

The first blood accusation in Moldavia (and, as such, in Romania) was made April 5, 1710, when the Jews of Târgu Neamţ were charged with having killed a Christian child for ritual purposes. The instigator was a baptized Jew who had helped to carry the body of a child, murdered by Christians, into the courtyard of the synagogue. On the next day five Jews were killed, others were maimed, and every Jewish house was pillaged, while the representatives of the community were imprisoned and tortured. Meanwhile, some influential Jews appealed to Prince Nicholas Mavrocordatos (the first Phanariote ruler) in Iaşi, who ordered an investigation resulting in the freeing of those arrested. This was the first time that the Orthodox clergy participated in attacks on Jews. It was due to the clergy’s instigations that in 1714 a similar charge was brought against the Jews of the city of Roman - the murder by a group of Roman Catholics of a Christian girl-servant to Jewish family was immediately blamed on Jews; every Jewish house was plundered, and two prominent Jews were hanged, before the real criminals were discovered by the authorities.

Under Constantin Brâncoveanu, Wallachian Jews were recognized as a special guild in Bucharest, led by a starost. Jews in both Wallachia and Moldavia were subject to the Hakham Bashi in Iaşi, but soon the Bucharest starost assumed several religious duties. Overtaxed and persecuted under Ştefan Cantacuzino (1714-1716), Wallachian Jews obtained valuable privileges during Nicholas Mavrocordatos’ rule (1716-1730) in that country (the Prince notably employed the Jewish savant Daniel de Fonseca at his court). Another anti-Jewish riot occurred in Bucharest in the 1760s, and was encouraged by the visit of Ephram II, Patriarch of Jerusalem.

In 1726, in the Bessarabian borough of Oniţcani, four Jews were accused of having kidnapped a five-year old child, of killing him on Easter and of collecting his blood in a barrel. They were tried at Iaşi under the supervision of Moldavian Prince Mihai Racoviţă, and eventually acquitted following diplomatic protests. The event was echoed in several contemporary chronicles and documents — for example, the French ambassador to the Porte, Jean-Baptiste Louis Picon, remarked that such an accusation was no longer accepted in “civilized countries”. The most obvious effects on the condition of the Jewish inhabitants of Moldavia were witnessed during the reign of John Mavrocordatos (1744-1747): a Jewish farmer in the vicinity of Suceava reported the prince to the Porte for allegedly using his house to rape a number of kidnapped Jewish women; Mavrocordatos had his accuser hanged. This act aroused the anger of Mahmud I’s kapucu in Moldavia, and the prince paid the penalty with the loss of his throne.

Russo-Turkish Wars: During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 the Jews in the Danubian Principalities had to endure great hardships. Massacres and pillages in almost every town and village in the country. When peace was restored, both princes, Alexander Mavrocordatos of Moldavia and Nicholas Mavrogheni of Wallachia, pledged their special protection to the Jews, whose condition remained favorable until 1787, when both Janissaries and the Imperial Russian Army engaged in pogroms.

The community was also subject to persecutions by the locals. Jewish children were seized and forcibly baptized. The ritual-murder accusation became widespread; one made at Galaţi in 1797 led to exceptionally severe results - the Jews were attacked by a large mob, driven from their homes, robbed, waylaid on the streets, and many killed on the spot, while some were forced into the Danube and drowned; others who took refuge in the synagogue were burned to death in the building; a few escaped after being given protection and refuge by a priest. In 1803, shortly before his death, the Wallachian Metropolitan Iacob Stamati instigated attacks on the Bucharest community by publishing his Înfruntarea jidovilor (”Facing the Jews”), which pretended to be the confession of a former rabbi; however, Jews were offered refuge by Stamati’s replacement, Veniamin Costachi. A seminal event occurred in 1804, when ruler Constantine Ypsilanti dismissed accusations of ritual murder as “the unfounded opinion” of “stupid people”, and ordered that their condemnation be read in churches throughout Wallachia; the allegations no longer surfaced during the following period.

