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Pelasgians Definition, Densusianu and the Greeks

  Carpathian Mountains Image

Photo at:  http://www.romaniatourism.com/images/carpathian-mountains/carpathian-mountains3-image.html

http://romaniamegalitica.blogspot.com/2011/03/top-news-finding-atlantis-incredibil.html 

Translated in English by  Alexandra Ioana Furdui, February 2007

Text at: http://www.pelasgians.bigpondhosting.com/

 

 

   Dacia presents an extreme antiquity in everything. When studying the prehistoric times of the countries from the Carpathians and the Lower Danube, an ancient disappeared world, the cradle of the ante-Hellenic civilization, presents itself before our eyes. Behind the populations known in Greco-Roman antiquity under the name of Getae and Dacians, stretches back a long series of several thousand years, a buried history of some great events, whose importance had reached far beyond the horizon of this country, the history of a nation, genial, powerful and glorious, who, long before the Trojan times, had founded the first vast world empire, had founded the first cultural unity in Europe and had at the same time established a basis for the moral and material progress in western Asia and in north Africa.

Dacia, this country miraculously endowed by nature with all the goodness of the climate and soil, the work of remote geological times, had formed the first place perfect for the settling and development of the moral and industrial life of the migratory nations. Dacia, during the history of these dark ages, appears as the first geographical metropolis destined, by its particular position, by the abundance of its population and by the diversity of its riches, to extend during the prehistoric epoch, its ethnic and cultural influence, on one hand towards south, in the Balkan peninsula and beyond the Aegean Sea, and on the other hand towards west, on the great and long communication waterway of the Danube.

The civilizing action exercised by the prehistoric ante-Dacian population from the Carpathians and the Lower Danube, over the ante-Hellenic world, was much greater than we can imagine today, on the basis of fragments of monuments and of historical and folkloric traditions which we have from this extremely remote epoch.   

Nicolae Densusianu

  For more informarion please consult:  Biblioteca on Line (Romanian only) Studii daco-române,  „Densusianism“ si „recucerire a memoriei“ http://www.scribd.com/doc/6628628/Facerea-Lumii-Si-Muntii-Retezat http://ramaniamyblog.wordpress.com/2010/03/04/valac-dac-roman-marile-etnonime-ale-aceluiasi-neam/#comments
MARIA CIORNEI, BASARABI, LEGI BELAGINE, KOGAION,

 

 

Pelasgians, apparently a north Aegean people scattered throughout Greece by the migrations of the Bronze Age and preserving a common, non-Greek language. The Greeks used the name to describe the original pre-Greek inhabitants of Greece and the Aegean area, with whom they sometimes included the Tyrrhenians (Etruscans).

http://www.answers.com/topic/pelasgians

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/Danaus.html


http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.narmuz-lj.si/slike/arh/situla.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.narmuz-lj.si/ang/odd/arh/arhobj.html

 

Benvenuti%20situla.jpg

Benvenuti Situla from Este, with Venetic Celtic Lord drinking, Late 7th c. BC

 


Turdash-Vinca Pelasgians

PELASGES VINCIENES 

   Text and pictures at: http://pagesperso-orange.fr/atil/atil/y15.htm

Les Pélasges Vinciens sont venus d'Anatolie pour s'installer en Grèce en même temps que les Pélasges Diminiens (4400 av.jc). Comme eux ils utilisaient des poteries noires lustrées et incisées. Leurs maisons sont ovales et semi-enterrées ou carrées en argile,torchis ou bois.

 

Leur civilisation se subdivise ainsi dans le temps :

-Vinca-Tördös (4400 av.jc / 5500 BC) : Poteries noires polies, lustrées, incisées,gravées, incrustées et cannelées.

-Vinca-Gradac (4300 av.jc / 5300 BC) : Poteries noires lissées, incisées, incrustées et cannelées. Début de l'utilisation du cuivre.

-Vinca-Plocnik (4150 av.jc / 5150 BC) : Poteries noires lissées, cannelées, à spirales incrustées ou à peinture pateuse de l'ouest (Butmir), poteries graphitées à spirales incrustées ou à peinture pateuse de l'est (Karanovo 5 / Marica). Les maisons sont en poteaux de bois ou en torchis sur clayonnage.

-Vinca-D (3800-2800 av.jc / 4700-3500 BC) : Devant les 1ères invasions
Indo-Européennes dans les Balkans (vers -3800 av Jc / 4700 BC), les Vinciens occidentaux (avec poteries noires lustrées, incisées, incrustées et cannelées) se replient vers la cote dalmate pour créer la culture de Nakovanj et les Vinciens orientaux (avec poteries graphitées de Marica) se replient vers l'ouest des Balkans (cultures de Shuplevec-Gradeshnica-Krivodol en Macédoine-Yougoslavie orientale). Mais ces deux groupes finiront quand même par succomber dans la 2ème phase des invasions.

 

 

 

 NOTE : Il est possible que les Pélasges Vinciens aient utilisés une proto-écriture, ainsi que le montrent les tablettes retrouvées à Tartaria, en Roumanie et à Dispilio en Grèce du nord (5260 BC). > Voir les images des différentes tablettes.


RELIGION DES PELASGES VINCIENS :

Comme tous les asianiques, les Pélasges de Vinca adoraient la grande déesse de la fertilité (surtout sous sa forme de déesse à tête d'oiseau). Parfois ils la représentaient avec deux têtes sans que l'on sache ce que cela voulait symboliser (peut-être son règne à la fois sur le monde des vivants et sur celui des morts ?).
Les Pélasges de Vinca connaissaient aussi le culte du Dieu-taureau car ils décoraient les murs de leurs maisons avec des bucranes recouverts d'argile.
Dans le sanctuaire de La Parta (en roumanie) on a retrouvé des représentation des divinités suivantes : déesse, taureau, oiseau et serpent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dimini Pelasgians

 

  PELASGES DIMINIENS

C'étaient des Asianiques venus de Can-Hasan et Beycesultan en Anatolie du sud (vers 4400 av.jc / 5400 BC) pour s'installer en Grèce avec leurs poteries noires lustrées décorées par incision, excision, gravure ou cannelure .
Leur civilisation s'est divisée en plusieurs phases :

-Dimini-Tsangli (4400-4200 av.Jc / 5400-5200 BC) : poteries noires lustrées, noir sur gris ou brun sur beige.

-Dimini-Arapi (4200-4000 av.Jc / 5200-5000 BC) : poteries rouges ou noires lustrées. Influence le sud de l'Italie.

-Dimini-Hagia Sofia (4000 av.Jc / 5000 BC) : poteries noires lustrées puis à spirales blanches sur fond rouge.

-Dimini-Otzaki (4000-3800 av.Jc / 5000-4700 BC) : poteries "brun foncé sur rouge".

-Dimini classique (3800-3500 av.Jc / 4700-4400 BC) : poteries polies et lustrées, incisées, à spirales foncées sur rouge-beige et à peinture pateuse.
Invasion de l'Italie du sud (cuture de
Serra d'Alto avec hypogées et poteries à spirales).

-Rakhmani (4700-4100 BC) : poteries à spirales rouges pales sur rouge sombre , blanches sur noir lustré, lisses incisées ou à peinture pateuse. Infiltrations de
Vinciens venus du nord (Soufli-Larissa).

-Helladique ancien 1 (4100-2800 BC) : poteries rouges lissées. Les tombes internes aux villages sont remplacées par des cimetières extérieurs (sauf pour les enfants). Début de l'utilisation du bronze. Expansion vers le sud de l'Italie et la Sicile (Diana).

-Helladique ancien 2 (2300-1850 av.jc / 2800-2300 BC) : Expansion des poteries noires ou rouges lissées vers les Cyclades, l'Anatolie et Chypre (
culture des hypogées).

Ensuite, les Indo-Européens Grecs viendront du nord et détruiront cette civilisation.

En Anatolie, les derniers pélasges connus (appelés "peuples de la mer"), seront chassés par les invasions d'Indo-Européens Grecs et Phrygiens vers 1200 av.jc. Ils s'enfuiront alors en bateaux et se feront pirates :
Parmi eux, les Sardanes iront en Sardaigne, les Tyrhènes / Étrusques en Toscane, les Philistins en Palestine et les Teucres / Thekkels à Chypre. (Peut-être aussi que les Shakalashs étaient les ancètres des Sicules et qu'ils se sont instalés en Sicile ... mais les Romains disaient plutôt que les Sicules étaient un peuple venu d'Italie qui s'était installé en Sicile vers 1270 av. JC.)

  




A VOIR :      ---->Plan de Dimini       ---->Poteries de Dimini


RELIGION DES PELASGES DE DIMINI :

Comme tous les Asianiques, les Pélasges de Dimini adoraient la grande déesse de la fertilité .
Celle-ci pouvant être représentée de manière réaliste ( recouverte de lignes représentant peut-être des tatouages et tenant un enfant dans ses bras ) ou schématique.


  DIVINITES DES PELASGES D'EGEE ET D'ANATOLIE :

Leur déesse est la même, mais leur style artistique est un peu différent de celui des Pélasges de Dimini. Artistiquement, ils avaient tendance à la représenter de plus en plus sous une forme stylisée ou schématisée : c'est ainsi qu'ils créérent les idoles plates en forme de violon que l'on retrouve de l'Anatolie jusqu'à la Sardaigne et l'Espagne.


 

 Voir :   > Idoles en violon.    > Idoles schématiques des cyclades    > Idoles cruciformes de Chypre 


Le Dieu-Taureau était également connu :



Les indo-européens Grecs ont connu les derniers représentants de cette religion : en effet, à leur époque, les pélasges Crétois allaient dans des grottes pour rendre un culte à leur grande déesse de la nature ( Diktynna / Britomartis appelée aussi Atemito /Ertemi / Artimis / Artémis en Anatolie) ainsi qu'à un dieu-taureau ( Velkhanos, qui deviendra le minotaure de la légende ) . 

LES PONTIQUES DES BALKANS

http://pagesperso-orange.fr/atil/atil/y15.htm

Les Pontiques des Balkans sont des bandes armées d'Indo-Européens de Dniepr-Volga qui se sont infiltrées parmi les tribus Asianiques afin de les soumettre .
Plusieurs petits royaumes balkaniques se sont ainsi formés où une aristocratie indo-européenne dominait des paysans
Asianiques :

- Gumelnitza (3800-3100 av.jc / 4700-4000 BC) :
Groupe de peuples soumis au puissant royaume de Varna (sur la cote Bulgare), riche en or et en cuivre, utilisant des poteries grattées, polies, carénées ou graphitées et utilisant parfois des
tombes à ocre. Les morts sont enterrés sur le dos ou sur le coté droit, tête au nord-est. Les plus riches sont accompagnés d'objets en or et de longues lames de pierre, débitées par la technique du levier. Certaines tombes sont symboliques (elles sont vides); on parle alors de cénotaphes. Des enfants malformés sont sacrifiés vivants dans les fondations des maisons. L'agriculture recule devant le pastoralisme.
Cette civilisation sera détruite par l'invasion des pontiques de
Cernavoda 1-3

- Balkans centraux (3750-3000 av.jc / 4650-3900 BC) :
Peuples de Salcuta 3, Gradeshnica-Krivodol, Shuplevec, et Bubanj-Houm-1A, Composés par des
Pélasges Vinciens à poteries graphitées incisées soumis à une aristocratie indo-européenne. Ils subiront aussi l'invasion des Pontiques de Cernavoda 1-3 et iront se réfugier vers l'ouest (à shuplevec, Bakarno-Gumno et Crnobuki en Macédoine et Maliq-2) où ils subsisteront encore quelques temps, adoptant les poteries noires incisées et cannelées des peuples de Pontiques de Cotofeni.

Une partie des pontiques de Gumelnitza subsisteront aussi peut-être dans le sud de la Bulgarie (Ezero) d'où ils seront chassés vers 2300 av.jc / 2800 BC par les Pontiques de Foltesti. Ils iront alors s'installer en Anatolie et en Grèce pour former la civilisation des vases "dépas" et seront connus sous les noms de Nésites / Hittites, de Palas / Paphlagoniens, de Luwites (Lyciens et Lycaoniens) et de Lydiens (Tous ces peuples sont appelés "Indo-européens Anatoliens" ).

 

 


Religion des Pontiques de Gumelnitza :

Les Pontiques de Gumelnitza avaient en partie emprunté la religion des Asianiques avec lesquels ils s'étaient mélés. C'est ainsi qu'ils adoraient la grosse déesse de la fertilité. Les statues de celle-ci étaient décorées d'incisions, selon une mode empruntée aux Asianiques de Tripolje et Cucuteni.

 In Greek mythology, Pelasgus referred to several different people.

 One was the first king of Arcadia, the ancestor of the Pelasgians, whom Herodotus claimed were the oldest inhabitants of Greece. He was the son of Zeus (alternatively Phoroneus) and Niobe and the father of Lycaon with Meliboea. The Ancient Greeks used to believe even he was the first man.

  1. Another was the King of Argos, son of Triopas; also known as Gelanor, he welcomed Danaus and the Danaides when they fled from Aegyptus.
  2. Another was the father of Larissa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelasgus

Pelasgians, apparently a north Aegean people scattered throughout Greece by the migrations of the Bronze Age and preserving a common, non-Greek language. The Greeks used the name to describe the original pre-Greek inhabitants of Greece and the Aegean area, with whom they sometimes included the Tyrrhenians (Etruscans).

http://www.answers.com/topic/pelasgians

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/Danaus.html

Image bellow Terracotta Statuette from near Larissa http://www.mlahanas.de/Greece/Cities/Larissa.html

Pelasgians, name applied to the early inhabitants of ancient Greece. In the epic poems of Homer, the Pelasgians are mentioned as the inhabitants of several locations in Greece including the ancient city of Dodona in eastern Epirus, southeastern Thrace, Árgos, the Pelopónnisos (Peloponnesus), and Crete (Kríti). Later writers placed them in Asia Minor. Some modern scholars regard them as the pre-Indo-European inhabitants of Greece, originally from eastern Thessaly (Thessalia) in the northern part of the country; others regard them as the common ancestors of the Greeks and the Italians. More recently the term Pelasgian has been employed to designate the builders of the so-called Cyclopean architecture. Some scholars believe that the Pelasgians were responsible for the development of the Mycenaean civilization; this theory, however, has not won general acceptance. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558944/Pelasgians.html

Pelasgian Language Blog

 

Culture and Society » Prehistory & History » Pelasgian Language
http://dodona.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=history&action=display&thread=9925

 


Pelasgian Language
Post by dean on Jan 14, 2005, 10:39pm

I have read about Pelasgians inhabiting the Aegean area before waves of Greek-speakers migrated there, from the "north." From what I've read about recent theories of language and population genetics, it seems that the idea that Greeks migrating from the north is erroneous, and that the above theory is dated.

Is the Pelasgian language related to Indo-European or any of it's early formative languages? I have read that it's a non-Indo-European language or languages. Is it a Paleolithic language?


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by artemidoros on Jan 15, 2005, 4:48pm

The Pelasgians were non-Greek speakers. That is the only thing we can say with a degree of certainty. It appears that the name was often used as a blanket term by the ancient Greeks, to cover a number of ethne in the Helladic peninsula and the Aegean. They were considered to have been there before the Greeks. We do not know if they spoke a language that was related to IE languages, an ergatic Paleolithic language or something else. We can only speculate.

Where is Artemisia? This is her subject. Must have gone digging again


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by deinokratos on Jan 16, 2005, 8:02pm

Am i mistaken in my understanding that there was a tablet found in Lesvos that contains a language that appears to be related to Etruscan, or is just in Etruscan-style Greek letters?

I found this on Wikipedia, kind of informative, it is tolerant enough (of nationalist based scholarship) not only to include Albanian-Pelasgian theories, but also the far more absurd Turkish-Pelasgian theories.


Quote:

 From a tribal name, both Classical historians and archeologists have come to use the name "Pelasgian" to describe the inhabitants in the lands around the Aegean Sea and their descendants before the arrival of the waves of Greek-speaking invaders during the 2nd millennium BC. The results of archaeological excavations at Çatalhöyük by James Mellaart (1955) and F. Schachermeyr (1979) led them to conclude that the Pelasgians had migrated from Asia Minor to the Aegean basin in the 4th millennium BC. Further, scholars have attributed a number of non-Indo-European linguistic and cultural features to the Pelasgians:

Groups of non-Indo-European loan words in the Greek language, borrowed in its prehistoric development
Non-Greek place names in the region containing the consonantal strings "-nth-" (e.g. Corinth) or "-tt-" in the peninsula of Attica, or with "-ss-" (e.g. Larissa)
Certain mythological stories or deities (usually goddesses) that have no parallel to the mythologies of other Indo-European peoples like the Germans, Celts or Indians.
A small number of non-Greek inscriptions, the best-known found on Lemnos. These inscriptions use a version of the western Greek alphabet similar to that used in the Old Italic alphabet employed for Etruscan inscriptions.
Not all of these features belong to the same people. For example, some evidence suggests that the "-ss-" placenames may have come from a language related to Hittite (for example: Parnassus may be related to the Hittite word parna- or "house"). Because of insufficient evidence from the 2nd millennium BC, no consensus exists on the relationship of these "Pelasgian" elements to their neighbors -- although much speculation has taken place, sometimes fueled by a desire for association with some of the earliest known inhabitants of Europe.

The poet and mythologist Robert Graves, in his works on Greek mythology, asserts that certain elements of that mythology originate with the native Pelasgian people — namely the parts related to his concept of the White Goddess, an archetypical Earth Goddess — drawing additional support for his conclusion from his interpretations of other ancient literature: Irish, Welsh, Greek, Biblical, Gnostic, and medieval writings. Mainstream scholarship considers Graves' thesis at best controversial, although certain literary circles and many neo-pagan groups have accepted it.

The French author Zacharia Mayani (1899 - ) put forth a thesis that the Etruscan language had links to the Albanian language. The Albanian régime of Enver Hoxha embraced this theory for propaganda reasons, and extended it to include the Pelasgians in this association. Mainstream scholars have paid Mayani's arguments little serious attention.

A Turkish scholar, Polat Kaya, has recently offered a translation of one of the inscriptions on Lemnos, based on his theory that it reflects a language related to Turkish. However, in the period of the putative date of the inscription the Turkish people lived several thousand miles away in southeastern Siberia. They began to migrate westward only about AD 300, a fact that has hindered acceptance of Kaya's translation.

Perhaps the least unlikely theory connects at least some of the Pelasgians with the Iberian-Caucasian cultures of the prehistoric Caucasus, known to the Greeks as Colchis. Numerous Georgian scholars -- including M.G. Tseretheli, R.V. Gordeziani, M. Abdushelishvili, and Dr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia -- claim both linguistic and anthropological similarities between the Pelasgians and the early inhabitants of the Caucasus -- as well as with almost every known non-Indo-European language in Europe.

The question awaits a definitive resolution, however. As Donald A. Mackenzie, writes (in Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe, 1917, page 75):

"Before these [Hellenic] invaders entered into possession of the country [of Greece] it had been divided between various "barbarous tribes", including the Pelasgi and their congeners the Caucones and Leleges. Thirlwall, among others, expressed the view "that the name Pelasgians was a general one, like that of Saxons, Franks, or Alemanni, and that each of the Pelasgian tribes had also one peculiar to itself". The Hellenes did not exterminate the aborigines, but constituted a military aristocracy. Aristotle was quoted to show that their original seat was near Dodona, in Epirus, and that they first appeared in Thessaly about 1384 B.C. It was believed that the Hellenic conquerors laid the foundation of Greek civilization."
We moderns, less well grounded in the Classics, may also show less confidence in such authoritative and exact dates for the entry of the Indo-European speakers into peninsular Greece. Mackenzie continues, quoting George Grote:

"By what circumstances, or out of what pre-existing elements, the aggregate was brought together and modified, we find no evidence entitled to credit. There are, indeed, various names affirmed to designate the ante-Hellenic inhabitants of many parts of Greece--the Pelasgi, the Leleges, the Kuretes, the Kaukones, the Aones, the Temmikes, the Hyantes, the Telchines, the Bœotian Thracians, the Teleboæ, the Ephyri, the Phlegyæ, &c. These are names belonging to legendary, not to historical Greece — extracted out of a variety of conflicting legends by the logographers and subsequent historians, who strung together out of them a supposed history of the past, at a time when the conditions of historical evidence were very little understood. That these names designated real nations may be true but here our knowledge ends."

 


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by nikos on Feb 7, 2005, 2:18pm

Indeed, the Pelasgians were non-Greek speakers. Also, it is true that the name was often used as a blanket term by the ancient Greeks, to cover a number of ethne in the Helladic peninsula and the Aegean.

However, we do know e.g. that the Cretans were not Pelasgians. Homer knows that at his time (or at the time of the Trojan war) the inhabitans of Crete were Achaeans and "Etewokrites". Etewos (or Eteos)=genuine, real.

We might also have some indications of the language they spoke: Names of places like "Lycabettus" is often attributed to them. In that name, I see the root "Lux" i.e. light (others say that the name is Greek and it seems "the passage of the wolves").

Some say that their name comes from two IE roots: *bhel (=bloom) and *osgho (=branch) Moreover, there is reason to believe that this was indeed the name they used themselves, not a name given to them by the Greeks. For one thing, the root *bhel has given words starting from "f" in Greek, not from "p" (for instance "fyllo" or "phyllo"=leef).

So, in my view there is the possibility that the Pelasgians spoke a non-Greek IE language, or at least a language close to IE. If we combine that with the existance of the Anatolian languages close by, which are also very archaic and are IE or related to IE, we might conclude that the whole Aegean - Anatolian region was the birthplace of the IE languages, rather than Central Europe.

I know this sounds like Greek propaganda, so have to clarify the following:
- I know that I am not giving any conclusive argument. I am just proposing a possibility. Somebody else might be in a better position to comment on that.
- I do not consider it as any particular privilige for a region to be the birthplace of any language fanily.


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by artemidoros on Feb 10, 2005, 8:26pm


Quote:

 


It's alright for some
Actually I am taking the family to Italy for a week at the end of March but will only be in Rome for 2 1/2 days.

Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by dean on Feb 11, 2005, 1:23am


Quote:

The Pelasgians were non-Greek speakers. That is the only thing we can say with a degree of certainty. It appears that the name was often used as a blanket term by the ancient Greeks, to cover a number of ethne in the Helladic peninsula and the Aegean. TEXT. We do not know if they spoke a language that was related to IE languages, an ergatic Paleolithic language or something else. We can only speculate.

Where is Artemisia? This is her subject. Must have gone digging again ::)


When I think about the way some Greeks look, I can't help feeling that they are descendants of people who have lived in the Greek peninsula since time immemorial and are descendants of the pre-Greek-speaking population. My second-grade Greek school teacher comes to mind--an older lady who said she was from a mountain village. This lady had a penchant for pulling ears and slapping faces to administer discipline.


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by red on Feb 11, 2005, 7:46am

The Pelasgians were nonGreek Indo-European,maybe Thracian or Celtic.


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by eugen on Mar 29, 2005, 6:49pm

Pelasgians=Old ?aboriginal ?balkan people=old Mediterranean people.That's better,because it seems that entire Mediterana was a warm,good place for many either in glacial and warmer periods.At one past time all regions were inhabited.And good conditions for wandering and mixing.The problem is ensity,number,how old/age,civilized.The population pressure centers were:Africa,South-Iberia,Balcan,Near-East....and India.My point of view is as following:To a point,Iberian-African and Balkan parts had the initial advantage in Europe.Some-how they were mixed,used same territories for gathering-fishing.They were located mainly in the south-eastern part of Europe.They were Balkano-Iberian.The "Old Europe" was theirs.As one can observe,the Mesolithic cultures in "Vinca" area was inhabited by:tardonesian-centro-European &azilian&gravettian(of romanello-azilian aspect) cultures.As you can see the preponderant element was the protho-Iberian one,maybe they took advantage of an earlier starting.In this case I am naming the Old-Europeans,protho-B-Iberians.North of Black-Sea & Caucasus &near-East,proto-arians.the problem is as folows ;it seems that entire above regions were populated by:

RA-ARA-ARI-HURI-ARIMI-ARIMANI-ARUMANI-RAMANI-ROMANI.There are only 3 regions for their origins:

1.Africa/Sahara

2.Danubian/arimi

3.Armenian/proto-Arian=Iranians+Tu-ranians.What about do not question from where and who were first?

As hunter-gatherers they were already so mixed,they were shortage of animals,they were multiplying and expanding as agriculturalists.Is like the same people are making arches and circles on Euro-Asian map.The people "out of Africa" returning in great numbers to more hospitable climates than Saraswaty,Siberia,Central Asia,Sahara ,Near-East and Anatolia which every of them are encountering tidal vawes (Sumer) and almost all, dessication.Mediterranean-European area:mild,temperate climate;not ocean coast/tidal waves,reugulatory Mediterana "lake",regulatory Golf-Stream,plenty of rivers.So I am for a paleolithic-neolithic pelasgian proto-Iberian-euskara-type,non IE,and in Near-East in the same time a proto-arian.After neolithic,and beginning with,in Europe Pelasgians were using an more +arian and more +indian language,wich at a point was something like PIE.But!!!!The PIE momentum was 1 second.After this second the languages derived,very early (4500BC).I am not for PIE in Anatolia or Thracia or other place ,I am for .....why not,an bifocal PIE area,and.....why not,on moove.I am interested about your coments and opinions.Remember:The austric (south-eastern asiatic),Uralic,arian and Indian languages,a v.v. old.They are not necessary mooving in areas in time as are wanting the scientists and chanhing their minds and theories.Remember :RA.....ROMANI.By short I am for an proto-Iberian origin of all those arian-like languages.

          


In book VIII of his Description of Greece, Pausanias gives a curious and intriguing version of the foundations of human social life in Arcadia.

                The Arcadians say that Pelasgus was the first inhabitant of this land.  It is natural to suppose that others accompanied Pelasgus, and that he was not by himself; for otherwise he would have been a king without any subjects to rule over...Pelasgus on becoming king invented huts that humans should not shiver, or be soaked by rain, or oppressed by heat.  Moreover, it was he who first thought of coats of sheep-skins, such as poor folk still wear in Euboea and Phocis. He too it was who checked the habit of eating green leaves, grasses, and roots always inedible and sometimes poisonous.  But he introduced as food the nuts of trees, not those of all trees but only the acorns of the edible oak.

http://www.d.umn.edu/~ebrownin/separating.htm

http://www.mythindex.com/greek-mythology/P/Pelasgus.html

http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/2510.html 

 

 

Pelasgians in the Trojan War

Pelasgians in the Trojan War

 Text at:

 http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/TrojanWar.html

The Trojan forces are also listed in the second book of the Iliad, consisting of the Trojans themselves, led by Hector, and various allies listed as Dardanians led by Aeneas, Zeleians, Adrasteians, Percotians, Pelasgians, Thracians, Ciconian spearmen, Paionian archers, Halizones, Mysians, Phrygians, Maeonians, Miletians, Lycians led by Sarpedon and Carians. Only the Carians are specifically mentioned by Homer to be barbarian-speaking.

..

The death of Achilles

Shortly after the death of Hector, Achilles defeated Memnon of Ethiopia, Cycnus of Colonae and the Amazonian warrior Penthesilia (with whom Achilles also had an affair in some versions). He was very soon killed by Paris — either by a poisoned arrow (the arrow was guided by Apollo; Paris did not do it by himself), or in an older version by a knife to the back (or heel), while visiting a Trojan princess, Polyxena, during a truce. Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles remains undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held.

Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the Danube.


1. Hippothous - Pelasgians-Aboriginal people, inhabitants of Greece
Hippothous -  led the tribes of the Pelasgians against the Achaeans in the Trojan War. Hippothous  was, some say, son of Pelasgus , son of Triopas 1, king of Argos. Others say that his father was Lethus, son of Teutamus. Hippothous   was killed by Ajax . (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.2.840, 17.288ff.).
2. Pylaeus  Pelasgians Led the Pelasgians together with Hippothous 5 (see above). He is said to be father of Lethus.

 

 Etruscans-Image at: http://stoa.wordpress.com/2008/08/

  Pelasgians first appear in the poems of Homer: those who are stated to be Pelasgians in the Iliad are among the allies of Troy. In the section known as the Catalogue of Trojans, they are mentioned between mentions of the Hellespontine cities and the Thracians of south-eastern Europe (i.e., on the Hellespontine border of Thrace). Homer calls their town or district "Larisa"and characterises it as fertile, and its inhabitants as celebrated for their spearsmanship. He records their chiefs as Hippothous and Pylaeus, sons of Lethus son of Teutamus.The Odyssey mentions some Pelasgians in Crete. The Iliad also refers to "Pelasgic Argos",[16] which is most likely to be the plain of Thessaly,and to "Pelasgic Zeus", living in and ruling over Dodona, which must be the oracular one in Epirus. However, neither passage mentions actual Pelasgians; Myrmidons, Hellenes and Achaeans specifically inhabit Thessaly and the Selloi are around Dodona. They all fought on the Greek side.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelasgians


 

 

Pelasgians

Pelasgians

  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelasgians

 The name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by some ancient Greek writers to refer to populations that preceded the Hellenes in Greece, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably autochthonous people in the Greek world."[1] In general, "Pelasgian" has come to mean more broadly all the autochthonous inhabitants of the Aegean lands and their culture before the advent of the Greek language.[2] This is not an exclusive meaning, but other senses require identification when meant. During the classical period enclaves under that name survived in several locations of mainland Greece, Crete and other regions of the Aegean. Populations identified as "Pelasgian" spoke a language or languages that at the time Greeks identified as not Greek, even though some ancient writers described the Pelasgians as Greeks. A tradition also survived that large parts of Greece had once been Pelasgian before being Hellenized. These parts generally fell within the ethnic domain now attributed to speakers of ancient Greek who were called Ionians.

The classification of the Pelasgian language(s), known only from non-Greek elements within Ancient Greek, whether or not Pelasgian was a single language and the relationship of Pelasgians to prehistoric Hellenes are long-standing questions that have not received definitive answers. The field of study looks forward to additional evidence that may fill in the gaps. Many past and current theories exist. Some of them are colored by contemporary nationalist issues[3] and therefore are not objective.

Archaeological excavations during the 20th century have unearthed artifacts in areas traditionally inhabited by the Pelasgians, like Thessaly and Attica and Lemnos. Archaeologists excavating at Sesklo and Dimini have described Pelasgian material culture as Neolithic; others have related to Pelasgians material culture that is "Middle Helladic" and even the "Late Helladic" culture of Mycenaean Greece. Even the linking of archaeological material evidence to linguistic culture is called into question by Walter Pohl and other modern students of ethnogenesis.[4]

Etymology

The etymology of the ethnonym Pelasgoí (Pelasgians) is uncertain.

An ancient etymology links pelasgos to pelargos "stork" and postulates that the Pelasgians were migrants like storks, possibly from Egypt, where they nest.[5] Aristophanes deals effectively with this etymology in his comedy the Birds. One of the laws of "the storks" in the satirical cloud-cuckoo-land (punning on the Athenian belief that they were originally Pelasgians) is that grown-up storks must support their parents by migrating elsewhere and conducting warfare.[6]

Murray summarizes the derivation from pelas gē, "neighboring land:"[7]

If Pelasgoi is connected with πέλας, 'near', the word would mean 'neighbor' and would denote the nearest strange people to the invading Greeks ...

Julius Pokorny[8] derives Pelasgoi from *pelag-skoi (Flachlandbewohner, or "flatland-inhabitants"); specifically, Bewohner der thessalischen Ebene ("Inhabitants of the Thessalian plain"). The Indo-European root is *plāk-, "flat."[9] Pokorny details a previous derivation, which appears in English at least as early as Gladstone's Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age of 1858.[10] If the Pelasgians were not Indo-Europeans, the name in this derivation must have been assigned by the Hellenes.

The ancient Greek word for sea, pelagos, comes from the same root, *plāk-, as the Doric word plagos, "side" (which is flat), appearing in *pelag-skoi. Klein therefore simply interprets the same reconstructed form as "the sea men", where the sea is the flat.[11]

This interpretation does not require the Indo-Europeans to have had a word for sea, which living on the inland plains (if they did) they are likely to have lacked. On encountering the sea they simply used the word for plain, "the flat." The flatlanders also could acquire what must have been to the Hellenes a homonym, "the sea men". Best of all, if the Egyptians of the Late Bronze Age encountered maritime marauders under this name they would have translated as Sea peoples.

See Videos: Pelasgians at:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxpxVJ6yh-Y

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zDLtPp97j0

Literary evidence

 


Map of Pelasgians and Pelasgus.

Literary analysis has been going on since Classical Greece, when the writers of those times read the previous works on the subject. No definitive answers were ever forthcoming by this method; rather, it served to define the problems better. The method perhaps reached a peak in the Victorian era when new methods of systematic comparison began to be applied in philology. Typical of the era is the long and detailed study of William Ewart Gladstone,[12] who among his many talents was a trained classicist. All the evidence presented in this section is covered in the article on Gladstone. Until further ancient texts come to light not much new can be said. The most likely source of progress continues to be archaeology and the related sciences.

Homer

Pelasgians first appear in the poems of Homer: those who are stated to be Pelasgians in the Iliad are among the allies of Troy. In the section known as the Catalogue of Trojans, they are mentioned between mentions of the Hellespontine cities and the Thracians of south-eastern Europe (i.e., on the Hellespontine border of Thrace).[13] Homer calls their town or district "Larisa"[14] and characterises it as fertile, and its inhabitants as celebrated for their spearsmanship. He records their chiefs as Hippothous and Pylaeus, sons of Lethus son of Teutamus.

The Odyssey mentions some Pelasgians in Crete.[15]

The Iliad also refers to "Pelasgic Argos",[16] which is most likely to be the plain of Thessaly,[17] and to "Pelasgic Zeus", living in and ruling over Dodona,[18] which must be the oracular one in Epirus. However, neither passage mentions actual Pelasgians; Myrmidons, Hellenes and Achaeans specifically inhabit Thessaly and the Selloi are around Dodona. They all fought on the Greek side.

Post-Homer poets

 

 

Plain of Thessaly, to the west of classical Pelasgiotis, but in the original range of the Pelasgians. The Pindus Mountains are visible in the background. The river is the Peneus.

Hesiod calls the oracular Dodona, identified by reference to "the oak," the "seat of Pelasgians",[19] clarifying Homer's Pelasgic Zeus. He mentions also that Pelasgus (Ancient Greek: Πελασγός, the eponymous ancestor of the Pelasgians) was the father of Lycaon (king of Arcadia).[20]

Asius of Samos describes Pelasgus as the first man, born of the earth.[21]

In Aeschylus' play The Suppliants the Danaids fleeing from Egypt seek asylum from King Pelasgus of Argos, which he says is on the Strymon including Perrhaebia in the north, the Thessalian Dodona and the slopes of the Pindus mountains on the west and the shores of the sea on the east;[22] that is, a territory including but somewhat larger than classical Pelasgiotis. The southern boundary is not mentioned; however, Apis is said to have come to Argos from Naupactus "across" (peras),[23] implying that Argos includes all of east Greece from the north of Thessaly to the Peloponnesian Argos, where the Danaids are probably to be conceived as having landed. He claims to rule the Pelasgians and to be the "child of Palaichthon ('ancient earth') whom the earth brought forth."

The Danaids call the country the "Apian hills" and claim that it understands the karbana audan[24] (accusative case, and in the Dorian dialect), which many translate as "barbarian speech" but Karba (where live the Karbanoi) is in fact a non-Greek word. They claim to descend from ancestors in ancient Argos even though they are of a "dark race" (melanthes ... genos).[25] Pelasgus admits that the land was once called Apia but compares them to the women of Libya and Egypt[26] and wants to know how they can be from Argos on which they cite descent from Io.

In a lost play by Aeschylus, Danaan Women, he defines the original homeland of the Pelasgians as the region around Mycenae.[27]

Sophocles in a fragment of a missing play, Inachus,[28] presents Inachus as the elder in the lands of Argos, the Heran hills and among the Tyrsenoi Pelasgoi, an unusual hyphenated noun construction, "Tyrsenians-Pelasgians". Interpretation is open, even though translators typically make a decision, but Tyrsenians may well be the ethnonym Tyrrhenoi.

Euripides calls the inhabitants of Argos "Pelasgians" in his play entitled Orestes.[29][30] In a lost play, Archelaus, he says that Danaus on coming to reside in the city of Inachus (Argos) formulated a law that the Pelasgians were now to be called Danaans.[27]

Genealogists

Hecataeus of Miletus in a fragment from Genealogiai states that the clan (genos) descending from Deucalion ruled Thessaly and that it was called Pelasgia from king Pelasgus.[31] A second fragment says that Pelasgus was the son of Zeus and Niobe and that his son Lycaon founded a dynasty of kings of Arcadia.[32]

A fragment from the writings of Acusilaus asserts that the Peloponnesians were called Pelasgians after Pelasgus, a son of Zeus and Niobe.[33]

Hellanicus

Hellanicus

Larissa of Argos.

 Fragment 7 from Argolica concerns itself with one word in one line of the Iliad,[34] "horse-nourishing", applied to the Peloponnesus. What is said about it is reported by different authors and all accounts differ. The explanation is trivial and mythical but all accounts agree Hellanicus said the term Argeia (gē) or Argolis once applied to all Peloponnesus and that Pelasgus and his two brothers received it as an inheritance from their father, named either Triopas, Arestōr or Phorōneus. Pelasgus built the citadel Larissa of Argos on the Erasinus river, whence the name Pelasgic Argos (of the Peloponnesus), but later resettled inland, built Parrhasia and named the region or caused it to be named Pelasgia, to be renamed Arcadia with the coming of the Greeks.[35]

  According to Fragment 76, of the Phoronis,[36] from Pelasgus and his wife Menippe came a line of kings: Phrastōr, Amyntōr, Teutamides and Nasas (kings of Pelasgiotis in Thessaly). The Pelasgians under Nasas "rose up" (anestēsan) against the Hellenes (who presumably had acquired Thessaly) and departed for Italy where they first took Crotona and then founded Tyrrhenia. The conclusion is inescapable that Hellanicus believed the Pelasgians of Thessaly (and indirectly of Peloponnesus) to have been the ancestors of the Etruscans.

Herodotus

Herodotus of Halicarnassus wrote:[37]

What language however the Pelasgians used to speak I am not able with certainty to say. But one must pronounce judging by those that still remain of the Pelasgians who dwelt in the city of Creston above the Tyrsenians, and who were once neighbors of the race now called Dorian, dwelling then in the land which is now called Thessaliotis, and also by those that remain of the Pelasgians that who settled at Plakia and Skylakē in the region of the Hellespont, who before that had been settlers with the Athenians, and of the natives of the various other towns which are really Pelasgian, though they have lost the name. If one must pronounce judging by these, the Pelasgians used to speak a Barbarian language. If therefore all the Pelasgian race was such as these, then the Attic race, being Pelasgian, at the same time changed and became Hellenic, unlearnt also its language. For the people of Creston do not speak the same language with any of those who dwell about them, nor yet do the people of Plakia, but they speak the same language as each other. By this it is proved that they still keep unchanged the form of language which they brought with them when they migrated to these places.

In any case, Herodotus alludes to other districts where Pelasgian peoples lived on under changed names; Samothrace[38] and "the Pelasgian city of Antandrus"[39] in the Troad probably provide instances of this. He mentions that there were Pelasgian populations on Lemnos and Imbros.[40] Those of Lemnos he represents as being of Hellespontine Pelasgians who had been living in Athens but whom the Athenians resettled on Lemnos and then found it necessary to reconquer.[41] Herodotus also mentions the Cabeiri, the gods of the Pelasgians, whose worship gives an idea of where the Pelasgians once were.

Overall, Herodotus was convinced that the Hellenic population descended from the Pelasgians:[37]

As for the Hellenic race, it has used ever the same language, as I clearly perceive, since it first took its rise; but since the time when it parted off feeble at first from the Pelasgian race, setting forth from a small beginning it has increased to a great number of ethnic groups, and chiefly because many Barbarian races have been added to it besides. Moreover, it is true, as I think, of the Pelasgian race also, that so far as it remained Barbarian it never made any great increase.

He states that the Pre-Hellenic Pelasgians of Athens were called Cranai[42] and that the Pelasgian population among the Ionians of the Peloponnesus were the Aegialian Pelasgians.[43]

Thucydides

Thucydides states that:[44]

Before the time of Hellen, son of Deucalion, ... the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the Pelasgian. It was not till Hellen and his sons grew strong in Phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name of Hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all.

He regards the Athenians as having lived in scattered independent settlements in Attica but at some time after Theseus they changed residence to Athens, which was already populated. A plot of land below the Acropolis was called "Pelasgian" and was regarded as cursed, but the Athenians settled there anyway.[45]

In connection with the campaign against Amphipolis Thucydides mentions that several settlements on the promontory of Actē were home to:[46]

 ... mixed barbarian races speaking the two languages. There is also a small Chalcidian element; but the greater number are Tyrrheno-Pelasgians once settled in Lemnos and Athens, and Bisaltians, Crestonians and Eonians; the towns all being small ones.

Ephorus

The historian Ephorus building on a fragment from Hesiod that attests to a tradition of an aboriginal Pelasgian people in Arcadia, developed a theory of the Pelasgians as a people living a military way of life (stratiōtikon bion) "and that, in converting many peoples to the same mode of life, they imparted their name to all," meaning "all of Hellas". They colonized Crete and extended their rule over Epirus, Thessaly and by implication over wherever else the ancient authors said they were, beginning with Homer. The Peloponnesus was called Pelasgia.[47]

Pausanias

In his Description of Greece, Pausanias mentions the Arcadians who state that Pelasgus (along with his followers) was the first inhabitant of their land.[48] Upon becoming king, Pelasgus was responsible for inventing huts, sheep-skin coats, and a diet consisting of acorns. Moreover, the land he ruled was named "Pelasgia".[49][50] When Arcas became king, Pelasgia was renamed "Arcadia" and its inhabitants (the Pelasgians) were renamed "Arcadians".[51] Pausanias also mentions the Pelasgians as responsible for creating a wooden image of Orpheus in a sanctuary of Demeter at Therae,[52] as well as expelling the Minyans and Lacedaemonians from Lemnos.[53]

Pythagoras claimed to be a Pelasgian

Dionysius of Halicarnassus

Dionysius of Halicarnassus in several pages gives a synoptic interpretation of the Pelasgians based on the sources available to him then:[54]

Afterwards some of the Pelasgians who inhabited Thessaly, as it is now called, being obliged to leave their country, settled among the Aborigines and jointly with them made war upon the Sicels. It is possible that the Aborigines received them partly in the hope of gaining their assistance, but I believe it was chiefly on account of their kinship; for the Pelasgians, too, were a Greek nation originally from the Peloponnesus ...

He goes on to add that the nation wandered a great deal. They were originally natives of "Achaean Argos" descended from Pelasgus, the son of Zeus and Niobe. They migrated from there to Haemonia (later called Thessaly), where they "drove out the barbarian inhabitants" and divided the country into Phthiotis, Achaia and Pelasgiotis, named after Achaeus, Phthius and Pelasgus, "the sons of Larissa and Poseidon." Subsequently "... about the sixth generation they were driven out by the Curetes and Leleges, who are now called Aetolians and Locrians ..."

From there the Pelasgians dispersed to Crete, the Cyclades, Histaeotis, Boeotia, Phocis, Euboea, the coast along the Hellespont and the islands, especially Lesbos, which had been colonized by Macar son of Crinacus. Most went to Dodona and eventually being driven from there to Italy then called Saturnia. They landed at Spina at the mouth of the Po River. Still others crossed the Apennine Mountains to Umbria and being driven from there went to the country of the Aborigines. These consented to a treaty and settled them at Velia. They and the Aborigenes took over Umbria but were dispossessed by the Tyrrhenians.

The author continues to detail the tribulations of the Pelasgians and then goes on to the Tyrrhenians, whom he is careful to distinguish from the Pelasgians.