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812, the Russian invasion was again accompanied by massacres of the Jews. Kalmyk irregular soldiers in Ottoman service, who appeared in Bucharest at the close of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812, exercised terror on the city’s Jewish population. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), “They passed daily through the streets inhabited by the latter, spitted children on their lances, and, in the presence of their parents, roasted them alive and devoured them”. At around the same time, a conflict emerged in Wallachia between Jews under foreign protection (sudiţi) and local ones (hrisovoliţi), after the latter tried to impose a single administration for the community, a matter which was finally settled in favor of the hrisovoliţi by Prince Jean Georges Caradja (1813).

In Habsburg-ruled Transylvania, the reforms carried out by Joseph II allowed Jews to settle in towns directly subject to the Hungarian Crown. However, pressured placed on the community remained stringent for the following decades.

By 1825, Jewish population in Wallachia (almost completely Sephardi) was estimated at between 5,000 and 10,000 people - of these, the larger part resided in Bucharest (probably as much as 7,000 in 1839); around the same time, Moldavia was home to about 12,000 Jews. In parallel, the Jewish population in Bukovina rose from 526 in 1774 to 11,600 in 1848. In the early 1800s, Jews who sought refuge from Osman Pazvantoğlu’s campaign in the Balkans established communities in Wallachian-ruled Oltenia. In Moldavia, Scarlat Callimachi’s Code (1817) allowed members of the community to purchase urban property, but prevented them from settling in the countryside (while purchasing town property became increasingly difficult due to popular prejudice).

During the Greek War of Independence, which signalled the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and the Danubian Principalities’ occupation by Filiki Eteria troops under Alexander Ypsilantis, Jews were victims of pogroms and persecutions in places such as Fălticeni, Hertsa, Piatra Neamţ, the Secu Monastery, Târgovişte, and Târgu Frumos; Jews in Galaţi managed to escape over the Prut River with assistance from Austrian diplomats. Weakened by the clash between Ypsilantis and Tudor Vladimirescu, the Eterists were massacred by the Ottoman intervention armies - during this episode, Jewish communities engaged in retaliations in Secu and Slatina.

Following the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople (which allowed the two Principalities to freely engage in foreign trade), Moldavia, where commercial niches had been largely left unoccupied, became a target for migration of Ashkenazi Jews persecuted in Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria - by 1838, their number seems to have reached 80,000, and over 195,000, or almost 12% of the country’s population, in 1859 (with an additional 50,000 passing through to Wallachia between the two estimates).

Despite initial interdictions under the Russian occupation of 1829 (when it was first regulated that non-Christians were not to be regarded as citizens), many of the new immigrants became leaseholders of estates and tavern-keepers, serving to increase both the revenue and demands of boyars - leading in turn to an increase in economic pressures over those working the land or buying products (usual prejudice against Jews accused tavern-keepers of encouraging alcoholism). At the same time, several Jews rose to prominence and high social status - most families involved in Moldavian banking around the 1850s were of Jewish origin. After 1832, following adoption of the Organic Statute, Jewish children are accepted in schools in the two Principalities only if they wore the same clothing as others. In Moldavia, authorities forced the community to abandon its traditional dress code through the 1847 decree of Prince Mihail Sturdza.

Before the Revolutions of 1848, which found their parallel in the Wallachian revolution, many restrictive laws against the Jews had been enacted; although they had some destructive effects, they were never strictly enforced. In various ways, Jews took part in the Wallachian revolt - Constantin Daniel Rosenthal, the painter, distinguished himself in the revolutionary cause, and paid for his activity with his life (being tortured to death by Austrian authorities in Budapest). The major document to be codified by the 1848 Wallachian revolutionaries, the Islaz Proclamation, called for “the emancipation of Israelites and political rights for all compatriots of different faiths”.

After the close of the Crimean War the struggle for the union of the two principalities began. The Jews were sought after by both parties, Unionists and anti-Unionists, each of which promised them full equality; and proclamations to this effect were issued (1857-1858). In 1857, the community began issuing its first magazine, Israelitul Român, edited by the Romanian radical Iuliu Barasch. This process of gradual integration resulted in the creation of an informal Romanian identity assumed by Jews, while conversion to Christianity, despite encouragement by the authorities, remained confined to exceptional cases.

Under Alexander John Cuza: From the beginning of the reign of Alexander John Cuza (1859-1866), the first ruler (Domnitor) of the united principalities, the Jews became a prominent factor in the politics of the country. This period was, however, inaugurated by another riot motivated by blood libel accusations, begun during Easter 1859 in Galaţi.

Regulations on clothing were confirmed inside Moldavia by two orders of Mihail Kogălniceanu, Minister of Internal Affairs (issues in 1859 and 1860 respectively). Following adoption of the 1859 regulation, soldiers and civilians would walk the streets of Iaşi and some other Moldavian towns, assaulting Jews, using scissors to shred their clothing, but also to cut their beards or their sidelocks; drastic measures applied by the Army Headquarters put a stop to such turmoil.

In 1864, Cuza, owing to difficulties between his government and the general assembly, dissolved the latter and decided to submit a draft of a constitution granting universal suffrage. He proposed creating two chambers (of senators and deputies respectively), to extend the franchise to all citizens, and to emancipate the peasants from forced labor (expecting to nullify the remaining influence of the landowners - no longer boyars after the land reform). In the process, Cuza also expected financial support from both the Jews and the Armenians - it appears that he kept the latter demand reduced, asking for only 40,000 Austrian guilder (the standard gold coins; about US$ 90,000 at the exchange rate of the time) from the two groups. The Armenians discussed the matter with the Jews, but they were not able to come to a satisfactory agreement in the matter.

While Cuza was pressing in his demands, the Jewish community debated the method of assessment. The rich Jews, for unclear reasons, refused to advance the money, and the middle class argued that the sum would not lead to tangible enough results; Religious Jews insisted that such rights would only interfere with the exercise of their religion. Cuza, on being informed that the Jews hesitated to pay their share, inserted in his draft of a constitution a clause excluding from the right of suffrage all who did not profess Christianity.

1860s and 1870s: When Charles von Hohenzollern succeeded Cuza in 1866 as Carol I of Romania, the first event that confronted him in the capital was a riot against the Jews. A draft of a constitution was then submitted by the government, Article 6 of which declared that “religion is no obstacle to citizenship”; but, “with regard to the Jews, a special law will have to be framed in order to regulate their admission to naturalization and also to civil rights”. On June 30, 1866, the Bucharest Synagogue was desecrated and demolished (it was rebuilt in the same year, then restored in 1932 and 1945). Many Jews were beaten, maimed, and robbed. As a result, Article 6 was withdrawn and Article 7 was added to the 1866 Constitution; it read that “only such aliens as are of the Christian faith may obtain citizenship”.

For the following decades, the issue of Jewish rights occupied the forefront of the Regat’s political scene. With few notable exceptions most Romanian intellectuals began professing anti-Semitism; its most virulent form was the one present with advocates of Liberalism, especially Moldavians, who argued that Jewish immigration had prevented the rise of an ethnic Romanian middle class. The first examples of modern prejudice were the Moldavian Fracţiunea liberă şi independentă (later blended into the National Liberal Party, PNL) and the Bucharest group formed around Cezar Bolliac. Their discourse saw Jews as non-assimilated and perpetually foreign. This claim was, however, challenged by some contemporary sources, and by the eventual acceptance of all immigrants other than Jews.