Ovid

Ovid said:[55]

Sadly his father, Priam, mourned for him, not knowing that young Aesacus had assumed wings on his shoulders, and was yet alive. Then also Hector with his brothers made complete but unavailing sacrifice, upon a tomb which bore his carved name. Paris was absent. But soon afterwards, he brought into that land a ravished wife, Helen, the cause of a disastrous war, together with a thousand ships, and all the great Pelasgian nation.

Here, when a sacrifice had been prepared to Jove, according to the custom of their land, and when the ancient altar glowed with fire, the Greeks observed an azure colored snake crawling up in a plane tree near the place where they had just begun their sacrifice. Among the highest branches was a nest, with twice four birds--and those the serpent seized together with the mother-bird as she was fluttering round her loss. And every bird the serpent buried in his greedy maw. All stood amazed: but Calchas, who perceived the truth, exclaimed, "Rejoice Pelasgian men, for we shall conquer; Troy will fall; although the toil of war must long continue--so the nine birds equal nine long years of war." And while he prophesied, the serpent, coiled about the tree, was transformed to a stone, curled crooked as a snake.

Strabo

Strabo dedicates a section of his Geography to the Pelasgians, relating both his own opinions and those of prior writers. Of his own opinions he says:[27]

As for the Pelasgi, almost all agree, in the first place, that some ancient tribe of that name spread throughout the whole of Greece, and particularly among the Aeolians of Thessaly.

He defines Pelasgian Argos as being "between the outlets of the Peneus River and Thermopylae as far as the mountainous country of Pindus and states that it took its name from Pelasgian rule. He includes also the tribes of Epirus as Pelasgians (based on the opinions of "many"). Lesbos is named Pelasgian. Caere was settled by Pelasgians from Thessaly, who called it by its former name, Agylla. Pelasgians also settled around the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy at Pyrgi and a few other settlements under a king, Maleos.[56]

Language

Further information: Aegean languages

In the absence of certain knowledge about the identity (or identities) of the Pelasgians, various theories have been proposed. Some of the more prevalent theories supported by scholarship are presented below. Since Greek is classified as an Indo-European language, the major question of concern is whether Pelasgian was an Indo-European language.

Pelasgian as pre-Indo-European

Unknown provenance

One major theory uses the name "Pelasgian" to describe the inhabitants of the lands around the Aegean Sea before the arrival of proto-Greek speakers as well as traditionally identified enclaves of descendants that still existed in Classical Greece. The theory derives from the original concepts of the philologist Paul Kretschmer, whose views prevailed throughout the first half of the 20th century and are still given some credibility today.

For more details on this topic, see Dorian invasion#Kretschmer's external Greeks.

Though Wilamowitz-Moellendorff wrote them off as mythical, the results of archaeological excavations at Çatalhöyük by James Mellaart (1955) and F. Schachermeyr (1979) led them to conclude that the Pelasgians had migrated from Asia Minor to the Aegean basin in the 4th millennium BC. In this theory a number of possible non-Indo-European linguistic and cultural features are attributed to the Pelasgians:

  • Groups of apparently non-Indo-European loan words in the Greek language, borrowed in its prehistoric development.
  • Non-Greek and possibly non-Indo-European roots for many Greek place names in the region, containing the consonantal strings "-nth-" (e.g. Corinth, Probalinthos), or its equivalent "-ns-" (e.g. Tiryns); "-tt-", e.g. in the peninsula of Attica, Mounts Hymettus and Brilettus/Brilessus, Lycabettus Hill, the deme of Gargettus, etc.; or its equivalent "-ss-": Larissa, Mount Parnassus, the river names Kephissos and Ilissos etc.
  • Certain mythological stories or deities that seem to have no parallels in the mythologies of other Indo-European peoples.
  • Non-Greek inscriptions throughout the Mediterranean, such as the Lemnos stele.

George Grote summarizes the theory as follows:[57]

There are, indeed, various names affirmed to designate the ante-Hellenic inhabitants of many parts of Greece — the Pelasgi, the Leleges, the Curetes, the Kaukones, the Aones, the Temmikes, the Hyantes, the Telchines, the Boeotian Thracians, the Teleboae, the Ephyri, the Phlegyae, &c. These are names belonging to legendary, not to historical Greece — extracted out of a variety of conflicting legends by the logographers and subsequent historians, who strung together out of them a supposed history of the past, at a time when the conditions of historical evidence were very little understood. That these names designated real nations may be true but here our knowledge ends.

The poet and mythologist Robert Graves asserts that certain elements of that mythology originate with the native Pelasgian people (namely the parts related to his concept of the White Goddess, an archetypical Earth Goddess) drawing additional support for his conclusion from his interpretations of other ancient literature: Irish, Welsh, Greek, Biblical, Gnostic, and medieval writings.[58]

Tyrsenian

According to the Iliad, Lemnos has no Pelasgians, but a Minyan dynasty.[59]

Iberian-Caucasian

Some Georgian scholars (including M.G. Tseretheli, R.V. Gordeziani, M. Abdushelishvili, and Dr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia) connect the Pelasgians with the Iberian-Caucasian cultures of the prehistoric Caucasus, known to the Greeks as Colchis.

Pelasgian as Indo-European

Anatolian

In western Anatolia, many toponyms with the "-ss-" infix derive from the adjectival suffix also seen in cuneiform Luwian and some Palaic; the classic example is Bronze Age Tarhuntassa (loosely, "City of the Storm God Tarhunta"), and later Parnassus may be related to the Hittite word parna- or "house". These elements have led to a second theory, that Pelasgian was to some degree an Anatolian language.

Thracian

Vladimir Georgiev asserted that the Pelasgians were Indo-Europeans, with an Indo-European etymology of pelasgoi from pelagos, "sea" as the Sea People, the PRŚT of Egyptian inscriptions, and related them to the neighbouring Thracians. He proposed a soundshift model from Indo-European to Pelasgian.[60]

Albanian

In 1854, an Austrian diplomat and Albanian language specialist, Johann Georg von Hahn, identified the Pelasgian language with "Albanian". This theory is rejected by modern archaeological and historical circles, however it has retained staunch supporters among Albanian nationalists.[61]

Previously undiscovered Indo-European

 Following Vladimir Georgiev,[62] who placed Pelasgian as an Indo-European language "between Albanian and Armenian"[63] A. J. Van Windekens (1915—1989) offered rules for an unattested hypothetical Indo-European Pelasgian language, selecting vocabulary for which there was no Greek etymology among the names of places, heroes, animals, plants, garments, artifacts, social organization.[64] His 1952 essay was critically received.[65]

Inscriptional attestations

Documentary evidence of the Pelasgians of Pelasgiotis is at least as early as 150-130 BC, when an inscription written in the Thessalian koinon dialect on a fragment of a marble stele at Larissa in Thessaly records that on request of the consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus, son of Quintus, "friend and benefactor of our country (ethnei hēmōn)" in return for services rendered by him, his family and the S.P.Q.R., the Thessalian League decreed to send 43,000 coffers of wheat to Rome, to be taxed from different regions under the league. The Pelasgiōtai and the Phthiōtai are to provide 32,000 while the Histiōtai and Thessaliōtai must provide the remaining 11,000, with 25% going to the army, all in different months.[66]

Archaeology

Early 20th century

Attica

During the early 20th century, archaeological excavations conducted by the Italian Archaeological School and by the American Classical School on the Athenian Acropolis and on other sites within Attica revealed Neolithic dwellings, tools, pottery and skeletons from domesticated animals (i.e. sheep, fish). All of these discoveries showed significant resemblances to the Neolithic discoveries made on the Thessalian acropolises of Sesklo and Dimini. These discoveries help provide physical confirmation of the literary tradition that describes the Athenians as the descendants of the Pelasgians, who appear to descend continuously from the Neolithic inhabitants in Thessaly. Overall, the archaeological evidence indicates that the site of the Acropolis was inhabited by farmers as early as the 6th millennium BCE. Prokopiou says:[67]

Some forty years ago excavations on the Athenian Acropolis and on other sites in Attica brought to light many indications of neolithic life - dwellings, vases, tools, skeletons of sheep - which confirmed the traditions recorded by Herodotus that the Athenians were descended from the Pelasgians, the neolithic inhabitants of Thessaly. Indeed the neolithic vases of Attica date from the earliest neolithic age (5520–4900) like the ceramics from the Thessalian acropolis of Sesclos, as well as from the later neolithic age (4900–3200) like those from the other Thessalian acropolis of Dimini ... The search for traces of the neolithic age on the Acropolis began in 1922 with the excavations of the Italian Archaeological School near the Aesclepium. Another settlement was discovered in the vicinity of the Odeion of Pericles where many sherds of pottery and a stone axe, both of Sesklo type, were unearthed. Excavations carried out by the American Classical School near the Clepshydra uncovered twenty-one wells and countless pieces of handmade pottery, sherds of Dimini type, implements of later Stone Age and bones of domestic animals and fish. The discoveries reinforced the theory that permanent settlement by farmers with their flocks, their stone and bone tools and ceramic utensils had taken place on the rock of the Acropolis as early as the sixth millennium.

It should be noted though that contrary to what Prokopiou suggest about the results of the American excavations near the Clepsydra, Sara Imerwahr in the definitive publication of the prehistoric material unequivocally states that no Dimini-type pottery was unearthed.[68]

Lemnos

In August and September 1926, members of the Italian School of Archaeology conducted trial excavations on the island of Lemnos. A short account of their excavations appeared in the Messager d'Athénes for January 3, 1927. The overall purpose of the excavations was to shed light on the island's "Etrusco-Pelasgian" civilization. The excavations were conducted on the site of the city of Hephaisteia (i.e. Palaiopolis) where the Pelasgians, according to Herodotus, surrendered to Miltiades of Athens. There, a Tyrrhenian necropolis (ca. 9th-8th centuries BC) was discovered revealing bronze objects, pots, and over 130 ossuaries. The ossuaries contained distinctly male and female funeral ornaments. Male ossuaries contained knives and axes whereas female ossuaries contained earrings, bronze pins, necklaces, gold-diadems, and bracelets. The decorations on some of the gold objects contained spirals of Mycenean origin, but had no Geometric forms. According to their ornamentation, the pots discovered at the site were from the Geometric period. However, the pots also preserved spirals indicative of Mycenean art. The results of the excavations indicate that the Tyrrhenians or Pelasgians of Lemnos were a remnant of a Mycenean population. Professor Della Seta reports:[69]

The lack of weapons of bronze, the abundance of weapons of iron, and the type of the pots and the pins gives the impression that the necropolis belongs to the ninth or eighth century B.C. That it did not belong to a Greek population, but to a population which, in the eyes of the Hellenes, appeared barbarous, is shown by the weapons. The Greek weapon, dagger or spear, is lacking: the weapons of the barbarians, the axe and the knife, are common. Since, however, this population . . . preserves so many elements of Mycenaean art, the Tyrrhenians or Pelasgians of Lemnos may be recognized as a remnant of a Mycenaean population.

Late 20th century

During the 1980s, the Skourta Plain project identified Middle Helladic and Late Helladic sites on mountain summits near the plains of Skourta. These fortified mountain settlements were, according to tradition, inhabited by Pelasgians up until the end of the Bronze Age. Moreover, the location of the sites is an indication that the Pelasgian inhabitants sought to "ethnically" (a fluid term according to Foreigners and Barbarians[70]) and economically distinguish themselves from the Mycenaean Greeks who controlled the Skourta plain. French reports:[71]

The fourth and final season of the survey of the Skourta plain was conducted in 1989 by M. and M.L.Z. Munn (ASCS). "Explorations begun in 1985 and 1987 were extended into new parts of the plain and surrounding valleys, so that by now a representative portion (approximately 25%) of most of the inhabitable areas of the three koinotites of Pyli, Skourta, and Stefani have been examined intensively. 66 sites were discovered or studied for the first time in the course of this highly productive season, yielding a total of 120 premodern sites studied by our survey since 1985. The survey should have identified all major settlement sites (over 5 ha) and a representative sample of smaller sites in the study area. A summary of the chief conclusions to be drawn from the four seasons can be made. ... MH settlement is established on two summits overlooking the plain ... , one of which, Panakton ... , becomes the most substantial LH site in the area. A fortified MH settlement is also established on a peak in rugged country beyond the NE edge of the plain ... , between the Mazareika and Vountima valleys, in which other settlements are established in the LH era ... The remoteness of this NE sector, and the great natural strength of the MH site and a nearby LH IIIC citadel ... , suggest that the inhabitants of these glens and crags sought to protect and separate themselves from peoples beyond the peaks that surrounded them, perhaps because they were ethnically distinct and economically more or less independent of the Myc Greeks who dominated the plains. Traditions of Pelasgians in these mountains at the end of the BA raise the possibility that these may have been Pelasgian sites. Once abandoned, in the LH IIIC or PG eras, most of these sites in the NE sector are not again inhabited for well over a millennium. Elsewhere, within the more accessible expanse of the Skourta plain itself, LH settlements are established on many sites which are later again important in the C era .

Were Pelasgians the Philistines ?

Were Philistines Pelasgians?

 Linguistique

Fichier:Goliath Inscription with scale.jpg

La langue des Philistins est inconnue, mais quelques traces rendent plausibles une origine indo-européenne des Philistins. Si Philistin est bien le nom que ce peuple se donnait (autoethnonyme), on y note « un radical qu'on retrouve dans le nom de la ville de Palaisté, en Épire, [... dans] Palaistinos, donné comme ancien nom du fleuve Strymôn, [ou dans] le terme pelastai ou pelaistai désignant les cultivateurs de l'Attique[9] ». Beaucoup d'auteurs ont défendu un rapprochement entre les Philistins et le « peuple que les Grecs appelaient les Pélasges Pelasgoi[10] », une population installée en Attique, mais qui seraient d'après certains textes originaires de Crète. « Les souces anciennes (l'Iliade, Hérodote) mentionnent les Pélasges comme un peuple dispersé en divers points du pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il y a donc large coïncidence entre les formes de l'ethnique en -t- (Pelastai, *Pelaistini) et les forme en -g- (Pelasgoi)[11] ».
Une autre hypothèse, moins soutenue mais renvoyant à une origine géographique proche, suggère que le nom « Philistin » est une déformation du Grec phyle histia (« tribue des foyers », avec la graphie ionienne de hestia (foyers))[12].

ces deux premières hypothèses restent cependant basées sur l'idée que Peleset est bien le nom d'origine que se donnait ce peuple. Il a été suggéré que le nom avait en fait été donné à ce peuple au moyen-orient, et qu'il ne peut donc renseigner sur une origine. Dans cette optique, le terme dériverait de la racine sémitique p-l-sh qui signifie « diviser », « traverser », « couvrir » ou « envahir »[13]. Mais ce nom a alors un caractère très générique pouvant désigner n'importe quel envahisseur, or les texte égyptiens anciens distinguent soigneusement les noms des différents peuples de la mer, dont beaucoup n'ont pas d'étymologie sémitique claire.

De fait, les autres noms des peuples de la mer semblent également renvoyer à la même région de la méditerranée du nord-est. Les Danuna (ou Denyen, selon l'hypothèse de vocalisation retenue) seraient les Danaens, donc des Grecs, les Sakalusa aurait un nom dérivé de la ville de Sagalassos, dans le sud-ouest de l'Anatolie[14].

Quelques mots ou noms philistins sont cités dans la Bible, et ne semblent pas d'origine sémitiques. Ainsi le mot philistin pour leurs dirigeants, seren, est-il d'origine inconnue, mais est peut-être à relier au grec Tyrannos. Les noms comme Goliath, Achish, ou Phicol ne sont pas sémitiques, et des étymologies indo-européennes ont été suggérées. Ainsi Goliath pourrait être rapproché du Lydien Alyattes/Wylattes[15].

Synthèse [modifier]

Les traces les plus solides de l'origine des Philistins sont archéologiques, et pointent vers la mer Égée. Également valides mais plus vagues sont les sources égyptiennes d'époque, qui parlent d'une population invasive venue du nord par la mer. Les traces linguistiques, très ténues, semblent également pointer vers le monde égéen.[16]

Ainsi, pour de nombreux linguistes, les philistins sont identiques aux Pélasges (mentionnés dans l'Iliade), peuple qui habitait la Grèce avant les Achéens. Que les Philistins soient ou non une branche des anciens Pélasges, les historiens actuels les font donc généralement venir de la mer Égée.

Bien que le développement ultérieur des Philistins se soit fait en milieux cananéen, c'est-à-dire sémitique, ils ne semblent pas être eux-mêmes d'origine sémite, mais plus probablement indo-européenne.

http://www.recherche.fr/encyclopedie/Philistins

 

 One name the Greeks used for the previous inhabitants of Greece and the Aegean was Pelasgians, but no definite connection has been established between this name and that of the Philistines -Pelasgians. The theory that the Sea Peoples included Greek-speaking tribes has been developed even further to postulate that the Philistines originated in either western Anatolia or the Greek peninsula. There is some limited evidence in favor of the assumption that the Philistines did originally speak some Indo-European language. A number of Philistine-related words found in the Bible are not Semitic, and can in some cases, with reservations, be traced back to Proto-Indo-European roots. ( photo:Sea People,Egyptian Temple at Medinet Habu). The Hittite and Mycenaean cultures collapsed at the same time, and various people from that area invaded Egypt, where they were called the Sea Peoples - the Philistines, the Lycians, and the Achaeans, among others (possibly the Trojans). Egypt beat these Sea Peoples off, but Egypt collapsed soon afterward anyway. 

 http://www.crystalinks.com/philistia.html

 The mercenaries continued their own traditions, which, if they were Europeans like the Sherden (Sardinians) or Philistines, or Asiatics, generally meant wearing helmets. The Sherden helmets were particularly interesting, with a pair of horns protruding from the helmet on either side of a disk.  Nubians on the other hand are never shown helmeted.

 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/defense.htm

 
 The Sea Peoples are the Philistines (Pelasgians?), Shardana (Sardinians), Sikila, Lukka and the Danuna. The Sea Peoples were responsible not only for innovations in seafaring vessels, but also for some land-based technological improvements as well. In the 13th century B.C.E., a new architectural element appeared in Canaan—specifically at the coastal site of ancient Ugarit (Ras Shamra, in modern Syria). Claude F. A. Schaeffer, the French archaeologist who directed the excavations at Ugarit, first identified the new type of stone building block—a squared, dressed stone called an ashlar—attributing it to a new ethnic element that he called the Ashlar Builders. Sometimes the ashlars were decorated with a marginal draft—that is, a smoother edge, or margin, from which the center boss protruded. Authors Stieglitz and Raban note that the Sea Peoples, having come from the Aegean to Canaan, are the most logical carriers of this new style to the mainland.
 

The geography of Herodotus ...

 By James Talboys Wheeler

 

 

SITES:

http://www.pelasgians.org/ http://www.sciencechatforum.com/bulletin/viewtopic.php?t=9086&sid=5fa34f9046f7ed72cabe856a16bc7ee2 http://www.carolandray.plus.com/Eteocretan/Pelasgians.html http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/PAS_PER/PELASGIANS.html http://users.bigpond.net.au/pelasgians http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/History/Pelasgian.html http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Heropel.html http://www.thelosttruth.altervista.org/SitoEnglish/pelasgian_etruscan_english.html http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Pelasgians http://www.illyrians.org/latins.html http://knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Pelasgians/ http://www.zeus10.com/?p=4 http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~jamesdow/s028/f999739.htm http://alex.eled.duth.gr/Samothrace/Samothracem/sketch.htm http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Kastro_larissa_1.JPG/250px-Kastro_larissa_1.JPG&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelasgians&usg=__iJhssTrLEOSL32mXaGjloU29Ov0=&h=143&w=250&sz=10&hl=en&start=43&um=1&tbnid=odPsPHJsVU1rzM:&tbnh=63&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3DPelasgians%2Band%2BEgypt%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26start%3D40%26um%3D1 http://i3.photobucket.com/albums/y54/randisi/Thomopulo/linear5.gif http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/1c6e9d6a726b610396e50919effd97d1%3Fs%3D128%26d%3Didenticon%26r%3DG&imgrefurl=http://wordpress.com/tag/constitution-of-the-roman-nation/&usg=__Zgbe7imKMWtKhkWaZ47Jbn_bn1Q=&h=128&w=128&sz=8&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=XHm4WxMotFdCXM:&tbnh=91&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsite:www.gravatar.com%2BPelasgians%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26um%3D1 http://alex.eled.duth.gr/Samothrace/Samothracem/sketch.htm http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://stoa.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/pelasgians.jpg&imgrefurl=http://stoa.wordpress.com/2008/08/05/the-pelasgians-in-the-ancient-historians-texts/&usg=__4ak4VU1B33fgmc7wJyQG6SWcqK8=&h=249&w=400&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=1pntCXFL4WSqvM:&tbnh=77&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3DPelasgians%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pelasgians.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_Densu%C5%9Fianu http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.narmuz-lj.si/slike/arh/situla.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.narmuz-lj.si/ang/odd/arh/arhobj.html&usg=__yAcehF9E5B5jNSe7pKx8P6QQnlU=&h=400&w=337&sz=107&hl=en&start=13&um=1&tbnid=Xrw5q7yhvCxmmM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=104&prev=/images%3Fq%3DEuropean%2BPrehistory%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4RNTN_enUS316US318%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 http://www.istrianet.org/istria/archeology/situla-veneti.htm#veneti http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.historyofancientrome.com/images/pre_roman_history/pelasgicremains.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.historyofancientrome.com/_preroman_history/pre_roman_history04.html&usg=__ktX0WLUgiJjhIOz-XVbRIrLfzHE=&h=725&w=400&sz=67&hl=en&start=13&um=1&tbnid=CToNAVrkqGf3uM:&tbnh=140&tbnw=77&prev=/images%3Fq%3DPelasgians%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1             

 

 

The pelasgians from Lemnos Island and their Inscriptions

 THE PELASGIANS FROM LEMNOS ISLAND 

    An upright gravestone with inscriptions was found in 1885 at Kaminia, on the island of Lemnos, in the Aegean Sea. This stele, which is dated as having been made in the 6th century B.C., is now in the National Museum in Athens, Greece. The inscription on the tomb-stone has 198 letters forming 33 words and is decorated with the profile of a warrior. The inscription is written in a western Greek runic alphabet phonetically adapted so as to match the same peculiarities of the Etruscan alphabet, the only difference being that the letter o is preserved.  

 

  

 http://storm.ca/~cm-tntr/lemstelea.html

 

 

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greece/Cities/Lemnos.html

 

XLI. 14. The Pelasgian inscription from Lemnos island.

 Nicolae Densusianu                   

Another important monument of Pelasgian barbarian language is the inscription discovered in the Lemnos island around 1884-1885.

This island, situated in the northern parts of the Aegean Sea, towards south-east of Mount Athos, was inhabited in prehistoric times by a population of Pelasgian race, called Sinties and Sinti, from the same nation of the Thracians and the Getae. According to Homer, the Sintii spoke a wild barbarian language, meaning northern, Sinties agriophonoi (Iliad, I. 594; Odyss. VIII. 294; Strabo, VII, 57). Later on, during historical times, the inhabitants of this island appear under the name “Pelasgians” with Herodotus (VI. 140) and “Pelasgian-Turseni” with Thucydides (IV, 109; VII. 57).

The Pelasgian-Tursenii of the island of Lemnos, as Thucydides writes, had the same language as the Pelasgians of Placia and Scylace (Hellespont), as the inhabitants of the neighboring islands Samothrace and Imbros, and as those of the peninsula of Mount Athos.

Around 499-496bc, Lemnos island was occupied by the Athenians. The ancient inhabitants being ousted, they scattered through various lands; part of them settled in the Peloponnesus, while others, as traditions said, entered Italy under the leadership of Tyrrhen / Tursan (Herodotus, VIII. 73; Strabo, v. 2. 4).

In Lemnos island has been discovered around 1885, in the village Kaminia, a bas-relief of a rectangular shape, having two engraved inscriptions. The first inscription is on the main face and surrounds the head of a robust soldier, who holds a lance in his hand, and the second inscription, which presents some letters of forms differing from those of the first inscription, is engraved on the lateral face on the right side.

Both these inscriptions pre-date the year 500bc, but are from different times. The letters have the ancient Pelasgian form, and the mode of writing is boustrophedon, from right to left and from left to right. The words are often connected, and the points between them figure more as decoration and are not based on any grammatical rule.

The facsimile of this inscription, as it has been published in the “Bulletin de Correspondance hellenique” (1886, X. I. 1-3), and its transcribing with Greek letters, made by Breal, are as follows: 

We ask now, which is the linguistic character of these two inscriptions in general, and the meaning of these words in particular? We shall start with the first inscription.

            = Eolai ez, “Eolai”, in Greek form ‘Iolaos, is a barbarian personal name (Diod, IV. 30; V. 15), like Iolea in Romanian onomastics from the Tera Fagarasului.

After “Eolai” follows in the first inscription the word “ez”, and in the second “fzi” or “fli” (?) = fiul (TN – the son). “Ez” corresponds therefore to the Macedo-Romanian word aus, old.

The meaning is: Eolaus senex = Rom. Eolaie betranul (TN - Eolaie the old).

            = na foth ziazi.

An” and “na” in the Macedo-Romanian dialect, like “an” in the Umbrian dialect, are prepositions with the meaning “in”; “foth” is the same word as the Latin “hocce”; “ziazi” = Rom. “zace”, Lat. “jacet”: “Na foth ziazi” has therefore the meaning: in hocce (tumulo) jacet = Rom. in acest (mormant) zace (TN - in this [grave] lies). It is the same expression which we find also on the epigraphic monuments of Dacia and Pannonia: “in hoc tumulo jacet”; “hoc jacet in lapide” (C. I. L. vol. III. 2341. 3397).

            = maraz mav sialhveiz afiz.

In Greek language marasmos meant: weakening of strength, becoming sick, wasting of the body; in the Macedo-Romanian dialect “maraze” means constant pain; (mav) corresponds to the Greek particle  with negative meaning, or to meaning no, to Macedo-Romanian ma’ meaning never, or to Romanian “ba” meaning no. “Sialhveiz” = salvus (sospes), and “afiz”, which is often repeated in these inscriptions, is a verbal form, like the Romanian “fuse”, from the verb “a fi”, Lat. esse (TN – to be).

 The meaning of this phrase is: aegrotus nunquam, salvus (sospes) fuit = Rom. bolnav niciodata, sanatos fuse (TN – never sick, healthy he has been). In Roman funerary inscriptions there was sometimes mentioned the state of health of the deceased: “florente aetate”; “menses quinque et annum cum aegrotaverit” (C. I. L. vol. III. 2197).

            = e fistho zeronaith.

E fistho” corresponds to the Romanian words “a fost” (TN – has been), in older language “au fusto” (Hasdeu, Cuv. I. 152), Lat. fuit. But the letter e from the beginning does not stand for a (from “a fost”), but stands for e (este / TN – is), like the Macedonians say “este fugit” instead of “a fugit”, “este venit” instead of “a venit” (Hasdeu, Dict. l. rom. I. 11 / TN – “is run” instead of “has run”, “is come” instead of “has come”). In Umbrian dialect “fust” = fuerit, in old French “fuist” = a fost (TN – has been).

The following word, “zeronaith” is by its form, a past participle, as in the Armerine dialect from Sicily: ”stait” = stat (TN – sat), “mangiait” = mancat (TN – eaten – Roccella, Vocab. della l. parl. In Piazza Armerina, p. 29), with i added between the last two letters. This participle derives from the verb “zerona”, Fr. “enterer”, Lat. “in terra ponere”, or as we would say in Romanian “a interina” (TN – read intzerina), “a pune sub terina” (TN – to inter, read tzerina); in the Macedo-Romanian dialect “tara” (TN – read tzara) = pament, “tara de mortu” = pament de pe morment (TN – earth from the grave – Papahagi, Basme aromane, p. 721).

The ancient Greeks represented sometimes the sound tz of the Barbarians, with z: Zeranioi (Zeranii), people from Thrace, Romanian terani (TN – read tzerani), Zegan (Zegan), Romanian tigan (TN – read tzigan).

E fistho zeronaith has therefore the meaning: fuit in terra positus = Rom. a fost pus in pament (TN – he was placed in the earth).

            = zivai.

The letter F is an Eolian digamma, which corresponds in Latin alphabet to V and F. In the dialect of the Romanians from Istria “jivi’ = a trai (TN – to live), Lat. vivere, Lituan. “gyvata”, Germ. leben. The meaning being therefore: vixit = Rom. a trait (TN – he lived).

            = Famala sia l zeronai.

Famala” is the Macedo-Romanian “fumeale”, art. “fumealea” = familia (TN – family); “sia”, Lat. sua, Rom. sa (TN – his); l is the shortened accusative of the personal pronoun in the third person singular; “zeronai” = placed in the earth. So, the meaning is: familia sua illum in terra posuit = Rom. familia sa il puse sub terina (TN – his family placed him in the earth). Cicero writes (Leges, II. 22) that the Romans had an ancient law that the “family” had to place in the ground the deceased.

            = morin ail a cer.

Here “morin” is the present participle of the verb “mori” (TN – to die), without the final d, like in the Armerine dialect from Sicily “mangiann”, Ital. “mangiando”. “Ail” is a verbal form, the third person of the indicative present, Fr. aller, Burg. ai (air) (TN - to go). In the Istrian dialect is heard even today “ala” = hai, vina (TN – come). “A cer” (ker) = in ceriu, like in the dialect of the Romanches from Switzerland “ilg ir a tschell” (Conradi, Deutsch-romanische Gram.1820, p. 85). The meaning of the words is: moriendo abit in coelum = Rom. murind se duce in ceriu (TN – dieing he goes to the sky/heaven). We have here traces of the ancient Pelasgian belief in the immortality of the soul (Dionys. Hol. II. 556).

            = taf arzio.

Taf” is the same word as the Greek taphe and taphos, burial, grave, Lat. sepulchrum; “arzio” means “ars” (TN – burnt), its etymology from “ardeo”. In Thrace Arzus (= Ars) was the name of a city.

The meaning of the above words is: sepulchro (mortali corpore) cremato = Rom. remasitele pamentesci s’au ars (TN – the mortal remains were burnt).

 

We arrive now to the second inscription.

            After Holai follows the particle Fi (or Fzi) = fiul (TN – the son of Iolaie). We find the same word under the form phie and phe on two inscriptions from Lycia:  (Bull. d. Corresp. Hell. 1886, I. p. 40-42), words which cannot have another meaning than “the son”, like we find with Homer:

            = focia siale, in the first inscription.

Focia” is the same word as Lat. hocce, Rom. aoce and aocia, Macedo-Rom. aote = aici (TN – here); and is the third person present indicative of a verb which corresponds to the Romanian “salaslui”, Lat. habitare, demorare, sedere. From the same root derives Italian sala, Fr. sale, Germ. Saal, Rom. salas and saiea, shelter for cattle.

The meaning of the words above is: hic habitat, quiescit, pausat = Rom. aici salasluiesce (TN - here dwells).

            (instead of ) = zeronaith e fistho, words identical with “e fistho zeronaith” from the first inscription.

            = tof eromarom Earalio.

Eromarom” is a genitive plural from “Eromi” = Aromi, as Romulus had been also called in the Middle Ages “Heromulus” (Graf, Roma, vol. I. 223).

The Pelasgians from Lemnos belonged to the family of the Arimii. The name “Lemnos” was in reality a dialectal form instead of Remnos. An ancient Pelasgian king who had reigned over Lemnos, bears with Suidas the name ‘Ermon (Hermon). “Earalio” is the name of a locality.

The meaning of this phrase is therefore: in terra positus fuit ad sepulchra Eromorum Earalio = Rom. a fost interinat la mormintele Arimilor din Earalia (he was placed in the earth at the graves of the Arimii from Earalia).

            = zivai eptezio arai.

Lat. vixit septemdecim annos = Rom. a trait septespredece ani (TN – lived seventeen years).

Arai” is a feminine form from Lat. annus, like “annee” of the French, but with a rotacised n.

            = tin foce zivai afiz sialhviz.

The letter of the first word represents a nasal sound, like = n in the old Romanian alphabet; “tin” = Macedo-Rom. pin, Rom. pana (TN – until). “Foce”, Lat. hocce, Rom. aoce = aici (TN – here). “Afiz”, which is often repeated in the text of these inscriptions corresponds to the Romanian fuse (fuit / TN – was). And the meaning of the phrase is: dum hocce vixit, fuit salvus (sospes) = Rom. pana aoce trai, fuse sanatos (TN – until he lived here, healthy he was).

            = maranm afiz aomai(th).

Here maranm, by its form and place it occupies, is only a different pronuntiacion of the word morin from the first inscription. The meaning of the words is: moriendo fuit hutmatus = murind fuse inhumat (TN – dieing, he was inhumed). Cicero (Leg. II. 22) says: ut humati dicantur….quos humus injecta contegeret.

 

We have another important testimony about the Latinity of the barbarian language spoken in the north-eastern parts of the Aegean Sea.

Dionysius of Halikarnasus writes: “The language which the Romans use is neither entirely barbarian, nor absolutely Greek, but a combination of both, its biggest part though coming from the idiom of the Eolii” (I. 90).

The Eolii dwelt on the littoral of Asia Minor facing the islands Lemnos and Lesbos. To their territory had once also belonged the regions of Troy. In the times of Dionysius (1st century bc), these Eolii still spoke therefore a semi-Latin language.

 

We repeat the text and verbal translation of these two inscriptions:

 

 

Transcription:

 

1. Eolai ez na foth

 

    ziazi,

    maraz mav,

    sialhveiz afiz;

    e fistho zeronaith,

    zivai

    Famala sia l zeronai, morin 

    ail

6. a ker, taf arzio.

 

________

 

1.Eolai f(z)i  focia siale,

   zero(n)ait  e fistho tof

   Eromorum

   Earalio;

   zivai ep(t)ezio aria;

  

   tin foce

3.zivai afiz sialhviz,maraim

   afiz aomai(th)

 

 

Latin verbal translation

 

Iolaus senex in hocce

    (tumulo)

jacet,

aegrotus nunquam,

    salvus (sospes) fuit;

    fuit in terra positus,

vixit

Familia sua illum in terra

    posuit, moriendo abit

in coelum, sepulchro (mortali

    corpore) cremato.

________

 

Iolaus filius hocce habitat

(quiescit), in terra positus fuit

ad sepulchra Eromarum

Earalio;

vixit septemdecim annos;

 

dum hocce

vixit, fuit salvus (sospes)

Moriendo fuit humatus.

 

Romanian verbal translation

 

Iolaie betranul in acesta

 

zace,

    bolnav nici o-data,

    sanatos fuse;

a fost interinat,

trai

Familia sa il interina, murind

    merge

in ceriu, mormentul i-a fost ars.

 

________

 

Iolaie fiul aocea salasluesce,

Interinat a fost la mormintele

Aromilor din

Earalia;

trai septespredece ani;

 

pana aocea

trai fuse sanatos, murind fuse inhumat.

 

 

(TN – 1st inscription: Old Eolai in here lies, never sick, healthy he was; he was placed in the ground, he lived, his family placed him in the ground, dieing he goes to heaven, his grave was cremated.

2nd inscription: Eolai the son here dwells, placed in the ground he was at the graves of the Aromii from Earalia; he lived seventeen years; until now he lived, was healthy, dieing he was inhumed).

 

As a particularity worthy of note is the lack of the letter u (Greek u, ou) from the text of these two inscriptions. This letter seems to have been replaced with ei and i in the words: sialhveiz, sialhviz, afiz, fistho, sia.

Finally, the Pelasgians from Lemnos also used in their speech the post-posed article lu(s), as results from the word Mosuhlos (Rom. Mosul), the ancient name of a mountain from this island.

 

 

Lemnian language

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Location of Lemnos.

The Lemnian language is a language of the 6th century BC spoken on the island of Lemnos. It is mainly attested by an inscription found on a funerary stele, termed the Lemnos stele, discovered in 1885 near Kaminia. However, fragments of inscriptions on local pottery show that it was spoken there by a community.[1] Lemnian is academically accepted as being closely related to Etruscan. After the Athenians conquered the island in the latter half of that century, Lemnian was replaced by Attic Greek.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Writing system

The inscriptions are in an alphabet similar to that used to write the Etruscan language and the older Phrygian inscriptions, all derived from Euboean scripts (Western Greek alphabet, alphabets of Asia Minor). These scripts are ultimately of West Semitic origin and were adapted by various peoples from before the 8th century BC.

[edit] Classification

A relationship between Lemnian, Etruscan, and Raetian as a Tyrsenian language family is widely accepted due to demonstrations of close connections in vocabulary and grammar. For example,

  • both Etruscan and Lemnian share two unique dative cases, masculine *-si and feminine-collective *-ale, shown both on the Lemnos Stele (Hulaie-ši "for Hulaie", Φukiasi-ale "for the Phocaean") and in inscriptions written in Etruscan (aule-si "To Aule" on the Cippus Perusinus as well as the inscription mi mulu Laris-ale Velχaina-si "I was blessed for Laris Velchaina").
  • They also share the masculine genitive in *-s and a simple past tense in *-a-i (Etruscan <-e> as in ame "was" (< *amai); Lemnian <-ai> as in šivai "lived").

[edit] Vowels

Like Etruscan, the Lemnian language appears to have had a four-vowel system, consisting of "i", "e", "a" and "o". Having a contrast between front and back vowels, it would (unlike Etruscan) appear to lack a high back rounded vowel (written in IPA as /u/) which is curious because this defies the linguistic universal of contrast maximization. Since vowel systems without /u/ are rare (though occurring in languages such as Seneca and Nahuatl), it is likely that what we transliterate as "o" from the symbol omikron was in fact meant to record /u/. This is not unusual considering that different languages may take the same letter to transcribe different sounds. It is rather coincidental that the languages neighbouring this region, namely Hittite and Akkadian, also happen to have the same four-vowel systems lacking "o". This suggests early areal influence.[citation needed]

[edit] Stele

The stele was found built into a church wall in Kaminia and is now at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens. The 6th century date is based on the fact that in 510 BC the Athenian Miltiades invaded Lemnos and Hellenized it. The stele bears a low-relief bust of a helmeted man and is inscribed in an alphabet similar to the western ("Chalcidian") Greek alphabet. The inscription is in Boustrophedon style, and has been transliterated but had not been successfully translated until serious linguistic analysis based on comparisons with Etruscan, combined with breakthroughs in Etruscan's own translation started to yield fruit.

The inscription consists of 198 characters forming 33 to 40 words, word separation sometimes indicated with one to three dots. The text consists of three parts, two written vertically and one horizontally. Comprehensible is the phrase avis sialchvis ("aged sixty", B.3), reminiscent of Etruscan avils maχs śealχisc ("and aged sixty-five").

Transcription:

front:
A.1. hulaieš:naφuθ:šiaši
A.2. maraš:mav
A.3. sialχveiš:aviš
A.4. evisθu:šerunaiθ
A.5. šivai
A.6. aker:tavaršiu
A.7. vanalasial:šerunai:murinail
side:
B.1. hulaieši:φukiasiale:šerunaiθ:evisθu:tuveruna
B.2. rum:haraliu:šivai:eptešiu:arai:tiš:φuke
B.3. šivai:aviš:sialχviš:marašm:aviš:aumai

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Bonfante, p. 11.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  • Bonfante, Larissa (1990). Etruscan. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07118-2. 
  • Steinbauer, Dieter H. (1999). Neues Handbuch des Etruskischen. St. Katharinen: Scripta Mercaturae Verlag. 

[edit] External links

Lemnos (mod. Limnos Greek: Λήμνος), an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. The island, part of the Greek prefecture of Lesbos, is of considerable size: the area has been estimated at 476 km² (150 sq.mi). A great part is mountainous, but some very fertile valleys exist. The hillsides afford pasture for sheep. A few mulberry and fruit trees grow, but no olives. The chief towns are Myrina on the western coast, and Mudros on the southern coast. Myrina (aka Kastro) possesses an excellent harbour, and is the seat of all the trade carried on with the island.

Mythic Lemnos

In ancient times the island was sacred to Hephaestus, who as the legend tells fell on Lemnos when his father Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus. There he was cared for by the Sinties, according to Iliad I:590ff or by Thetis (Apollodorus, Library I:3.5), and there with a Thracian nymph Cabiro (a daughter of Proteus) he fathered a tribe called the Cabiroides. Sacred rites dedicated to them were performed in the island.

 

Statistics
Prefecture:Lesbos Prefecture
Capital:Myrina
Location:
Latitude:
Longitude:

39.8/39 °42' N.
26 ° E
Area:476 km ²
Population: (2001)
18104
Elevation:
 -lowest:
 -centre:
 -highest:

Aegean Sea
central part
Area/distance code:11-30-22540
Postal code:814 xx
Municipalities:4
Communities:1
Municipal code:-x
Car designation:MH
Name of inhabitants:Lemnian sing.
-s pl.
Website:http://www.lemnos.gr/

 

Hephaestus' forge, which was located on Lemnos, as well as the name Aethaleia, sometimes applied to it, points to its volcanic character. It is said that fire occasionally blazed forth from Mosychlos, one of its mountains; and Pausanias relates that a small island called Chryse, off the Lemnian coast, was swallowed up by the sea. All volcanic action is now extinct.

The name Lemnos is said by Hecataeus to have been a title of Cybele among the Thracians, and the earliest inhabitants are said to have been a Thracian tribe, called by the Greeks Sinties, i.e. "the robbers".n

Apollodorus (Epitome I:9) records that when Dionysus found Ariadne abandoned on Naxos, he brought her to Lemnos and there fathered Thoas, Staphylus, Oenopion, and Peparethus. Pliny in Natural History (xxxvi. 13) speaks of a remarkable labyrinth in Lemnos, which has not been identified in modern times.

According to a famous legend the women were all deserted by their husbands for Thracian women, and in revenge they murdered every man on the island. From this barbarous act, the expression Lemnian deeds became proverbial. The Argonauts landing soon after found only women in the island, ruled over by Hypsipyle, daughter of the old king Thoas. From the Argonauts and the Lemnian women were descended the race called Minyae, whose king Euneus, son of Jason and Hypsipyle, sent wine and provisions to the Greeks at Troy. The Minyae were expelled by a Pelasgian tribe who came from Attica. The historical element underlying these traditions is probably that the original Thracian people were gradually brought into communication with the Greeks as navigation began to unite the scattered islands of the Aegean; the Thracian inhabitants were primitive in comparison with the Greek mariners.

The worship of Cybele was characteristic of Thrace, whither it spread from Asia Minor at a very early period, and it deserves notice that Hypsipyle and Myrina (the name of one of the chief towns) are Amazon names, which are always connected with Asiatic Cybele-worship.

In another legend localized in Lemnos, Philoctetes was left there by the Greeks on their way to Troy; and there he suffered ten years' agony from his wounded foot, until Odysseus and Neoptolemus induced him to accompany them to Troy. He is said by Sophocles to have lived beside Mount Hermaeus, which Aeschylus makes one of the beacon points to flash the news of Troy's downfall home to Argos. (Ancient Communication methods)

 

INTRODUCTION

 http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/history.html

(see also A Chronology of Early Italian History)

Virtually all that we know about Etruscan history today comes to us from indirect sources- either from Roman historians who had a patriotic axe to grind, or from Ancient Greek historians, who in some cases failed to grasp the very different sets of values held by the Etruscans. For example the status of women in Etruscan society, which was so alien to the Greeks and Romans alike, both being of Indo European origins. The Greeks saw the Etruscans as being an immoral race of people (although this accusation was on very shaky ground given their own morality). The Greeks also refer to the Etruscans quite frequently as pirates. There is no evidence to suggest that the Etruscans dabbled in piracy any more than other races of the day, and what was piracy to one group of people was defense to others. One fact was indisputable, and that was that during their heyday, the Etruscans controlled a significant part of the Mediterreanean.

The Etruscans went on to lay the foundation of the city of Rome, to clear the shepherds huts which once littered the Palatine Hill, to drain the swamps and transform what had been a collection of tribal sheep herders into a true city which would eventually dominate large tracts of Europe, Asia and North Africa alike. From the Etruscans came writing, and Roman history was born in the true sense.