Anti-Semitism was carried into the PNL’s mainstream, and was officially enforced under the premierships of Ion Brătianu. During his first years in office, Brătianu reinforced and applied old discrimination laws, insisting that Jews were not allowed to settle in the countryside (and relocating those that had done so), while declaring many Jewish urban inhabitants to be vagrants and expelling them from the country. According to the 1905 Jewish Encyclopedia: “A number of such Jews who proved their Romanian birth were forced across the Danube, and when the Ottoman Empire refused to receive them, were thrown into the river and drowned. Almost every country in Europe was shocked at these barbarities. The Romanian government was warned by the powers; and Brătianu was subsequently dismissed from office”. Cabinets formed by the Conservative Party, although including Junimea’s leaders, did not do much to improve the Jews’ condition - mainly due to PNL opposition.

Nonetheless, during this same era, Romania was the cradle of Yiddish theatre. The Russian-born Abraham Goldfaden started the first professional Yiddish theatre company in Iaşi in 1876 and for several years, especially during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 Romania was the home of Yiddish theatre. While its center of gravity would move first to Russia, then London, then New York City, both Bucharest and Iaşi would continue to figure prominently in its history over the next century.

When Brătianu resumed leadership, Romania faced the emerging conflict in the Balkans, and saw its chance to declare independence from Ottoman suzerainty by dispatching its troops on the Russian side in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The war was concluded by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), which stipulated (Article 44) that the non-Christians in Romania (including both Jews and Muslims in the newly-acquired region of Northern Dobruja) should receive full citizenship. After a prolonged debate at home and diplomatic negotiations abroad, the Romanian government ultimately agreed (1879) to abrogate Article 7 of its constitution. This was, however, reformulated to make procedures very difficult: “the naturalization of aliens not under foreign protection should in every individual case be decided by Parliament” (the action involved, among others, a ten-year term before the applicant was given an evaluation). The gesture was doubled by a show of compliance - 883 Jews, participants in the war, were naturalized in a body by a vote of both chambers.

Fifty-seven persons voted upon as individuals were naturalized in 1880; 6, in 1881; 2, in 1882; 2, in 1883; and 18, from 1886 to 1900; in all, 85 Jews in twenty-one years, 27 of whom in the meantime died; ca. 4,000 people had obtained citizenship by 1912. Various laws were passed until the pursuit of virtually all careers was made dependent on the possession of political rights, which only Romanians could exercise; more than 40% of Jewish working men, including manual labourers, were forced into unemployment by such legislation. Similar laws were passed in regard to Jews exercising liberal professions.

In 1893, a piece of legislation was voted to deprive Jewish children of the right to be educated in the public schools - they were to be received only if and where children of citizens had been provided for, and their parents were required to pay preferential tuition fees. In 1898, it was passed into law that Jews were to be excluded from secondary schools and the universities. Another notable measure was the expulsion of vocal Jewish activists as “objectionable aliens” (under the provisions of an 1881 law), including those of Moses Gaster and Elias Schwarzfeld.

The courts exacted the Oath More Judaico in its most offensive form - it was only abolished in 1904, following criticism in the French press. In 1892, when the United States addressed a note to the signatory powers of the Berlin treaty on the matter, it was attacked by the Romanian press. The Lascăr Catargiu government was, however, concerned - the issue was debated among ministers, and, as a result, the Romanian government issued pamphlets in French, reiterating its accusations against the Jews and maintaining that persecutions were deserved in exchange for the community’s alleged exploitation of the rural population.

The emigration of Romanian Jews on a larger scale commenced soon after 1878; numbers rose and fell, with a major wave of Bessarabian Jews after the Kishinev pogrom in Imperial Russia (1905). The Jewish Encyclopedia wrote in 1905, shortly before the pogrom, “It is admitted that at least 70 per cent would leave the country at any time if the necessary traveling expenses were furnished”. There are no official statistics of emigration; but it is safe to place the minimum number of Jewish emigrants from 1898 to 1904 at 70,000.

Land issues and predominantly Jewish presence among estate leaseholders accounted for the 1907 Romanian Peasants’ Revolt, partly anti-Semitic in message. During the same period, the anti-Jewish message first expanded beyond its National Liberal base (where it was soon an insignificant attitude), to cover the succession of more radical and Moldavian-based organizations founded by A.C. Cuza (his Democratic Nationalist Party, created in 1910, had the first anti-Semitic program in Romanian political history). No longer present in the PNL’s ideology by the 1920s, anti-Semitism also tended to surface in on the left-wing of the political spectrum, in currents originating in Poporanism - which favoured the claim that peasants were being systematically exploited by Jews.