From their beginnings in the area that is now Tuscany, these Etruscans had deep rooted influences which survive to this day. Although the Etruscan language is by no means totally decoded, we now know enough to see that many words of Etruscan origin found themselves into Latin and from there into English. For an unknown language, many Etruscan words look very familiar.

Their Religious legacy had profound influences on at least the rituals and dress of the Church. Etruscan Art had obvious influences on renaissance artists such as Michelangelo.

While the Roman legions conquered region after region, the Etruscan cities were occupied by Veterans, and the citizens of the once proud Etruria bowed to the pressure and became part of Rome or died during numerous rebellious uprisings.

Those same legions were organised in accordance with Etruscan traditions, responded to the sound of the tuba (from Etruria), built their camps on a North/ South grid, as specified by the Etruscan sacred books, and carried a Standard inscribed with SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus. "Populus" is a word of Etruscan origin, -que (Etruscan -c with probably the same pronunciation) means "and", and even Romanus itself probably came from the Etruscan language. There are various theories among which connect it with the Etruscan gentilial name Rumlua

The Etruscan Haruspices and soothsayers remained well into the 5th Century CE, and according to some reports, may have survived in the Eastern Empire in Byzantium. The ancient tradition of their ancestral leaders proved difficult for the Romans to give up entirely.

ORIGINS OF THE ETRUSCANS- Rasena

The question of Etruscan origins has been a controversial subject for many years. Nowadays, it is fair to say that most authorities would agree that the Etruscans were autochthonous, and that the predecessors of the Etruscan civilization that started to manifest itself in the regions of Cerveteri, Tarquinia, Vulci and Vetulonia in the North in the early 7th century BCE had been in the region for many hundreds of years beforehand. There is however a large gulf between popular conceptions of the Etruscans, and the generally well established beliefs of academics in the field, as the generally acknowledged 'father of Etruscology', Massimo Pallatino pointed out in his introduction to the 1986 reprint of D.L. Lawrence's "Etruscan Places" :

"I dont think there is any other field of human knowledge in which there is such a daft cleavage between what has been scientifically ascertained and the unshakeable beliefs of the public...."

 

 

It is however interesting to examine the various theories about Etruscan origins.

 

Above: Representation of a sea fight between the Egyptians and the Sea people from the reliefs at Medinet Habou. This dates to the period of Ramses III (1200-1166 BCE) and thought by some to represent the ancestors of the Achaeans, Etruscans, Sicilians and others.

 

 

 

Even among ancient writers, there was difference of opinion as to whether the Etruscans were Autochthonous (indigenous) or originated from Asia Minor. The earliest historical account of the Etruscans was given by Hesiod who mentions the Etruscans in the "Theogony". However it is fair to say that the works of such early writers as Hesiod and Homer consist of an equitable mixture of legend and fact, stemming from the period around 750 BCE in Ionian Greece, part of Asia Minor. Homer himself is probably not one, but the collected oral traditions of many authors.

The first reasonably believable account was given by Herodotus in the 5th Century BCE. He writes that the Etruscans originated in Lydia, in Asia Minor, and that due to a famine in the area, they invented a number of games to take their minds off the lack of food:

"...After some time, the famine had not improved, so they drew lots, and half the population, and eating on the following day without playing. In this way they got through 18 years. Things got worse, however, rather than better, and the king therefore divided all the Lydians into two groups and drew lots to decide which should stay and which should emigrate, putting himself at the head of those who were to remain and appointing his son, who was called Tyrrhenus, as the leader for those who had to leave. Those Lydians whose lot it was to leave went down to Smyrna and built boats on to which they loaded all their possessions and sailed away to seek a life elsewhere. After sailing past many lands they came to Umbria in Italy where they built cities and still live to this day, changing their name from Lydians to Tyrrhenians after the king's son Tyrrhenus who had led them...."

However, despite the fact that he travelled widely, the accounts of Herodotus were prone to inaccuracies.

It has been suggested that the Etruscans were part of the famous Pelasgians, or Sea Peoples of Lemnos, and the evidence is that the Pelasgians were a mixture of various peoples including some of the biblical Canaanites who later became the Phoenicians. There are many ancient references which use the terms Tyrrhenian and Pelasgian interchangeably.

Hellanicus of Lesbos, another Greek historian writing in the fifth century BC, mentioned a group of Pelasgians who arrived in Italy and there changed their name to Tyrrhenians.

Roman authors confirmed an eastern origin for the Etruscans. Virgil referred to the town of '. . . Cerveteri, built on an ancient rock where once the Lydians, a race distinguished in war, settled the hills of Tuscany.' And Seneca (who died in AD 65) stated that '. . . Asia claims the Etruscans as her own.' Tacitus (first to second centuries AD) accepted the story as told by Herodotus. Other tales also locate the Etruscans in Asia Minor, linking them with the Pelasgians; and refer to Tyrsenians or Tyrrhenians on the islands of Lemnos, Imbros and Lesbos, just off the Asian coast in the northern Aegean, and on Delos, the holy island in the centre of the Cyclades.

The Etruscans referred to themselves as Rasenna, but to the Romans and Greeks they were Etrusci, Tusci, Tyrrheni, or Tyrseni. To the modern Italians they are still Etrusci and the name of the Etruscan Sea is still the Tyrrhenian, after perhaps 3,000 years.

But in the first century BC, a dissenting voice spoke up. Dionysius, another Greek historian from Halicarnassus, writing four centuries later than Herodotus, declared a different finding:

"I do not believe that the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians, for they do not use the same language as the latter, nor can it be alleged that, though they no longer speak a similar tongue, they still retain some other indications of their mother country."

The controversy was to rage on until the late 20th century.

Perhaps the strongest evidence put forward by the Eastern providence school is the Lemnian inscription. Excavations on Lemnos turned up a community there which dates to around 600 BCE and which links the Etruscans to that place.


The inscription on the Lemnos Stele was dated at 600BCE and was written in a language similar to Etruscan. It was found in a warrior's tomb with weapons and pottery which are very similar to early Etruscan. The necropolis of the city contained 130 cremated burials. In the women's burials an early form of Etruscan Bucchero pottery was found. Bucchero clay was used by the people of Asia Minor and by the Etruscans. In the male sites daggers and axes of the Cretan and Etruscan models were found. The evidence, then, is for a small community which had strong cultural ties with the Etruscans and, to a lesser extent, the inhabitants of Asia Minor.

One theory that was put forward was that the inhabitants of Lemnos represented a pocket of pre-indoeuropean speaking people, whose language was similar to Etruscan. There are difficulties with that theory when one examines the alphabet and the language in some detail. The Stele is dated at approximately 600, and uses an alphabet used in Northern Etruria at that time. The first evidence of Etruscan inscriptions dates to about 750 BCE, and use a script which was based on the early Euboan alphabet, learned from the Greeks at Cumae. The Greeks first established their colony at Cumae in about 750 BCE, yet there was evidence of the Etruscans in Italy well before this time. If the Lemnos stele was an isolated outlier of a pre-indo european language, then the alphabet is too similar to Etruscan for it to have developed from any other source. It is more likely to represent an isolated colony of either 'Pelasgians' or Etruscan pirates.

The Northern provenance theory, which bases its evidence on the similarities of Raetian and Etruscan languages has one major flaw, in that the Raetian Alpine inscriptions are much later, and are more consistent with later Etruscan influences, or associated with the scattering of the Northern Etruscans as a result of Celtic incursions.

There are problems with all theories which suggest that the truth is far more complicated as always.A likely solution is that the Etruscans were autochthonous, but were subjected to cultural influences and immigrants at various stages in their history. The nature of these cultural influences are nowadays understood much better. The result of this was a gradual development of an Etruscan civilisation. The influx at some time of a group from Lydia is not inconsistent with this Neo Autochthonous theory which is gaining more and more acceptance.

There is no precise time when we can say that the Etruscan civilisation began. According to the libri fatales as described by Censorinus, the date can be calculated at 968 BCE, but it was a gradual change that came over the land that was to become Etruria. Between the 10th and the 8th century BCE, several things began to happen: There was a drift from scattered village settlements into urbanised centres. The incidence of cremations decreased in favour of inhumation. Land was cleared and drained on a massive scale. Trade with the Aegean commenced, evident from the appearance of Greek artifacts.

The plentiful deposits of metals on Elba and the nearby coastline, and the bounty of Etruscan agriculture resulted in growing prosperity for the Etruscans. Bulk export trade typically used large shipping amphorae, and metal ingots have also been found in several sites.

By the end of the 7th Century BCE,
Etruscan territory had expanded to include parts of Northern italy, with the Po Valley league, and the Etruscan city states held sway over large areas of Latium, including Rome, and Campania to the South.

 

 




With the increasing trade and the specialization of crafts, the application of new techniques, particularly in metal extraction and agriculture, the living standard improved. This corresponded to an exponential increase in demographic growth. The Etruscan aristocracy increased in power, authority and wealth. They were buried in rich tombs or necropolises next to cities such as Tarquinia, Caere, Vulci and Veii.

Greek immigrants started to arrive and began to exert a significant influence in the art and culture of Etruria.

It was also during this period that grapes were introduced to the Italian peninsula. Grape seeds found in early Etruscan grave sites in Chiusi, show that the predecessor of Chiante had arrived. Craters and other vessels of Greek design started to appear.

The Orientalizing Period is generally taken as the period between the end of the 8th Century until the late 7th Century BCE. It is so called because of the eastern influence in art and artifacts. Typical of this period was the Regolini Galassi tomb at Caere, in which were found objects with obvious Egyptian and Eastern influence such as Ostrich eggs, Sphinxes, scarabs and lions with an Assyrian like character.

During this period, the Etruscans began to take control of sea trade particularly in the Tyrrhenian sea, and the control of sea routes to Campania, where a strong Etruscan core settled around Capua and Salerno.

The orientalization period was not unique to the Etruscans, and a similar trend of eastern influence was evident in the Greek cities of the Archaic age.



çTop

The Sixth Century - Etruscan Glory Days


 

The Decline of the Etruscans


 

The burning of the books

This Section is titled "The burning of the books" and the title suggests that much of Etruscan literature was in fact deliberately destroyed. This is certainly the view expressed by a number of authors, but was this entirely the case?

There are many unanswered questions, owing to the lack of the literature in the first place. How much of a literature base did the Etruscans have and what was the nature of this literature?

Did they have written histories, or were their writings mainly for the purpose of trade and religion, in the same way as the Phoenicians?

Early Christians in the 4th Century CE have been blamed for the systematic destruction of Etruscan literature. It may have been the fact that Etruscan religious beliefs and practices were so deep-rooted among the Romans that led to the complete destruction of all Etruscan literature as a result of the advent of Christianity. Arnobius, one of the first Christian apologists, living around 300CE, wrote "Etruria is the originator and mother of all superstition".

There is evidence that a significant portion of Etruscan literature was systematically destroyed following the Theodosian code, since it represented the Old Religion and was considered as idolatry and the work of the devil. (It is recorded that Flavius Stilicho, a regent for the Emperor Honorius between 394 and 408 CE, burnt a number of "Pagan volumes" which included the Tagetic books, which had been stored in the Temple of Apollo in Rome.) However there are other probable reasons that led to the demise of Etruscan literature.

In order to better understand the fate of Etruscan literature we should first look at how Roman writing was recorded. The Roman literature that survives today originates from about 200 BCE onwards. There is very little from before this period. In the early days, wax tablets were used as notebooks. Schoolchildren learnt to write on wax tablets. Papyrus was used, but this was an expensive item, since much of it had to be imported. Carbonised papyrus rolls have been found at Herculaneum, some of them partially legible, but the bulk of Papyrii available nowadays survive as fragments, usually from Egypt and Byzantium.

In the later Roman period, Papyrus began to be replaced by Vellum and parchment. These materials are treated animal skins. These survived much better than papyrus, and became very popular since they could be scraped, and re-used many times. During the dark ages, monks spent many long hours manually transcribing Classical literature, some religious, but some of secular origin. It is largely thanks to these monks that we have quite an extensive library of Latin and Greek literature to this day.

But what of the Etruscans? One noted discovery of the 20th
Century was the Liber Linteus, or Linen book, which was thought to be the fragments of an Etruscan book made of linen and re-used to preserve an Egyptian Mummy. The Liber Linteus can be seen in Zagreb museum. If linen was used as a medium, then this would have had even less chance of survival than papyrus. Certainly there have been examples of models of Etruscan books found in the tombs of Cerveteri. These suggest that Linen was indeed traditionally used by the Etruscans for the written word.

The question of the scope of Etruscan literature remains unanswered, but it is quite clear from other sources that it must have been quite substantial. Censorinus refers to the Annals of Etruria, and during the late Roman Republic and Early Imperial years it was considered quite fashionable for Roman Patricians to send their boys to Etruscan schools to further their education. Some of this would no doubt have been a grounding in the disciplina etrusca, but it seems unlikely that that was all that they learned. We also know that enough of the history of Etruria survived in written form even up to late Imperial times for the emperor Claudius to write a twenty volume history of Etruria. (together with an 8 volume history of the Carthaginians, both in the Greek Language) If even a fragment of this history survived today it would answer a great many questions.



 

 

 

 

 

Is Vace Situla Pelasgian?

The situla from Vace (the end of the 6th century BC) is the most important artifact of the Hallstatt Culture in Slovenia. It represents a masterpiece of decorative art and European prehistory as a whole. Exceptionally designed artistic scenes from the life of the Iron Age aristocracy were finely produced in a repousse technique (i. e. embossed from the interior); height 23.8 cm.

The situla (it was used as a vessel for serving drinks offered on ceremonial occasions) is decorated with human and animal figures. The figural motifs are distributed in three bands of scenes with considerable internal meaning, thus they seem to have a certain narrative quality. The scenes with some local cult ceremony confirm the existence of a clan based hierarchical system with an upper class of local chieftains and members of their families.

 

  

    Picture at: http://www.carantha.net/the_arts_of_the_ancient_veneti.htm

 

 

 Gold jewelry, from Calarasi   

   http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/harsova/fr/balk.html   

File:Kärl af brons (situla) med drifna ornament, Nordisk familjebok.jpg

   

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:K%C3%A4rl_af_brons_%28situla%29_med_drifna_ornament,_Nordisk_familjebok.jpg

 This system was formed through contacts with the Etruscan or Este cultures, although the society in the southeastern Alps did not evolve further into an   urban culture. The style is considered to have originated as a result of contacts between the prehistoric societies in this region and the developed urban culture of the Etruscans.

The Vače situla is a bronze pail, 23.8 cm high, which was uncovered in an Iron Age burial mound at Vače in 1882 by a local inhabitant, and was later included in the collections of the National Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana. Such pails were popular metal vessels in the early Iron Age, and were also excellent media for art and narrative. The Vače situla is particulary distinctive because of the decoration in three bands on its panels showing a prehistoric feast. The basic narrative is centralised on the upper bands. The first shows a festive procession of riders and chariots. The central band shows a sacrifice, a princely banquet, and war games with dumb-bells. Animals are featured on the third and lowest band. The scenes were hammered in shallow relief on the sheet metal of the situla in a repoussé technique. The situla was created in what is now Slovenia, in a workshop somewhere in Lower Carniola. It was made by a craftsman - storyteller in the 5th century BC, who was a master of the favoured manner of relief in bronze sheet metal, i.e. situla art, in the region between the Po and Danube rivers. Venetic situlae, however, present their own special features. First of all, the period during which this artistic form existed was the Iron Age (900 - 350 B.C.), in particular after the VIII-VII centuries B.C.  The sides of Veneti situlae are richly decorated; the art work is effected on a bronze lamina, with two kinds of techniques: the engraving ("a bulino") and in-relief ("a sbalzo"), making the shapes on the exterior jut out by tapping the interior surface with a tool, such as a little hammer. This complex technique is called toreutic.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.narmuz-lj.si/slike/arh/situla.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.narmuz-lj.si/ang/odd/arh/arhobj.html

Benvenuti Situla from Este, with Venetic Lord drinking, Late 7th c. BC /arh/situla.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.narmuz-lj.si/ang/odd/arh/arhobj.html

 

Pelasgian Language

 Culture and Society » Prehistory & History » Pelasgian Language
http://dodona.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=history&action=display&thread=9925


Pelasgian Language
Post by dean on Jan 14, 2005, 10:39pm

I have read about Pelasgians inhabiting the Aegean area before waves of Greek-speakers migrated there, from the "north." From what I've read about recent theories of language and population genetics, it seems that the idea that Greeks migrating from the north is erroneous, and that the above theory is dated.

Is the Pelasgian language related to Indo-European or any of it's early formative languages? I have read that it's a non-Indo-European language or languages. Is it a Paleolithic language?


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by artemidoros on Jan 15, 2005, 4:48pm

The Pelasgians were non-Greek speakers. That is the only thing we can say with a degree of certainty. It appears that the name was often used as a blanket term by the ancient Greeks, to cover a number of ethne in the Helladic peninsula and the Aegean. They were considered to have been there before the Greeks. We do not know if they spoke a language that was related to IE languages, an ergatic Paleolithic language or something else. We can only speculate.

Where is Artemisia? This is her subject. Must have gone digging again ::)


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by deinokratos on Jan 16, 2005, 8:02pm

Am i mistaken in my understanding that there was a tablet found in Lesvos that contains a language that appears to be related to Etruscan, or is just in Etruscan-style Greek letters?

I found this on Wikipedia, kind of informative, it is tolerant enough (of nationalist based scholarship) not only to include Albanian-Pelasgian theories, but also the far more absurd Turkish-Pelasgian theories.


Quote:

 From a tribal name, both Classical historians and archeologists have come to use the name "Pelasgian" to describe the inhabitants in the lands around the Aegean Sea and their descendants before the arrival of the waves of Greek-speaking invaders during the 2nd millennium BC. The results of archaeological excavations at Çatalhöyük by James Mellaart (1955) and F. Schachermeyr (1979) led them to conclude that the Pelasgians had migrated from Asia Minor to the Aegean basin in the 4th millennium BC. Further, scholars have attributed a number of non-Indo-European linguistic and cultural features to the Pelasgians:

Groups of non-Indo-European loan words in the Greek language, borrowed in its prehistoric development
Non-Greek place names in the region containing the consonantal strings "-nth-" (e.g. Corinth) or "-tt-" in the peninsula of Attica, or with "-ss-" (e.g. Larissa)
Certain mythological stories or deities (usually goddesses) that have no parallel to the mythologies of other Indo-European peoples like the Germans, Celts or Indians.
A small number of non-Greek inscriptions, the best-known found on Lemnos. These inscriptions use a version of the western Greek alphabet similar to that used in the Old Italic alphabet employed for Etruscan inscriptions.
Not all of these features belong to the same people. For example, some evidence suggests that the "-ss-" placenames may have come from a language related to Hittite (for example: Parnassus may be related to the Hittite word parna- or "house"). Because of insufficient evidence from the 2nd millennium BC, no consensus exists on the relationship of these "Pelasgian" elements to their neighbors -- although much speculation has taken place, sometimes fueled by a desire for association with some of the earliest known inhabitants of Europe.

The poet and mythologist Robert Graves, in his works on Greek mythology, asserts that certain elements of that mythology originate with the native Pelasgian people — namely the parts related to his concept of the White Goddess, an archetypical Earth Goddess — drawing additional support for his conclusion from his interpretations of other ancient literature: Irish, Welsh, Greek, Biblical, Gnostic, and medieval writings. Mainstream scholarship considers Graves' thesis at best controversial, although certain literary circles and many neo-pagan groups have accepted it.

The French author Zacharia Mayani (1899 - ) put forth a thesis that the Etruscan language had links to the Albanian language. The Albanian régime of Enver Hoxha embraced this theory for propaganda reasons, and extended it to include the Pelasgians in this association. Mainstream scholars have paid Mayani's arguments little serious attention.

A Turkish scholar, Polat Kaya, has recently offered a translation of one of the inscriptions on Lemnos, based on his theory that it reflects a language related to Turkish. However, in the period of the putative date of the inscription the Turkish people lived several thousand miles away in southeastern Siberia. They began to migrate westward only about AD 300, a fact that has hindered acceptance of Kaya's translation.

Perhaps the least unlikely theory connects at least some of the Pelasgians with the Iberian-Caucasian cultures of the prehistoric Caucasus, known to the Greeks as Colchis. Numerous Georgian scholars -- including M.G. Tseretheli, R.V. Gordeziani, M. Abdushelishvili, and Dr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia -- claim both linguistic and anthropological similarities between the Pelasgians and the early inhabitants of the Caucasus -- as well as with almost every known non-Indo-European language in Europe.

The question awaits a definitive resolution, however. As Donald A. Mackenzie, writes (in Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe, 1917, page 75):

"Before these [Hellenic] invaders entered into possession of the country [of Greece] it had been divided between various "barbarous tribes", including the Pelasgi and their congeners the Caucones and Leleges. Thirlwall, among others, expressed the view "that the name Pelasgians was a general one, like that of Saxons, Franks, or Alemanni, and that each of the Pelasgian tribes had also one peculiar to itself". The Hellenes did not exterminate the aborigines, but constituted a military aristocracy. Aristotle was quoted to show that their original seat was near Dodona, in Epirus, and that they first appeared in Thessaly about 1384 B.C. It was believed that the Hellenic conquerors laid the foundation of Greek civilization."
We moderns, less well grounded in the Classics, may also show less confidence in such authoritative and exact dates for the entry of the Indo-European speakers into peninsular Greece. Mackenzie continues, quoting George Grote:

"By what circumstances, or out of what pre-existing elements, the aggregate was brought together and modified, we find no evidence entitled to credit. There are, indeed, various names affirmed to designate the ante-Hellenic inhabitants of many parts of Greece--the Pelasgi, the Leleges, the Kuretes, the Kaukones, the Aones, the Temmikes, the Hyantes, the Telchines, the Bœotian Thracians, the Teleboæ, the Ephyri, the Phlegyæ, &c. These are names belonging to legendary, not to historical Greece — extracted out of a variety of conflicting legends by the logographers and subsequent historians, who strung together out of them a supposed history of the past, at a time when the conditions of historical evidence were very little understood. That these names designated real nations may be true but here our knowledge ends."