World War I, during which 882 Jewish soldiers died defending Romania (and 825 were decorated), brought about the creation of Greater Romania after the 1919 Paris Peace Conference and subsequent treaties. The enlarged state had an increased Jewish population, corresponding with the addition of communities in Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transylvania. On signing the treaties, Romania agreed to change its policy towards the Jews, promising to award them both citizenship and minority rights, the effective emancipation of Jews. The 1923 Constitution of Romania sanctioned these requirements, meeting opposition from Cuza’s National-Christian Defense League and rioting by far right students in Iaşi; the land reform carried out by the Ion I. C. Brătianu cabinet also settled problems connected with land tenancy.

Political representation for the Jewish community in the inter-war period was divided between the Jewish Party and the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania (the latter was re-established after 1989). During the same period, a division in ritual became apparent between Reform Jews in Transylvania and usually Orthodox ones in the rest of the country (while Bessarabia was the most open to Zionism and especially the socialist Labor Zionism).

The popularity of anti-Jewish messages was, nevertheless, on the rise, and merged itself with the appeal of fascism in the late 1920s - both contributed to the creation and success of Corneliu Zelea Codreanu’s Iron Guard and the appearance of new types of anti-Semitic discourses (Trăirism and Gândirism). The idea of a Jewish quota in higher education became highly popular among Romanian students and teachers. According to Andrei Oişteanu’s analysis, a relevant number of right-wing intellectuals refused to adopt overt anti-Semitism, which was ill-reputed through its association with A. C. Cuza’s violent discourse; nevertheless, a few years later, such cautions were cast aside, and anti-Semitism became displayed as “spiritual health”.

The first motion to exclude Jews from professional associations came on May 16, 1937, when the Confederation of the Associations of Professional Intellectuals (Confederaţia Asociaţiilor de Profesionişti Intelectuali din România) voted to exclude all Jewish members from its affiliated bodies, calling for the state to withdraw their licenses and reassess their citizenship.Although illegal, the measure was popular and it was commented that, in its case, legality had been supplanted by a “heroic decision”. According to Oişteanu, the initiative had a direct influence on anti-Semitic regulations passed during the following year.

The threat posed by the Iron Guard, the emergence of Nazi Germany as a European power, and his own fascist sympathies, made King Carol II, who was still largely identified as a philo-Semite, adopt racial discrimination as the norm. On January 21, 1938, Carol’s executive (led by Cuza and Octavian Goga) passed a law aimed at reviewing criteria for citizenship (after it cast allegations that previous cabinets had allowed Ukrainian Jews to obtain it illegally), and requiring all Jews who had received citizenship in 1918-1919 to reapply for it (while providing a very short term in which this could be achieved - 20 days); in 1940, the Ion Gigurtu cabinet adopted Romania’s equivalent to the Nuremberg Laws, forbidding Jewish-Christian intermarriage, and defining Jews after racial criteria (a person was Jewish if he or she had a Jewish grandparent on one side of the family).

Between the establishment of the National Legionary State and 1942, 80 anti-Jewish regulations were passed. Starting at the end of October, 1940, the Iron Guard began a massive anti-Semitic campaign, torturing and beating Jews and looting their shops (see Dorohoi Pogrom), culminating in the failed coup and a pogrom in Bucharest, in which 120 Jews were killed. Antonescu eventually stopped the violence and chaos created by the Iron Guard by brutally suppressing the rebellion. By the time Romania entered the war, however, atrocities against the Jews had become common, most notably in the Iaşi pogrom, where over 10,000 Jews were killed in July 1941.