 


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by nikos on Feb 7, 2005, 2:18pm

Indeed, the Pelasgians were non-Greek speakers. Also, it is true that the name was often used as a blanket term by the ancient Greeks, to cover a number of ethne in the Helladic peninsula and the Aegean.

However, we do know e.g. that the Cretans were not Pelasgians. Homer knows that at his time (or at the time of the Trojan war) the inhabitans of Crete were Achaeans and "Etewokrites". Etewos (or Eteos)=genuine, real.

We might also have some indications of the language they spoke: Names of places like "Lycabettus" is often attributed to them. In that name, I see the root "Lux" i.e. light (others say that the name is Greek and it seems "the passage of the wolves").

Some say that their name comes from two IE roots: *bhel (=bloom) and *osgho (=branch) Moreover, there is reason to believe that this was indeed the name they used themselves, not a name given to them by the Greeks. For one thing, the root *bhel has given words starting from "f" in Greek, not from "p" (for instance "fyllo" or "phyllo"=leef).

So, in my view there is the possibility that the Pelasgians spoke a non-Greek IE language, or at least a language close to IE. If we combine that with the existance of the Anatolian languages close by, which are also very archaic and are IE or related to IE, we might conclude that the whole Aegean - Anatolian region was the birthplace of the IE languages, rather than Central Europe.

I know this sounds like Greek propaganda, so have to clarify the following:
- I know that I am not giving any conclusive argument. I am just proposing a possibility. Somebody else might be in a better position to comment on that.
- I do not consider it as any particular privilige for a region to be the birthplace of any language fanily.


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by artemidoros on Feb 10, 2005, 8:26pm


Quote:



No, I didn't go digging. I was in Rome for a month studying Roman history and archaeology. Mind you, I will start digging again in June (in Crete, of course!)


It's alright for some :-X
Actually I am taking the family to Italy for a week at the end of March but will only be in Rome for 2 1/2 days.


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by dean on Feb 11, 2005, 1:23am


Quote:

The Pelasgians were non-Greek speakers. That is the only thing we can say with a degree of certainty. It appears that the name was often used as a blanket term by the ancient Greeks, to cover a number of ethne in the Helladic peninsula and the Aegean. TEXT. We do not know if they spoke a language that was related to IE languages, an ergatic Paleolithic language or something else. We can only speculate.

Where is Artemisia? This is her subject. Must have gone digging again ::)


When I think about the way some Greeks look, I can't help feeling that they are descendants of people who have lived in the Greek peninsula since time immemorial and are descendants of the pre-Greek-speaking population. My second-grade Greek school teacher comes to mind--an older lady who said she was from a mountain village. This lady had a penchant for pulling ears and slapping faces to administer discipline.


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by red on Feb 11, 2005, 7:46am

The Pelasgians were nonGreek Indo-European,maybe Thracian or Celtic.


Re: Pelasgian Language
Post by eugen on Mar 29, 2005, 6:49pm

Pelasgians=Old ?aboriginal ?balkan people=old Mediterranean people.That's better,because it seems that entire Mediterana was a warm,good place for many either in glacial and warmer periods.At one past time all regions were inhabited.And good conditions for wandering and mixing.The problem is :Density,number,how old/age,civilized.The population pressure centers were:Africa,South-Iberia,Balcan,Near-East....and India.My point of view is as following:To a point,Iberian-African and Balkan parts had the initial advantage in Europe.Some-how they were mixed,used same territories for gathering-fishing.They were located mainly in the south-eastern part of Europe.They were Balkano-Iberian.The "Old Europe" was theirs.As one can observe,the Mesolithic cultures in "Vinca" area was inhabited by:tardonesian-centro-European &azilian&gravettian(of romanello-azilian aspect) cultures.As you can see the preponderant element was the protho-Iberian one,maybe they took advantage of an earlier starting.In this case I am naming the Old-Europeans,protho-B-Iberians.North of Black-Sea & Caucasus &near-East,proto-arians.the problem is as folows ;it seems that entire above regions were populated by:

RA-ARA-ARI-HURI-ARIMI-ARIMANI-ARUMANI-RAMANI-ROMANI.There are only 3 regions for their origins:

1.Africa/Sahara

2.Danubian/arimi

3.Armenian/proto-Arian=Iranians+Tu-ranians.What about do not question from where and who were first?

As hunter-gatherers they were already so mixed,they were shortage of animals,they were multiplying and expanding as agriculturalists.Is like the same people are making arches and circles on Euro-Asian map.The people "out of Africa" returning in great numbers to more hospitable climates than Saraswaty,Siberia,Central Asia,Sahara ,Near-East and Anatolia which every of them are encountering tidal vawes (Sumer) and almost all, dessication.Mediterranean-European area:mild,temperate climate;not ocean coast/tidal waves,reugulatory Mediterana "lake",regulatory Golf-Stream,plenty of rivers.So I am for a paleolithic-neolithic pelasgian proto-Iberian-euskara-type,non IE,and in Near-East in the same time a proto-arian.After neolithic,and beginning with,in Europe Pelasgians were using an more +arian and more +indian language,wich at a point was something like PIE.But!!!!The PIE momentum was 1 second.After this second the languages derived,very early (4500BC).I am not for PIE in Anatolia or Thracia or other place ,I am for .....why not,an bifocal PIE area,and.....why not,on moove.I am interested about your coments and opinions.Remember:The austric (south-eastern asiatic),Uralic,arian and Indian languages,a v.v. old.They are not necessary mooving in areas in time as are wanting the scientists and chanhing their minds and theories.Remember :RA.....ROMANI.By short I am for an proto-Iberian origin of all those arian-like languages.

 

Pelasgii in Orientul Apropiat si in Orientul Mijlociu

 

Pelasgii în Orientul Apropiat şi în Orientul Mijlociu

 

Basarabia Literara, Dacologie

http://basarabialiterara.com.md/?cat=44

 

 Din Dacia, locul unde a luat naştere şi s-a dezvoltat cultura şi civilizaţia pelasgă, dacii străvechi (pelasgii) s-au revărsat nu numai peste întreaga Europă străveche ci şi peste continentul asiatic. Prima lor escala în Asia a fost Orientul Apropiat şi cel Mijlociu.

 În ceea ce priveşte Asia Mică, Strabon ne spune, citându-l pe Menecrat Elaita, că toată regiunea maritimă, ce se numea pe atunci Ionia, a fost locuită de pelasgi (Geographia, XIII.3.3) fapt confirmat şi de Herodot care-i numeşte pe pelasgii care locuiau aici, Ionieni (Istorii,VII.94). Ionienii, au înfiinţat aşezări renumite precum oraşul Efes, unde au ridicat una dintre minunile lumii antice, Templul Artemidei. De remarcat că Artemis este figurată, nu aşa cum au perceput-o grecii, ca patronă a vânătorii şi pădurilor, ci ca zeiţă mamă, având pieptul plin de sâni. Alt oraş întemeiat de pelasgii ionieni, Milet, i-a dat lumii antice şi moderne pe Thales considerat unul dintre cei şapte înţelepţi ai antichităţii şi pe Hecateu, istoric al lumii antice. Tot Milet-ul a fost multă vreme o forţă maritimă rivalizând cu Cartagina şi Fenicia.

 O altă grupă însemnată de pelasgi, stabiliţi în Asia Mică la nord de Ionieni, au fost Eolii ( Istorii,VII.95) despre care aflăm de la Strabon că se extindeau până în Lidya inclusiv pe şesul Troiei (Geographia,XII.1.3). Cea mai renumită aşezare a lor, a fost Troia despre care legendele spun că avea zidurile construite de Apollo şi Poseidon.

 Tot de naţionalitate pelasgă erau şi Lelegii care locuiau în Pisidia făcând parte din acelaşi neam cu Lelegii din părţile Troiei şi Cariei (Geographia XIII.1.59) şi pe care Iliada îi aminteşte alături de caoconi şi pelasgii divini.

 Despre alte seminţii pelasge răspândite în Asia Mică, aflăm din Geographia lui Strabon: Mysienii (VIII.3.2), Bithynii (VII.75) şi Caoconii (VIII.3.17), iar din Istorii-le lui Herodot, aflăm ce de aceeaşi origine erau Phrygienii (VII.73) şi Lydienii (I.171).

 După textele antice, locuitorii Capadociei, regiune situată în Anatolia de azi, făceau parte din acelaşi neam cu Frigienii. Mai mult, unul dintre oraşele Capadociei situat în partea de către Armenia, se numea Dacusa Euphratis iar un altul pomenit de Strabon (XII. 1.4) purta numele de Romnena (de la Râm, despre care Miron Costin spunea, ca de la el ne tragem toţi. Istoricii spun că acest Râm este o transliteraţie a cuvântului Roma.. Fie vorba între noi, greu de crezut că marele cărturar Miron Costin nu ştia pronunţa şi scrie corect Roma!).

 Herodot, spune că armenii erau descendenţi ai phrigienilor (Istorii,VII.73) care se trăgeau din marea tulpină pelasgă, dar Strabon (Geographia.XI.4.8) le atribuie o origine thesaliotă ei venind din Thesallia sub conducerea lui Arminius, participant la expediţia argonauţilor, care mai apoi i-a colonizat în văile superioare ale Tigrului şi Eufratului. Oricum ar fi, originea lor rămâne tot pelasgă întrucât Thesallia era locuită în vechime de pelasgi.

 În Mesopotamia prezenţa pelasgă se face simţită printr-o serie de toponime precum: Deba (asemănătoare fonetic cu Deva şi Beba din România actuală), Ombrea, Drobeta (v. Drobeta Turnu Severin din România) şi Nisibis. Mai mult, civilizaţia mesopotamiană, a avut ca prim centru al dezvoltării sale, Sumerul ale cărui fundamente culturale sunt situate în zona Dunării de Jos, în Dacia pelasgă. Ne dovedeşte acest fapt scrierea „sumeriană” descoperită pe tăbliţele de la Tărtăria de Mureş mai veche cu cel puţin 1000 de ani decât civilizaţia sumeriană, precum şi tipul somatic al conducătorilor sumerieni care se adresau maselor cu expresia Sag-gig (capete negre) ceea ce înseamnă ca ei nu erau bruneţi ci şateni asa cum ne arată I.I.Russu.

Pentru origine pelasgă a civilizaţiei sumeriene pledează şi statuetele descoperite la Tell-Asmar, în templul lui Abu, care prezintă caracterele rasiale ale subtipului uman carpatic precum si elemente de vestimentaţie asemănătoare pană la identitate cu portul tracilor macedoneni şi cu cămăşilor lungi bărbăteşti încinse la brâu, purtate de daci. Miturile sumerienilor ne învaţă că sumerienii erau originari dintr-o zonă muntoasă de la soare răsare adică din răsărit. Mai uimitor este faptul că unul dintre eposurile literaturii sumeriene face referire expresă la Dacia. Mitul se numeşte „Zborul lui Ethan spre cer” si oferă detalii despre Dacia! În repetate rânduri se aminteşte de „marea de lângă cetatea munţilor” Ciudat… nici una dintre regiunile învecinate Sumerului nu posedă asa ceva. Prima regiune care corespunde acestei descrieri din apropierea Sumerului este….Transilvania! Depresiunea Transilvaniei, Ardealul, apare ca o cetate naturala înconjurată de munţi iar în imedita ei apropiere se afla Marea Neagră!

 La toate acestea, se mai adaugă un fapt deloc de neglijat: limba sumerienilor are foarte multe cuvinte comune cu limba română. Paul Lazăr Tonciulescu si Eugen Delcea cercetând literatura de specialitate au descoperit nu mai puţin de 83 de cuvinte sumeriene identice ca înţeles cu cele din daco-română.

 Primii locuitori ai Palestinei sunt descrişi în Vechiul Testament drept războinici şi având o statură impunătoare (Iosua 12:4) asemenea giganţilor situaţi de Nicolae Densuşianu în nordul Dunării de Jos. Existenţa pelasgilor în Palestina este documentată şi prin existenţa unor toponime ca: Scytopolis, despre care Pliniu ne spune că era o colonie de sciţi, Rama, Arimateea, etc.

 Populaţia cea mai războinică a Palestinei preebraice se numea Amorei derivat din etnonimul Aromei / Aramei , nume purtat de toate seminţiile locuitoare cândva în teritoriile Siriei, Asiriei, Sumerului, Babilonului şi Arabiei. Aceasta înseamnă ca acest nume reprezenta o altă denumire etnică a pelasgilor.

 Şi în Peninsula Arabia avem toponime care amintesc de pelasgi: Istriana (v. Istru) Satula (v. Sătulă), Lugana (v. Lugaş, Lugoj, Lungana), Carna (v. Cerna, Cârna), Domana, Amara, Draga, Nassaudum (v. Năsăud).Arabii erau cunoscuţi în antichitate ca făcând parte din neamul Arameilor. Numele etnic al arabilor se presupune că se trage din numele părintelui lor eponim Arabus un fiu al lui Hermes sau Armis al Daciei (Strabon, I.2.34)

 Pelasgii au constituit de asemenea, elementul dominant şi civilizator al Indiei.

Rama, printul scit

Unul dintre cele mai vechi poeme indiene se numeşte Ramayana şi glorifică faptele prinţului Rama în care se spune că s-a întrupat Vishnu, spiritul cel bun al universului, pe care-l numeşte la un moment dat „prinţ scit”.

 Cele mai vechi scrieri religioase indiene poartă titlul Veda. Ele sunt în număr de 4 si cuprind Revelaţia hindusă. Ceea ce este interesant însă este faptul că Revelaţia este „descoperirea” sau „vederea interioară” iar titlul acestor scrieri poate fi apropiat foarte lesne de cuvântul românesc „a vedea”.

 Foarte interesantă este afirmaţia lui Strabon, cum că pe teritoriul Indiei, existau trei neamuri mai însemnate şi anume: Brachmanes, Garmanes şi Pramnae (Geographia XV.1.59), dintre care ce-i mai cucernici erau brahmanii. Ei duceau o viaţă frugală, mâncând numai fructe şi bând doar apă, erau devotaţi filosofiei, adorând cu deosebire Soarele, îşi duceau viaţă sub cerul liber şi considerau moartea drept o naştere pentru o viaţă mai fericită. (întocmai ca şi kapnobataii daci sau ca şi ktistaii o altă ramură de preoţi asceţi, daci). Aceşti Brahmani au avut tot timpul supremaţia socială şi religioasă a Indiei. Ei însă nu formau doar o casta sau sectă religioasă ci un neam numeros divizat în mai multe seminţii. Etimologic vorbind numele de Brahmani, Garmani şi Pramni, nu sunt decât derivate ale numelor etnice ahmani / rohmani, armani şi Rami/Ramni, nume sub care erau cunoscuţi pelasgii la unii autori antici ca urmaşi ai lui Ra/Ram, zeul cerului şi al Soarelui.

 Mai mult, studiind poemele clasice ca şi scrierile religioase indiene, Nic. Densuşianu ne pune în evidenţă peste 40 de cuvinte cu corespondent român si latin.

 Continuitatea pelasgo – dacică în continentul asiatic

 Felix Colson, istoric francez, ne atrage atenţia afirmând categoric: „toţi dacii sunt pelasgi” (şi adăugam noi, oriunde s-ar afla ei).

 Continuitatea neamului pelasg sub forma etnonimului dac în Asia, este atestată de numeroase izvoare antice şi cercetări moderne.

 După cum am văzut, în epocile vechi, pelasgii erau elementul dominant şi civilizator în întregul continent asiatic. Interesant este însă ca urmaşii lor, dacii, sunt prezenţi în aceleaşi teritorii pe care erau răspândiţi şi pelasgii, însă par a se extinde mult mai departe ajungând chiar până în China. Şi se pare că, asemenea pelasgilor în epoca străveche, dacii au jucat în antichitatea clasică, roluri deloc de neglijat.

 De pildă, Ana-Maria Coman, care a scris un articol pe marginea unei lucrări a lui J. Saint – Martin, ne atrage atenţia spunând: „ originea parţilor este legată mai ales de tribul Dahae sau Dahi. Cu ajutorul lui şi-a dobândit Thiridate independenţa; (aceştia) erau printre cele mai puternice neamuri scitice, numeroasele lor ramificaţii fiind răspândite în Europa şi Asia”.

 Mai mult cărţile lui Zoroastru vorbesc despre acest neam straşnic de tot, care a dat printre altele şi numele Mării Caspice.

 Herodot de asemenea afirmă că încă înainte de Cyrus multe triburi Dahae pătrunseseră în interiorul Persiei.

 În condiţiile în care neamul dacilor se răspândise, încă din străvechime până în Persia, nu mai trebuie să ne mire faptul că Decebal, în faţa ameninţarii romane, a cerut ajutorul lui Pacorus regele Partilor. În timp ce Traian era ocupat cu războaiele cu dacii, prinţii din a doua ramură Arsacidă au atacat posesiunile romane din orient .

 Extraordinara extensiune a dacilor ca neam este dată şi de afirmaţia Anei Maria Coman că Bactria, provincie învecinată Chinei, era locuită de numeroase triburi Dahae. Mai mult în lucrările istoricilor chinezi, Bactria purta numele de Tahia, mai exact de Dacia.

 Această denumire coincide cu cea care serveşte la denumirea ţării pe care Dahii, o posedau în Europa

 La autorii chinezi apare alături de Bactria şi Dahia arsacizilor extinsă în Persia şi Armenia.

 Sub dinastia arsacizilor, care făceau parte din marea familie a Cuşanilor, al căror nume era acela de daci, s-a constituit un imperiu puternic şi înfloritor, cuprinzând teritoriile Asiei Centrale şi de Sud, tocmai în perioada de ascensiune a Imperiului roman. Acest imperiu cuprindea Persia, Armenia, Bactriana (Dacia), Massageţia (Geţia mare), ţinuturile din jurul Caucazului şi din nordul Mării Negre.

 Xenofon ne vorbeşte despre dacii din regiunea transcaspiană. Tot pe coasta orientală a Mării Caspice, Pliniu cel Tânăr semnalează populaţia numită Dahae.

 Pârvan îi semnalează pe daci, sub numele de Dahae, în Turkestan, iar în sud estul Mării Caspice exista în antichitate un teritoriu numit Dahos.

 Apoi, anticul Parthyene, ţinut situat azi în partea asiatică a Rusiei, poartă şi numele Dakistan.

 Pe malul sudic al Mării Caspice, la nord de Azerbadjan, se află Daghestanul (Dag fiind tot o derivaţie a termenului etnic dac).

 Massageţii sunt menţionaţi în documente încă din secolul VII î.Ch ca locuind între Marea Caspică si Amu-Daria. În istoria Asiei ei sunt cei care ,sub conducerea reginei Tomiris, sunt cunoscuţi ca învigători ai puternicului rege persan, Cyrus. Numai că dovezi recente arată că aceştia se întindeau pană în China.

 După opinia specialiştilor, străini de astă dată, dacii sunt cunoscuţi în China sub numele de Yu-Ci, ortografiat Yue-Tchi, Yue-ti, Yut sau Ye-Ta. Pentru vechimea elementului etnic dac în China, pledează şi numele împăratului care a fondat dinastia Xia pe numele sau Dayu (Yu cel Mare). Principalele ramuri ale geţilor sunt cunoscute în analele chineze sub numele Marii Yue-tchi, Micii Yue-tchi şi Yue-tchi al Huandong-ului. Sub aceleaşi nume, dacii apar amestecaţi şi printre tibetanii occidentali.

 Marii Yue-tchi au fabricat sticla colorată sub Daowu Di din dinastia Goei.

 După Strabon familia Yue-tchi cuprinde neamurile asii-lor, pasiani-lor, tochari-lor şi sakarauţi-lor.

 Această mare famile de daci (Yue tchi) şi-a avut aşezările între Munţii Nan-Shan, afluenţii Burunghirului şi partea superioară a Huang-he-ului. Prin urmare posedau o parte din China si Tangut.

 Dat fiind conservatorismul dac, este de presupus că odată cu mişcarea neamurilor dace spre China, s-a mişcat şi credinţa lor, zamolxianism-ul, întrucât se ştie că dacii credeau că nu există alt zeu în afară de al lor. Unde poate fi surprinsă înfluenţa zamolxianism-ului în China?

 Există o religie care nu prea are nimic de-a face cu speculaţiile religioase chinezeşti, anume daoism-ul. Însuşi cuvântul Dao, derivă din etnonimul dac, ştiut fiind că frigienii îi numeau pe daci daous, având semnificaţia cale. Concluzia este că daoism-ul este calea dacilor de a ajunge la Zeu. De ce? Pentru că toate religiile chineze poartă numele fondatorului lor (v. Confucianism-ul). Dar daoism-ul nu are aproape nimic în comun cu filozofia lui Lao-Tzi şi nici nu-i poartă numele. Cu atat mai mult cu cât daoism-ul nu a avut o influenţă foarte mare în China , ci numai pe alocuri pe unde erau răspândiţi dacii. Originea dacică a daoism-ului poate fi probată şi prin existenţa masivă a toponimelor şi antroponimelor dacice în regiuni apropiate de China, la stabilirea lor în această ţară dacii nerenunţand la religia lor originară, care împletindu-se cu vechile credinte chinezesti au dat naştere daoismului.

 Geţii au existat ca popor de sine stătător si în India fiind cunoscuţi subnumele de Yut Yat Jut Jhut. Ei ocupau Hindustanul septentrional si valea Indului. Specialiştii sunt de acord că populaţia rurala din Pundjab se trage din acest corp etnic al Yut-şilor. De asemena populaţia Yut formeza pricipala etnie din regiunea Sindi, iar în Belucistan, poporul Yut a format prin amestecul cu baluchii, poporul Jugdalli.

 Descendenţii dacilor cunoscuţi sub numele Yut în India si Yue–tchi în China erau prezenţi şi în secolul XIX în India, în nord-estul provinciei Gudjarat aflându-se regiunea Jutvar (Ţara lui Yut sau a Yut-şilor)

 Iată ce am descoperit în urma afirmaţiei dintr-o poezie a lui Eminescu !