 

Victims of the Iaşi pogrom

Victims of the Iaşi pogrom

 

After the fall of the Iron Guard, the Antonescu regime, allied with Nazi Germany, continued the policy of oppression and massacre of Jews, and, to a lesser extent, Roma. In July-August 1941, the yellow badge was imposed by local initiatives in several cities (Iaşi, Bacău, Cernăuţi). A similar measure imposed by the national government lasted only five days (between September 3 and September 8, 1941), before being annulled on Antonescu’s order.However, on local initiative, the badge was still worn especially in the towns of Moldavia, Bessarabia and Bukovina (Bacău, Iaşi, Câmpulung, Botoşani, Cernăuţi, etc.).

According to an international commission report released by the Romanian government in 2004, Romania murdered in various forms, between 280,000 to 380,000 Jews in Romania and in the war zone of Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transnistria.

In 1941, following the advancing Romanian Army after Operation Barbarossa, and alleged attacks by Jewish “Resistance groups”, Antonescu ordered the deportation to Transnistria, of all Jews of Bessarabia and Bukovina (between 80,000 and 150,000), who were considered “Communist agents” by the official propaganda. “Deportation” however was a euphemism, as part of the process was to kill as many Jews as possible before deporting the rest in the “trains of death” to the East. Of those who escaped the initial ethnic cleansing in Bukovina and Bessarabia, only very few managed to survive trains and the concentration camps set up in Transnistria. Further killings perpetrated by Antonescu’s death squads (documents prove his direct orders and involvement) targeted the Jewish population that the Romanian Army managed to round up when occupying Transnistria. Over one hundred thousand of these were in massacres staged in such places as Odessa (the Odessa Massacre - when Romanian troops shot over 100,000 Jews during the autumn of 1941), Bogdanovka, Akmecetka in 1941 and 1942.

Antonescu did halt deportations despite German pressure in 1943, as he began to seek peace with the Allies, although at the same time he levied heavy taxes and forced labor on the remaining Jewish communities. Also, sometimes with the encouragement of Antonescu’s regime, thirteen boats left Romania for the British Mandate of Palestine during the war, carrying 13,000 Jews (two of these ships sunk, and the effort was discontinued after German pressure was applied).

Half of the 320,000 Jews living in Bessarabia, Bukovina, and the former Dorohoi County in Romania were murdered within months of the entry of the country into World War II during 1941. Even after the initial killing, Jews in Moldavia, Bukovina and Bessarabia were subject to frequent pogroms, and were concentrated into ghettos from which they were sent to concentration camps, including camps built and run by Romanians. The number of deaths in this area is not certain, but even the lowest respectable estimates run to about 250,000 Jews (and 25,000 Roma) in these eastern regions, while 120,000 of Transylvania’s 150,000 Jews died at the hands of the Fascist Hungarians later in the war. Romanian soldiers also worked with the German Einsatzkommando to massacre Jews in conquered territories. Antonescu’s government made plans for mass deportations from the Regat to Belzec, but never carried them out.

Nonetheless, in stark contrast to many countries of Eastern and Central Europe, the majority of Romanian Jews survived the war, although they were subject to a wide range of harsh conditions, including forced labor, financial penalties, and discriminatory laws. The number of victims, however, makes Romania count as, according to the Wiesel Commission, “Of all the allies of Nazi Germany, [responsible] for the deaths of more Jews than any country other than Germany itself”.

Romanian Fascism had been all too viciously and murderously antisemitic; however, unlike its Nazi ally, it had not formulated a “Final Solution” of systematically hunting down and killing every single Jew, and there was no Romanian equivalent to the Wannsee Conference. The killing of Jews was unsystematic, taking place in some places and times but not in others - especially, far more intensively where the Romanian Army was acting as an occupying force rather than in Romania’s own sovereign territory. Fortunately for the Romanian Jews, the Nazis never got a chance to take direct control of the process and “systematise” it, as they did in Hungary at mid-1944.