 Dacii; după cum putem observa, au dat o notă aparte civilizaţiei orientale prin religia lor introdusă în China, sub forma daoismului, prin infiinţarea dinastiei Arsacizilor , ei constituind şi un procent important din populaţia Asiei.

 Acum, fiind dovedită cu destule dovezi credem noi, existenţa dacilor în Asia, nu putem decât să-i dăm dreptate lui Eminescu, care spunea: “De la China pân’ la Rin / De geto-daci pământu-i plin”:)

 

Bibliografie:

 

1. Nicolae Densuşianu, Dacia Preistorică, Ed. Arhetip, Bucureşti

 2. Paul Lazăr Tonciulescu şi Eugen Delcea. Enigmele Terrei. Istoria începe în Carpaţi, vol. I, Ed. Obiectiv, Craiova

 3. Alexandru Pele, Etnonimele românilor. Dac/get, Ed. Abadaba, Oradea

 4. Strabon, Geographia, Ed. Stiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti

 5. Herodot, Istorii, Ed. Stiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti

 

quadratus.wordpress.com/.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dodona Pelasgian Place of Devination

Dodona

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Localization of the sanctuary of Dodona.

Dodona (from Doric Greek Δωδώνα, Ionic Greek: Δωδώνη,[1] Dōdònē) in Epirus in northwestern Greece, was a prehistoric oracle devoted to a Mother Goddess identified at other sites with Rhea or Gaia, but here called Dione and later, in historical times also devoted to the Greek god Zeus. Zeus displaced the Mother goddess in the Bronze Age and assimilated her as Aphrodite.[2]

Contents

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[edit] History

The theater of Dodona.

The shrine of Dodona was regarded as the oldest Hellenic oracle, according to the fifth-century historian Herodotus and in fact dates to pre-Hellenic times, probably during the second millennium BCE. Aristotle considered the region to have been part of Hellas and the region where the Hellenes originated[3] but some other sources put the origin in ancient Phthia.[4] Priestesses and priests in the sacred grove interpreted the rustling of the oak (or beech) leaves to determine the correct actions to be taken. Greek oracles are often misconstrued as having predicted the future. The oracle was first under control of Thesprotians before it passed into the hands of Molossians.[5]

Though the earliest inscriptions at the site date to ca. 550–500 BCE,[6] archaeological excavations over more than a century have recovered artifacts as early as the Mycenaean[7] era, many now at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, and some in the archaeological museum at nearby Ioannina. Archaeologists have also found Illyrian dedications and objects that were received by the Oracle during 700-600 BC.[8][9] Until 650 BC, Dodona was a religious and oracular centre mainly for northern tribes, while only after 650 BC it became important for the southern tribes.[10]

Location of Dodona.

At Dodona, Zeus was worshipped as "Zeus Naios" or "Naos" (god of the spring cf. Naiads)—[11] there was a spring below the oak in the temenos or sanctuary— and "Zeus Bouleus" (Counsellor).[12] Originally an oracle of the Mother Goddess, the oracle was shared by Dione (whose name, like "Zeus," simply means "deity") and Zeus. Many dedicatory inscriptions recovered from the site mention both "Dione" and "Zeus Naios". Elsewhere in Classical Greece, Dione was relegated to a minor role by Classical times, being made into an aspect of Zeus's more usual consort, Hera, but never at Dodona.[13]

The god could also be invoked from a distance. In Homer's Iliad 16.233-5 (circa 750 BCE), Achilles prays to "High Zeus, Lord of Dodona, Pelasgian, living afar off, brooding over wintry Dodona"[14] No buildings are mentioned, and the priests (called Selloi) slept on the ground with unwashed feet. The oracle also features in Odysseus' fictive yarn about himself told to the swineherd Eumaeus (Odyssey 14.327-8): Odysseus, he tells Eumaeus, has been seen among the Thesprotians, having gone to inquire of the oracle at Dodona whether he should return to Ithaca openly or in secret (as the disguised Odysseus is actually doing); later (Odyssey 19. he repeats the same tale to Penelope, who may not yet have seen through his disguise. His words "bespeak a familiarity with Dodona, a realization of its importance,and an understanding that it was normal to consult Zeus there on a problem of personal conduct."[15]

Not until the fourth century BCE, was a small stone temple to Zeus added to the site. By the time Euripides mentioned Dodona (fragmentary play Melanippe), and Herodotus wrote about the oracle, priestesses had been restored. Though it never eclipsed the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Dodona gained a reputation far beyond Greece. In Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica, a retelling of an older story of Jason and the Argonauts, Jason's ship, the "Argo", had the gift of prophecy, because it contained an oak timber spirited from Dodona.

Theatre of Pyrrhus in Dodona.
Ruins of the bouleuterion in Dodona

In the third century BCE, King Pyrrhus grandly rebuilt the Temple of Zeus, and added many other buildings and a festival featuring athletic games, musical contests, and drama enacted in a theatre. A wall was built around the oracle itself and the holy tree, as well as temples to Heracles and Dione.

In 219 BCE, the Aetolians invaded and burned the temple to the ground. Though King Philip V of Macedon rebuilt all the buildings bigger and better than before, and added a stadium for annual games, the oracle at Dodona never fully recovered. In 167 BCE, Dodona was once again destroyed and later rebuilt 31 BCE by Emperor Augustus. By the time the traveller Pausanias visited Dodona in the second century AD, the sacred grove had been reduced to a single oak.[16] Pilgrims still consulted the oracle until CE 391, when Christians cut down the holy tree. Though the surviving town was insignificant, the long-hallowed pagan site must have retained significance, for a Christian Bishop of Dodona attended the First Council of Ephesus in CE 431.

[edit] Herodotus

Herodotus[17] (Histories 2:54–57) was told by priests at Egyptian Thebes in the 5th century BC "that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries." The simplest analysis: Egypt, for Greeks and for Egyptians themselves was a spring of human culture of all but immeasurable antiquity. This mythic element says that the oracles at the oasis of Siwa in Libya and of Dodona in Epirus were equally old, but similarly transmitted by Phoenician culture, and that the seeresses — Herodotus does not say "sibyls" — were women.

Plan of the sanctuary.

Herodotus follows with what he was told by the prophetesses, called peleiades ("doves") at Dodona:

that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona; the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true.

In the simplest analysis, this was a confirmation of the oracle tradition in Egypt. The element of the dove may be an attempt to account for a folk etymology applied to the archaic name of the sacred women that no longer made sense. Was the pel- element in their name actually connected with "black" or "muddy" root elements in names like "Peleus" or "Pelops"? Is that why the doves were black? Herodotus adds:

But my own belief about it is this. If the Phoenicians did in fact carry away the sacred women and sell one in Libya and one in Hellas, then, in my opinion, the place where this woman was sold in what is now Hellas, but was formerly called Pelasgia, was Thesprotia; and then, being a slave there, she established a shrine of Zeus under an oak that was growing there; for it was reasonable that, as she had been a handmaid of the temple of Zeus at Thebes, she would remember that temple in the land to which she had come. After this, as soon as she understood the Greek language, she taught divination; and she said that her sister had been sold in Libya by the same Phoenicians who sold her.

I expect that these women were called 'doves' by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian.

Thesprotia, on the coast west of Dodona, would have been available to the sea-going Phoenicians, whom Herodotus' readers would not have expected to have penetrated as far inland as Dodona.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Dodone, Henry George Liddell and Scott, Robert. A Greek-English Lexicon. Clarendon Press, 1940 ISBN 0198642261 (Perseus Digital Library).
  2. ^ Hammond, N.G.L. A History of Greece to 322 B.C. Clarendon Press, 1986, ISBN 0198730969, p. 39. "...Greek gods too, especially Zeus the sky-god, were at home on Mt. Olympus and in Pieria, and the Zeus of Dodona derived his importance from the Bronze Age when he displaced a Mother Goddess and assimilated her as Aphrodite."
  3. ^ Hammond, N.G.L. A History of Greece to 322 B.C. Clarendon Press, 1986, ISBN 0198730969, p. 77. "The original home of the Hellenes was 'Hellas', the area round Dodona in Epirus, according to Aristotle. In the Iliad it was the home of Achilles' Hellenes."; Aristotle. Meteorologica. Book 1, Part 14. "Rather we must take the cause of all these changes to be that, just as winter occurs in the seasons of the year, so in determined periods there comes a great winter of a great year and with it excess of rain. But this excess does not always occur in the same place. The deluge in the time of Deucalion, for instance, took place chiefly in the Greek world and in it especially about ancient Hellas, the country about Dodona and the Achelous, a river which has often changed its course. Here the Selli dwelt and those who were formerly called Graeci and now Hellenes."
  4. ^ Parian Marble, Entry #6. "Hellen became the king of Phthiotis and the previously named Greeks were called Hellenes"
  5. ^ Potter, John. Archaeologia Graeca or the Antiquities of Greece. Blackie, 1840 (Original from the University of Lausanne), p. 258. "Dodona is by some thought to have been a city of Thessaly; by others it was placed in Epirus; and others, to reconcile these two opinions, will have two Dodonas, one in Thessaly, and another in Epirus. They that place it in Epirus (and that is generally believed to have been the seat of the oracle, whether there was another Dodona in Thessaly or not), are no less divided in their opinions about it; for some of them will have it in Thesprotia, others in Chaonia, or Molossia; but Eustathius [disambiguation needed] has undertaken to decide the controversy, telling us that it did indeed once belong to the Thesprotians, but afterwards fell into the hands of the Molossians; and he is herein confirmed by Strabo."
  6. ^ Lhôte, É. Les lamelles oraculaires de Dodone (Geneva 2006:77).
  7. ^ Tandy, David W. Prehistory and History: Ethnicity, Class and Political Economy. Black Rose Books Ltd., 2001, ISBN 1551641887, p. 23. "It was apparently in LHIIIA2 (the second half of the fourteenth century) that Mycenaean objects began to appear at inland settlements such as Dodona, and to the end of LH IIIA or the first years of LH IIIB we may assign the earliest use, at Mazaraki in the interior of northern Epirus, of Aegean pottery and bronze objects as burial goods in cist graves."
  8. ^ Boardman, John (1982). The prehistory of the Balkans and the Middle East and the Aegean world, tenth to eighth centuries B.C.. Cambridge University Press. p. 653. ISBN 0521224969. http://books.google.com/books?id=vXljf8JqmkoC&pg=PA655&dq=Vergina+Illyrian&hl=en&ei=oB9PTKfaGMmisQbTvdG_AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=the%20shrine%20of%20dodona%20received%20dedications&f=false. 
  9. ^ Hammond, Nicholas (1976). Migrations and invasions in Greece and adjacent areas. Noyes Press. p. 130. ISBN 0815550472. http://books.google.com/books?ei=ORJQTLHZG4mosQa6q7zVDQ&ct=result&hl=en&id=O9saAAAAYAAJ&dq=dodona+illyrian&q=The+site+was+certainly+not+inhabitable+in+the+winter.+At+Dodona+and+at+Vaxia+southeast+of+Dodona+Illyrian+objects+of+the+eighth+and+seventh+centuries+have+been+found#search_anchor. 
  10. ^ Boardman, John (1982). The expansion of the Greek world, eighth to sixth centuries B.C.. Cambridge University Press. p. 272. ISBN 0521234476. http://books.google.com/books?id=0qAoqP4g1fEC&pg=PA272&dq=Indeed+Dodona+was+a+religious+and+oracular+centre+primarily+for+northern+tribes,+and+it+was+only+in+the+latter+half+of+the+seventh+century+that+it+drew+the+southern&hl=en&ei=WTtQTNe2M5rfsAaHuPDQDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Indeed%20Dodona%20was%20a%20religious%20and%20oracular%20centre%20primarily%20for%20northern%20tribes%2C%20and%20it%20was%20only%20in%20the%20latter%20half%20of%. 
  11. ^ Kristensen, William Brede. The Meaning of Religion: Lectures in the Phenomenology of Religion. M. Nijhoff, 1960 (original from the University of California), p. 104. "The Zeus of the oracle at Dodona, who "dwells in the root of the oak tree "...of the leaves — is called Zeus Naios, "from the spring" (cf . the Naiads)..."; Tarn, William Woodthorpe. "Antigonos Gonatas". Argonaut, 1969, p. 60. "I am supposing that Naios means 'god of the spring', as generally thought, and that the cult of Zeus Naios at Athens and Delos was probably an importation from Dodona."
  12. ^ LSJ: bouleus.
  13. ^ Vandenberg, Philipp. Mysteries of the Oracles: The Last Secrets of Antiquity. Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2007, ISBN 1845114027, p. 29. "In classical times in Epirus Zeus had a consort Dione, but everything suggests that she had never existed independently of him."
  14. ^ Richard Lattimore translation.
  15. ^ William E. Gwatkin, Jr., "Dodona, Odysseus, and Aeneas", The Classical Journal 57.3 (December 1961:97-102) p. 100.
  16. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece. Book I, Chapter XVIII.
  17. ^ Vandenberg, Philipp. Mysteries of the Oracles: The Last Secrets of Antiquity. Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2007, ISBN 1845114027, pp. 29–30. "The Pelasgians, writes Herodotus, "sent to the oracle at Dodona (the most ancient and, at that period, the only oracle in Greece) to ask advice about the propriety of adopting names that had come into the country from abroad."

[edit] Further reading

  • Easterling, P.E. and Muir, John Victor. Greek Religion and Society. Cambridge University Press, 1985. ISBN 0521287855
  • Anastasios-Phoivos Christidēs, Maria Arapopoulou, and Maria Chritē. A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 0521833078
  • Wilson, Nigel Guy. Encyclopedia Of Ancient Greece. Taylor & Francis, Inc., 2005. ISBN 9780415973342
  • Marinatos, Nanno and Hägg, Robin. Greek Sanctuaries: New Approaches Routledge, 1993. ISBN 0415053846

[edit] External links

Coordinates: 39°32′47″N 20°47′16″E / 39.54639°N 20.78778°E / 39.54639; 20.78778

Pelasgians and Hellenes

http://zeus10.wordpress.com/2009/01/12/the-trojan-war-and-the-%E2%80%9Cpurity%E2%80%9D-of-a-famous-race/ 

It has been widely accepted that the classical Hellenes were not an uniform body of people, many nationalities were included within the “nation” called Helenes.

Among other many nationalities it has been two mayor distinct groups:

 

  1. Pelasgians(which were not proper Hellenes), a pre-Hellenic people which include:

a. Ionians

b. Athenians

c. Aeolians

d. Islanders

2. Helenes

a. Dorians

The Dorians (Spartans-Lacademonians) have been always considered alien people by Athenians-Ionians-Achaeans, even during classical or Hellenistic period.

 

Thukydides 1.102

“The Lakedaimonians… afraid of the Athenians, and regarding them even as A NON-RELATED RACE

 

They were considered such foreigners, that they were not even allowed to put step inside the temples of the Pelasgians(““Helenic temples””) Gods in Athene and Ionia.

 

Herodotus Book 1: Clio

“Lacedemonian stranger, go back and enter not into the temple, for it is not lawful for Dorians to pass in hither.” He said: “Woman, I am not a Dorian, but an Achaian.” So then, paying no attention to the ominous speech, he made his attempt and then was expelled again with the Lacedemonians;

1. Let’s have a look at the pelasgians first

 

Herodotus, Polymnia Book 7

a. The Ionians furnished a hundred ships, and were armed like the Greeks. Now these Ionians, during the time that they dwelt in the Peloponnese and inhabited the land now called Achaea (which wasbefore the arrival of Danaus and Xuthus in the Peloponnese), were called, according to the Greek account, Aegialean Pelasgi, ; but afterwards, from Ion the son of Xuthus, they were called Ionians.

Herodotus Urania 8 pg 9

b. The Athenians, when the region which is now called Greece was held by the Pelasgi, were Pelasgians, and bore the name of Cranaans; but under their king Cecrops, they were called Cecropidae.

Herodotus, Polymnia Book 7

c. The Aeolians furnished sixty ships, and were equipped in the Grecian fashion. They too were anciently called Pelasgians, as the Greeks declare.

 

Herodotus, Polymnia Book 7

d. The Islanders furnished seventeen ships, and wore arms like the Greeks. They too were a Pelasgian race, who in later times took the, name of Ionians for the same reason me reason as those who inhabited the twelve cities founded from Athens.

 

2. Lets look at the Helenes

 

 

Herodotus, Clio Book 1

 

 

 

Under the authority of Herodotus, its obvious, that among all those people who inhabited “Hellas”, only the Dorians were originally Hellenes, and the others were not.

So, everything happening in Hellas before Dorian invasion, must not be attributed to Hellenes but to another race: THE PELASGIANS.

The Hellenes must not enjoy the historical credit which belong to Pelasgians.

Now let’s see when did happen the Dorian invasion, which is in right thought the arrival of Helenes.

PAUSANIAS, Description of Greece 4.3.1

After the conclusion of the Trojan war and the death of Nestor after his return home, the Dorian expedition and return of the Heracleidae, which took place two generations later, drove the descendants of Nestor from Messenia. This has already formed a part of my account of Tisamenus.

So the arrival of proper HELENES(Greeks=Dorians) happened two generations later the TROJAN WAR. In right thought, it has been no Helenes participating the Trojan WAR.

After this ’shocking’ statement, rightly we should ask:

Who has been fighting against the Troians?

Its obvious that there it has been the Pelasgians who raised the big expedition against the Troians, under the command of Agamemnon.

And the confirmation for that comes from Homerus himself, commented by the famous Athenian writter Thucydites when he speaks about the name of Hellenes:

THUCYDITES/History of the Peloponnesian War Book I

Before the Trojan war there is no indication of any common action in Hellas, nor indeed of the universal prevalence of the name; on the contrary, before the time of Helen, son of Deucalion, no such appellation existed, but the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the Pelasgian. It was not till Hellen and his sons grew strong in Phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name of Hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all. The best proof of this is furnished by Homer. Born long after the Trojan War, he nowhere calls all of them by that name, nor indeed any of them except the followers of Achilles from Phthiotis, who were the original Hellenes: in his poems they are called Danaans, Argives, and Achaeans. He does not even use the term barbarian, probably because the Hellenes had not yet been marked off from the rest of the world by one distinctive appellation.

What are Danaans, Argives, and Achaeans?

These are the same Pelasgians people, originated from the king Dannaus, who came from Egypt and was the brother of Aegyptus. He expelled the Ionians(Herodotus Polymnia Book 9) who were the original Pelasgians, from their native land ACHAIA. He was ruling over the land called Aachia and Argolide, and his capital city was Argos and/or Mycene.

 

The Pelasgians of Egypt differ somehow from the Pelasgians of Greece (Ionians) who are the original Pelasgians and their original home was the coast of IONIAN Sea which includes also Peloponnesus .

The Ionians got their name from the Ionian Sea, which in Albanian is DETI JONE and includes the following gulfs:

 

 

Herodotus, Polymnia IX-94…. Now these Ionians, during the time that they dwelt in the Peloponnese and inhabited the land now called Achaea (which wasbefore the arrival of Danaus and Xuthus in the Peloponnese), were called, according to the Greek account, Aegialean Pelasgi, or “Pelasgi of the Sea-shore”; but afterwards, from Ion the son of Xuthus, they were called Ionians.

94. [1] Ἴωνες δὲ ἑκατὸν νέας παρείχοντο ἐσκευασμένοι ὡς Ἕλληνες. Ἴωνες δὲ ὅσον μὲν χρόνον ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ οἴκεον τὴν νῦν καλεομένην Ἀχαιίην, καὶ πρὶν ἢ Δαναόν τε καὶ Ξοῦθον ἀπικέσθαι ἐς Πελοπόννησον, ὡς Ἕλληνες λέγουσι, ἐκαλέοντο Πελασγοὶ Αἰγιαλέες, ἐπὶ δὲ Ἴωνος τοῦ Ξούθου Ἴωνες.

 

 

The Ionians are the Pelasgi of the Sea-shore, Ionian-Seacoast.

The myth of the eponym of the Ionian Sea:

The eponym of the Ionian Sea (whose name was more often, particularly by Aeschylus, attributed to Io’s voyage; previously the Ionian Gulf was thought to have been called the sea of Cronus and Rhea). Ionius was the son of King Adrias of Illyria who gave his name to the Adriatic. Ionius was also said to have been a son of Dyrrhachus of the town of Dyrrhachium (modern Durrës). When Dyrrhachus was attacked by his own brothers, Heracles, came to his aid, but in the fight the hero killed his ally’s son by mistake. The corpse was cast into the sea, which thereafter was called the Ionian sea.

 

 

The Etymology

Deti Jon (Greek Ιóνιo Πέλαγoς, Italian Mar Ionio)

In Albanian Deti JONE means OUR SEA

 

English (2 entries.)
Shqip (2 hyrje.)
our
jonë/ynë , tonë

 

Now let’ss return to the Pelasgians again.

AESCHYLUS The Suppliants, Part V

THE KING OF ARGOS
For that, take heart and answer without fear.
I am Pelasgus
, ruler of this land,
Child of Palaichthon, whom the earth brought forth;
And, rightly named from me, the race who reap
This country’s harvests are Pelasgian called.

Argives are the citizens of Argos who changed the name to Dannaoi according to an order given from Dannaus, their king:

STRABO 008.006.009

The acropolis of the Argives is said to have been founded by Danaüs, who is reputed to have surpassed so much those who reigned in this region before him that, according to Euripides,”throughout Greece he laid down a law that all people hitherto named Pelasgians should be called Danaans. {358}

 

 

 

What are the Hellenes mentioned by Homer then?

Homer, The Iliad 2.681
“Now all those who dwelt about Pelasgian Argos, those who lived by Alos and Alope and at Trakhis, thos who held Phthia and Hellas the land of fair women, who were called Myrmidones and Hellenes and Akhaians, of all these and their fifty ships the lord was Achilleus.”

These Hellenes are just a very small Pelasgian tribe who joined the Myrmidons of Achiles in the expedition against Troy.

What are the Myrmidons(milmigones) of Achilles?

They are the inhabitant of the small island Aegina and according the myth they were converted from ants to humans by Zeus himself.