Post-War: According to the World Jewish Congress, there were 428,312 Jews in Romania in 1947. Mass emigration ensued, much of it to the British Mandate of Palestine and later Israel, and much of it technically illegal. By 1956, there were 144,236 Jews in Romania. From 1948 until 1960, more than 200,000 Romanian Jews went to Israel, reducing the population in Romania to less than 100,000 by the 1960s.

During the period of transition towards a communist regime in Romania, following Soviet occupation, Jewish society and culture were subject to the same increasingly tight control by the authorities. The community leader Wilhelm Filderman was arrested in 1945, and had to flee the country in 1948. On April 22, 1946, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej attended a meeting of Jewish organizations and called for the creation of a new body, the Jewish Democratic Committee, which was in reality a section of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).

After the proclamation of the People’s Republic, the government formed by the PCR outlawed all Jewish organizations at a meeting on June 10–June 11, 1948, stating that “the party must take a stand on every question concerning the Jews of Romania and fight vigorously against reactionary nationalist Jewish currents [that is, Zionism]“. In 1952-1953, the Stalinist anti-Semitic charge of “rootless cosmopolitanism” brought the purging of the party’s own leadership (including Ana Pauker); the charge was then inflicted on the larger part of the Jewish community, beginning with a trial engineered by Iosif Chişinevschi. Jews who were perceived as Zionists were given harsh labour sentences in communist prisons such as Piteşti (where they were subject to torture and brainwashing experiments; several died). The 1952 trial of engineers made responsible for the failure of the Danube-Black Sea Canal project also involved allegations of Zionism (notably aimed at Aurel Rozei-Rozenberg, who was eventually executed).

The dwindling Jewish community in Romania numbers about 9,000 to 15,000 out of a total population of 23.5 million. This population is mostly Ashkenazic Jews, but at one time many Sephardim lived with in Romania’s borders. Today the major centers are in Bucharest, Iasi, Cluj and Oradea. Jewish life is also fostered in some smaller communities, and relics of the past are preserved in locations where there are no longer any Jews. The Federation of Jewish Communities is the main coordinating body for Jewish activities, and its publications and symposia are well covered by the Romanian media. It publishes a monthly, Realitatea Evreiasca. The situation for the Jews of Romania later improved, but the community has shrunk, mainly through aliyah.

List of Famous Romanian Jews:

Academics
Aaron Aaronsohn, botanist
J. J. Benjamin, historian
Nicolae Cajal, virologist and Jewish community leader
Ştefan Cazimir, literary critic
Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, sociologist and Marxist theorist
Lazăr Edeleanu, chemist
David Emmanuel, mathematician
Zicman Feider, biologist, acarologist
Herman Finer, political scientist
Moses Gaster, chakham, Hebrew linguist
Alexandru Graur, linguist
Lucien Goldmann [philosopher, critic, sociologist]
Joseph M. Juran, industrial engineer
Ernest Klein, linguist
Peter George Oliver Freund, physicist
Liviu Librescu, physicist
Mario Livio, astrophysicist
George Lusztig, mathematician
Edward Luttwak, economist and historian
Solomon Marcus, mathematician
Meinhard E. Mayer, physicist
Serge Moscovici, social psychologist
Victor Neumann, historian and political analyst
Andrei Oişteanu, historian and anthropologist
Zigu Ornea, literary critic
Julius Popper, explorer
Simion Sanielevici, mathematician
Iosif Sava, musicologist and television host
Alice Săvulescu, botanist
Isaac Jacob Schoenberg, mathematician
Itic Şvarţ-Kara, historian, literary and theater critic
Heimann Hariton Tiktin, linguist
Vladimir Tismăneanu, historian and political analyst
David Wechsler, psychologist

Artists
Avigdor Arikha, painter
Victor Brauner, painter and photographer
Sorel Etrog, sculptor
André François, painter and graphic artist (Jewish father)
Idel Ianchelevici, sculptor
Marcel Iancu, architect and painter
Iosif Iser, painter
Isidore Isou, Letterist
Barbu Iscovescu, painter
M. H. Maxy, painter
Jules Perahim, painter (surrealist) and graphic artist
Constantin Daniel Rosenthal, painter
Reuven Rubin, painter
Lola Schmierer-Roth, painter
Arthur Segal, painter
Daniel Spoerri, assemblage artist and author(Jewish father)
Saul Steinberg, cartoonist
Nicolae Vermont, painter and graphic artist

Business people
Max Auschnitt, financier
Mauriciu Blank, financier
Aristide Blank, financier and activist
Emil Calmanovici, financier and communist activist
Jacques Elias, banker, landowner, manufacturer
Hillel Manoah, banker
Iosif Samitca, publisher
Ralian Samitca, publisher
Ignat Samitca, publisher

Film and stage figures
Israil Bercovici, playwright
Christian Calson, director/writer
I.A.L. Diamond, screenwriter
Abraham Goldfaden,founder of Yiddish-language theater
John Houseman, actor (Jewish father)
Marin Karmitz, director, producer
Elina Löwensohn, actress
Sigmund Mogulesko
Maia Morgenstern (1962 - ) film and stage actress
Bernard Natan, film producer
Ovitz family, circus actors and traveling musicians
Edward G. Robinson, actor
Abba Schoengold
Iulian Schwartz, actor and scholar
Simcha Schwartz, theater director and critic
Dumitru Solomon, playwright
Jacob Sternberg, director
Cambos Rozina actress israel

Musicians
Bill Averbach, composer, klezmer musician
Moshe Bazian, cantor
Miriam Fried, violinist
Alma Gluck, soprano
Clara Haskil, pianist
Philip Herschkowitz, music theorist and composer
Mandru Katz, pianist
Sammy Lerner, composer
Yoel Levi, conductor
György Ligeti, composer
Radu Lupu, pianist
Silvia Marcovici, violinist
Joseph Moskowitz, klezmer musician
Moishe Oysher, cantor and singer
Arnold Rosé, violinist
Lya Stern, violinist, teacher
Richard Stein, light music composer (Sanie cu zurgalai)
Beverly Sills, opera singer

Political figures
Martin Abern, Trotskyist activist
Radu F. Alexandru, politician
Colette Avital, politician
Olga Bancic, communist activist
Silviu Brucan, communist politician and dissident
Simion Bughici, communist politician
Iosif Chişinevschi, communist politician
Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea, communist activist
David Fabian,communist activist
Max Goldstein, communist activist
Remus Koffler, communist activist
David Korner, Trotskyist activist
Alex Kozinski, judge
Serge Klarsfeld, anti-Nazi activist
Samuel Leibowitz, attorney
Karpel Lippe, Zionist activist
Vasile Luca, communist politician
Gheorghe Gaston Marin, communist politician
Nati Meir, politician
Alexandru Nicolschi, communist politician
Saul Ozias, communist politician
Ana Pauker, communist politician
Marcel Pauker, communist politician
Mircea Răceanu, diplomat and dissident (Jewish father)
Leonte Răutu, communist politician
Mihail Roller, communist politician
Valter Roman, communist politician
Petre Roman, politician (Jewish father)
Solomon Tinkelman, communist activist
Leonte Tismăneanu, communist politician
Sorin Toma, communist activist
Ghizela Vass, communist activist
Belu Zilber, communist activist

Religious figures
Ernest Klein, rabbi
Moses Rosen, rabbi
Moses Josef Rubin, rabbi
Alexandru Şafran, rabbi
Meir Shapiro, rabbi
Nicolae Steinhardt, Christian Orthodox priest (Jewish father)
Richard Wurmbrand, minister of religion

Sportspeople
Abraham Baratz, chess player
Ernie Grunfeld, basketball player
Leon Rotman, canoeist
Angelica Rozeanu, table tennis player
Andre Spitzer, fencing master and coach
Alexandru Tyroler, chess player
Bernardo Wexler, chess player
Kevin Youkilis, first baseman for the