STRABO 008.006.016

It is said that the Aeginetans were called Myrmidons,–not as the myth has it, because, when a great famine occurred, the ants {385} became human beings in answer to a prayer of Aeacus, but because they excavated the earth after the manner of ants and spread the soil over the rocks, so as to have ground to till, and because they lived in the dugouts, refraining from the use of soil for bricks.

Aeacus was the father of Pelleus and Tellamon who were respectively the fathers of legendary heroes Achiles and Aiax. So Achiles was not originally from Thessaly (like wrongly is beleived or propaganded) but from a small island AEGINA, beside Peloponessus.

 

 

 

Now let’s return back to Hellenes again. What did happen to them?

What was their original nationality?

We already explained that only the Dorians which in mythology took the name from Dorus(“son” of Helenus) are the proper Helenes. However , the truth is that before invading Pelasgia(Greece) their king was Aegimus (pronounced AGIM-us which in albanian means sunrise)

 

English (Only one entry.)

Shqip (Vetëm një hyrje.)

sunrise

agim {m}

He had three sons λλυς, Παμφλυς, and Δυμανάὶ who gave their name to the three Dorian tribes.

The three main DORIAN tribes
λλας καὶ Παμφύλους καὶ Δυμανάτας,
Hylleis(or HYLLYNOI), Pamphyloi, and Dymanatai

It is out of dispute that the MOST important tribe was HYLLINOI which in reality represents the descendents of HERACLES himself, the most legendary “””””Greek”””””” hero.

Hyllus was the son of Heracles and either Deianira or Melite. Heracles had helped Aegimius in his battle with the Lapiths, and in gratitude Aegimius offered him a third of his land. Heracles declined the offer, and to show his gratitude, Aegimius adopted Hyllus after Heracles died. As an adult Hyllus killed both Sthenelus, king of Mycenae, and his son, Eurystheus, king of Argos. He and Aegimius’ other two sons, Pamphylus and Dymas, gave their names to the three Dorian tribes: the Pamphylii, the Dymanes, and the Hylles.

λλυς [(h)yll-us]———-in albanian language means YLLI=the star

 

English (Only one entry.)

Shqip (Vetëm një hyrje.)

star (noun)

yll {m} (tr. shq. ylli, shumës yje)

Where these HERACLIDES(Hyllinoi or Bulliones) originated from??

 


The answer comes from Pseudoskylax, the famous “”Greek”” historian 6-4 century BC who has given a very beautiful description of the people inhabiting Europe.

PSEUDOSKYLAX The description of EUROPE 22

22….The barbarians called Lotus-eaters are the following: Hierastamnai, Boulinoi (Hyllinoi), coterminous with Boulinoi the Hylloi. And these say Hyllos son of Herakles settled them: and they are barbarians. And they occupy a peninsula a little lesser than the Peloponnese. And Boulinoi are an Illyric nation.


Therefore the descendents of Heracles and the MAIN DORIAN TRIBE was an ILLYRIC TRIBE.

This means that the PROPER HELENES are an ILLYRIC NATION.


What happened to the Pelasgians then?


STRABO 009.001.007
But after the return of the Heracleidae and the partitioning of the country, it came to pass that many of the former inhabitants were driven out of their homelands into Attica by the Heracleidae and the Dorians who came back with them.

That means that the Pelasgians of Greece (Dannaoi) were subdued by these Dorians(an Illyric people). Also it means that these Dorians who gave to Hellas(former Pelasgia) and the whole world the splendor of classical-“Hellenistic” period were just an ILLYRIC people who are called from Herodotus a branch of the Pelasgians:

 

Herodotus (I, 57-58.)
“The Hellenic race has never, since its first origin, changed its speech. This at least seems evident to me. It was a branch of the Pelasgic, which separated from the main body, and at first was scanty in numbers and of little power; but it gradually spread and increased to a multitude of nations, chiefly by the voluntary entrance into its ranks of numerous tribes of barbarians.

These “Helenes” who originated from Illyria and were an Illyric tribe, was a branch of Pelasgians, therefore the Illyro-Epirotic tribes were Pelasgians too. It brings us to a very important conclusion:

 

It has never happened a “”Greek”” migration, and the so called Hellenes was not any distinct indo-europian mayor tribe, but just an Pellasgo-Illyrian one.

 

These Helleno-Pelasgians of the continent subdued the Argivo-Dannaoi-Pelasgians of Hellas, retaliating for the Troyans who were their brothers (originally from Dardania-an Illyric nation). They took vengeance for the Phrygian too (another nation related to Illyrians, originally the BRYGI, an Illyric tribe) who suffered the destruction of their land Phrygia(allie of Troyans) by Egypto-Dannaoi Pelasgians of Agamemnon.

There is nothing “Hellenic” in Ancient Hellas, it is just a mythical name borrowed from the “darkness” of antiquity, to create a new nation the modern Hellenes.

Pelasgians-Literary Evidence

Pelasgians

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The name Pelasgians (Greek: Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by some ancient Greek writers to refer to populations that were either the ancestors of the Greeks or who preceded the Greeks in Greece, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world."[1] In general, "Pelasgian" has come to mean more broadly all the indigenous inhabitants of the Aegean Sea region and their cultures before the advent of the Greek language.[2] This is not an exclusive meaning, but other senses require identification when meant. During the classical period, enclaves under that name survived in several locations of mainland Greece, Crete and other regions of the Aegean. Populations identified as "Pelasgian" spoke a language or languages that at the time Greeks identified as "barbaric", even though some ancient writers described the Pelasgians as Greeks. A tradition also survived that large parts of Greece had once been Pelasgian before being Hellenized. These parts generally fell within the ethnic domain that by the 5th century BC was attributed to those speakers of ancient Greek who were identified as Ionians.

The classification of the Pelasgian language(s), known only from non-Greek elements in Ancient Greek and detectable in some placenames, even whether or not Pelasgian was a single language, and the relationship of Pelasgians to prehistoric Hellenes are long-standing questions that have not received definitive answers. The field of study looks forward to additional evidence that may fill in the gaps. Many past and current theories exist. Some of them are colored by contemporary nationalist issues, which compromise their objectivity.[3]

Archaeological excavations during the 20th century have unearthed artifacts in areas traditionally inhabited by the Pelasgians such as Thessaly, Attica, and Lemnos. Archaeologists excavating at Sesklo and Dimini have described Pelasgian material culture as Neolithic; others have related to Pelasgians material culture that is "Middle Helladic" and even the "Late Helladic" culture of Mycenaean Greece, where the corpus of brief inscriptions are already in an early form of Greek. Even the linking of archaeological material evidence to linguistic culture is called into question by Walter Pohl and other modern students of ethnogenesis.[4]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Etymology

Much like all other aspects of the "Pelasgians", their ethnonym (Pelasgoi) is of extremely uncertain provenance and etymology. Michel Sakellariou collects fifteen different etymologies proposed for it by philologists and linguists during the last 200 years, though he admits that "most...are fanciful".[5]

An ancient etymology based on mere similarity of sounds linked pelasgos to pelargos ("stork") and postulates that the Pelasgians were migrants like storks, possibly from Egypt, where they nest.[6] Aristophanes deals effectively with this etymology in his comedy The Birds. One of the laws of "the storks" in the satirical cloud-cuckoo-land, playing upon the Athenian belief that they were originally Pelasgians, is that grown-up storks must support their parents by migrating elsewhere and conducting warfare.[7]

Gilbert Murray summarizes the derivation from pelas gē, ("neighboring land"):[8]

"If Pelasgoi is connected with πέλας, 'near', the word would mean 'neighbor' and would denote the nearest strange people to the invading Greeks ..."

Julius Pokorny derives Pelasgoi from *pelag-skoi (Flachlandbewohner, or "flatland-inhabitants"); specifically, Bewohner der thessalischen Ebene ("Inhabitants of the Thessalian plain").[9] He details a previous derivation, which appears in English at least as early as William Gladstone's Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age.[10] If the Pelasgians were not Indo-Europeans, the name in this derivation must have been assigned by the Hellenes.

The ancient Greek word for "sea", pelagos, comes from the same root, *plāk-, as the Doric word plagos, "side" (which is flat), appearing in *pelag-skoi. Ernest Klein therefore simply interprets the same reconstructed form as "the sea men", where the sea is the flat.[11]

Klein's interpretation does not require the Indo-Europeans to have had a word for "sea", which living on the inland plains (if they did) they are likely to have lacked. On encountering the sea they simply used the word for plain, "the flat." The flatlanders also could acquire what must have been to the Hellenes a homonym, "the sea men". Best of all, if the Egyptians of the Late Bronze Age encountered maritime marauders under this name they would have translated as Sea People.

[edit] Literary evidence

Map of Pelasgians and Pelasgus.

Literary analysis has been going on since classical Greece, when the writers of those times read previous works on the subject. No definitive answers were ever forthcoming by this method; rather, it served to define the problems better. The method perhaps reached a peak in the Victorian era when new methods of systematic comparison began to be applied in philology. Typical of the era is the long and detailed study of William Ewart Gladstone, who among his many talents was a trained classicist.[12] All the evidence presented in this section is covered in the article on Gladstone. Until further ancient texts come to light, advances on the subject cannot be made. The most likely source of progress regarding the Pelasgians continues to be archaeology and related sciences.

[edit] Homer

The Pelasgians first appear in the poems of Homer: those who are stated to be Pelasgians in the Iliad are among the allies of Troy. In the section known as the Catalogue of Trojans, they are mentioned between mentions of the Hellespontine cities and the Thracians of south-eastern Europe (i.e. on the Hellespontine border of Thrace).[13] Homer calls their town or district "Larisa"[14] and characterises it as fertile, and its inhabitants as celebrated for their spearsmanship. He records their chiefs as Hippothous and Pylaeus, sons of Lethus son of Teutamus, thus giving all of them names that were Greek or so thoroughly Hellenized that any foreign element has been effaced.

In the Odyssey, Odysseus, affecting to be Cretan himself, instances Pelasgians among the tribes in the ninety cities of Crete, "language mixing with language side by side."[15]

The Iliad also refers to "Pelasgic Argos",[16] which is most likely to be the plain of Thessaly,[17] and to "Pelasgic Zeus", living in and ruling over Dodona,[18] which must be the oracular one in Epirus. However, neither passage mentions actual Pelasgians; Myrmidons, Hellenes and Achaeans specifically inhabit Thessaly and the Selloi are around Dodona. They all fought on the Greek side.

[edit] Post-Homeric poets

Plain of Thessaly, to the west of classical Pelasgiotis, but in the original range of the Pelasgians. The Pindus Mountains are visible in the background. The river is the Peneus.

[edit] Hesiod

Later Greek writers offered little unanimity over which sites and regions were "Pelasgian". Beginning with Hesiod, he calls the oracular Dodona, identified by reference to "the oak", the "seat of Pelasgians",[19] clarifying Homer's Pelasgic Zeus. He mentions also that Pelasgus (Greek: Πελασγός, the eponymous ancestor of the Pelasgians) was the father of King Lycaon of Arcadia.[20]

[edit] Asius of Samos

Asius of Samos describes Pelasgus as the first man, born of the earth.[21]

[edit] Aeschylus

In Aeschylus's play, The Suppliants, the Danaids fleeing from Egypt seek asylum from King Pelasgus of Argos, which he says is on the Strymon including Perrhaebia in the north, the Thessalian Dodona and the slopes of the Pindus mountains on the west and the shores of the sea on the east;[22] that is, a territory including but somewhat larger than classical Pelasgiotis. The southern boundary is not mentioned; however, Apis is said to have come to Argos from Naupactus "across" (peras),[23] implying that Argos includes all of east Greece from the north of Thessaly to the Peloponnesian Argos, where the Danaids are probably to be conceived as having landed. He claims to rule the Pelasgians and to be the "child of Palaichthon (or 'ancient earth') whom the earth brought forth."

The Danaids call the country the "Apian hills" and claim that it understands the karbana audan[24] (accusative case, and in the Dorian dialect), which many translate as "barbarian speech" but Karba (where the Karbanoi live) is in fact a non-Greek word. They claim to descend from ancestors in ancient Argos even though they are of a "dark race" (melanthes ... genos).[25] Pelasgus admits that the land was once called Apia but compares them to the women of Libya and Egypt and wants to know how they can be from Argos on which they cite descent from Io.[26]

In a lost play by Aeschylus, Danaan Women, he defines the original homeland of the Pelasgians as the region around Mycenae.[27]

[edit] Sophocles

Sophocles presents Inachus, in a fragment of a missing play entitled Inachus,[28] as the elder in the lands of Argos, the Heran hills and among the Tyrsenoi Pelasgoi, an unusual hyphenated noun construction, "Tyrsenians-Pelasgians". Interpretation is open, even though translators typically make a decision, but Tyrsenians may well be the ethnonym Tyrrhenoi.

[edit] Euripides

Euripides calls the inhabitants of Argos "Pelasgians" in his play entitled Orestes.[29] In a lost play entitled Archelaus, he says that Danaus, on coming to reside in the city of Inachus (Argos), formulated a law whereby the Pelasgians were now to be called Danaans.[27]

[edit] Ovid

The Roman poet Ovid describes the Greeks of the Trojan War as Pelasgians in his Metamorphoses:[30]

"Sadly his father, Priam, mourned for him, not knowing that young Aesacus had assumed wings on his shoulders, and was yet alive. Then also Hector with his brothers made complete but unavailing sacrifice, upon a tomb which bore his carved name. Paris was absent. But soon afterwards, he brought into that land a ravished wife, Helen, the cause of a disastrous war, together with a thousand ships, and all the great Pelasgian nation."

"Here, when a sacrifice had been prepared to Jove, according to the custom of their land, and when the ancient altar glowed with fire, the Greeks observed an azure colored snake crawling up in a plane tree near the place where they had just begun their sacrifice. Among the highest branches was a nest, with twice four birds--and those the serpent seized together with the mother-bird as she was fluttering round her loss. And every bird the serpent buried in his greedy maw. All stood amazed: but Calchas, who perceived the truth, exclaimed, "Rejoice Pelasgian men, for we shall conquer; Troy will fall; although the toil of war must long continue--so the nine birds equal nine long years of war." And while he prophesied, the serpent, coiled about the tree, was transformed to a stone, curled crooked as a snake."

[edit] Historians

[edit] Hecataeus of Miletus

Hecataeus of Miletus in a fragment from Genealogiai states that the genos ("clan") descending from Deucalion ruled Thessaly and that it was called "Pelasgia" from king Pelasgus.[31] A second fragment says that Pelasgus was the son of Zeus and Niobe and that his son Lycaon founded a dynasty of kings of Arcadia.[32]

[edit] Acusilaus

A fragment from the writings of Acusilaus asserts that the Peloponnesians were called "Pelasgians" after Pelasgus, a son of Zeus and Niobe.[33]

[edit] Hellanicus

Larissa of Argos.

Hellanicus, in Fragment 7 of the Argolica, concerns himself with one word in one line of the Iliad, "pasture-land of horses", applied to Argos in the Peloponnesus.[34] What is said about it is reported by different authors and all accounts differ. The explanation is trivial and mythical, but all accounts agree Hellanicus said the term Argeia (gē) or Argolis once applied to all Peloponnesus and that Pelasgus and his two brothers received it as an inheritance from their father, named either Triopas, Arestōr or Phorōneus. Pelasgus built the citadel Larissa of Argos on the Erasinus river, whence the name Pelasgic Argos (of the Peloponnesus), but later resettled inland, built Parrhasia and named the region or caused it to be named Pelasgia, to be renamed Arcadia with the coming of the Greeks.[35]

According to Fragment 76 of Hellanicus's Phoronis, from Pelasgus and his wife Menippe came a line of kings: Phrastōr, Amyntōr, Teutamides and Nasas (kings of Pelasgiotis in Thessaly).[36] The Pelasgians under Nasas "rose up" (anestēsan) against the Hellenes (who presumably had acquired Thessaly) and departed for Italy where they first took Cortona and then founded Tyrrhenia. The conclusion is that Hellanicus believed the Pelasgians of Thessaly (and indirectly of Peloponnesus) to have been the ancestors of the Etruscans.

[edit] Herodotus

In the Histories, Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus wrote, with uncertainty, about the language of the Pelasgians:[37]

"I am unable to state with certainty what language the Pelasgians spoke, but we could consider the speech of the Pelasgians who still exist in settlements above Tyrrhenia in the city of Kreston, formerly neighbors to the Dorians who at that time lived in the land now called Thessaliotis; also the Pelasgians who once lived with the Athenians and then settled Plakia and Skylake in the Hellespont; and along with those who lived with all the other communities and were once Pelasgian but changed their names. If one can judge by this evidence, the Pelasgians spoke a barbarian language. And so, if the Pelasgian language was spoken in all these places, the people of Attica being originally Pelasgian, must have learned a new language when they became Hellenes. As a matter of fact, the people of Krestonia and Plakia no longer speak the same language, which shows that they continue to use the dialect they brought with them when they migrated to those lands."

Herodotus alludes to other districts where Pelasgian peoples lived on under changed names; Samothrace[38] and "the Pelasgian city of Antandrus"[39] in the Troad probably provide instances of this. He mentions that there were Pelasgian populations on the islands of Lemnos and Imbros.[40] Those of Lemnos he represents as being of Hellespontine Pelasgians who had been living in Athens but whom the Athenians resettled on Lemnos and then found it necessary to reconquer.[41] This expulsion of (non-Athenian) Pelasgians from Athens may reflect, according to historian Robert Buck, "a dim memory of forwarding of refugees, closely akin to the Athenians in speech and custom, to the Ionian colonies."[42] Herodotus also mentions the Cabeiri, the gods of the Pelasgians, whose worship gives an idea of where the Pelasgians once were. In any case, Herodotus was convinced that the Hellenes descended from the Pelasgians despite the latter having "remained barbarians":[43]

"As for the Hellenes, it seems obvious to me that ever since they came into existence they have always used the same language. They were weak at first, when they were separated from the Pelasgians, but they grew from a small group into a multitude, especially when many peoples, including other barbarians in great numbers, had joined them. Moreover, I do not think the Pelasgian, who remained barbarians, ever grew appreciably in number or power."

He states that the Pelasgians of Athens were called "Cranai"[44] and that the Pelasgian population among the Ionians of the Peloponnesus were the "Aegialian Pelasgians".[45] Moreover, Herodotus mentions that the Aeolians, according to the Hellenes, were known anciently as "Pelasgians".[46]

[edit] Thucydides

In the History of the Peloponnesian War, Greek historian Thucydides wrote about the Pelasgians stating that:[47]

"Before the time of Hellen, son of Deucalion...the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the Pelasgian. It was not till Hellen and his sons grew strong in Phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name of Hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all."

He regards the Athenians as having lived in scattered independent settlements in Attica but at some time after Theseus they changed residence to Athens, which was already populated. A plot of land below the Acropolis was called "Pelasgian" and was regarded as cursed, but the Athenians settled there anyway.[48]

In connection with the campaign against Amphipolis, Thucydides mentions that several settlements on the promontory of Actē were home to:[49]

"...mixed barbarian races speaking the two languages. There is also a small Chalcidian element; but the greater number are Tyrrheno-Pelasgians once settled in Lemnos and Athens, and Bisaltians, Crestonians and Eonians; the towns all being small ones."

[edit] Ephorus

The historian Ephorus, building on a fragment from Hesiod that attests to a tradition of an aboriginal Pelasgian people in Arcadia, developed a theory of the Pelasgians as a people living a "military way of life" (stratiōtikon bion) "and that, in converting many peoples to the same mode of life, they imparted their name to all," meaning "all of Hellas". They colonized Crete and extended their rule over Epirus, Thessaly and by implication over wherever else the ancient authors said they were, beginning with Homer. The Peloponnese was called "Pelasgia".[50]

[edit] Dionysius of Halicarnassus

In the Roman Antiquities, Dionysius of Halicarnassus in several pages gives a synoptic interpretation of the Pelasgians based on the sources available to him then, concluding that Pelasgians were Greek:[51]

"Afterwards some of the Pelasgians who inhabited Thessaly, as it is now called, being obliged to leave their country, settled among the Aborigines and jointly with them made war upon the Sicels. It is possible that the Aborigines received them partly in the hope of gaining their assistance, but I believe it was chiefly on account of their kinship; for the Pelasgians, too, were a Greek nation originally from the Peloponnesus..."

He goes on to add that the nation wandered a great deal. They were originally natives of "Achaean Argos" descended from Pelasgus, the son of Zeus and Niobe. They migrated from there to Haemonia (later called Thessaly), where they "drove out the barbarian inhabitants" and divided the country into Phthiotis, Achaia, and Pelasgiotis, named after Achaeus, Phthius and Pelasgus, "the sons of Larissa and Poseidon." Subsequently, "...about the sixth generation they were driven out by the Curetes and Leleges, who are now called Aetolians and Locrians..."

From there, the Pelasgians dispersed to Crete, the Cyclades, Histaeotis, Boeotia, Phocis, Euboea, the coast along the Hellespont and the islands, especially Lesbos, which had been colonized by Macar son of Crinacus. Most went to Dodona and eventually being driven from there to Italy then called Saturnia. They landed at Spina at the mouth of the Po River. Still others crossed the Apennine Mountains to Umbria and being driven from there went to the country of the Aborigines. These consented to a treaty and settled them at Velia. They and the Aborigenes took over Umbria but were dispossessed by the Tyrrhenians. The author continues to detail the tribulations of the Pelasgians and then goes on to the Tyrrhenians, whom he is careful to distinguish from the Pelasgians.

[edit] Geographers

[edit] Pausanias

In his Description of Greece, Pausanias mentions the Arcadians who state that Pelasgus (along with his followers) was the first inhabitant of their land.[52] Upon becoming king, Pelasgus was responsible for inventing huts, sheep-skin coats, and a diet consisting of acorns. Moreover, the land he ruled was named "Pelasgia".[53] When Arcas became king, Pelasgia was renamed "Arcadia" and its inhabitants (the Pelasgians) were renamed "Arcadians".[54] Pausanias also mentions the Pelasgians as responsible for creating a wooden image of Orpheus in a sanctuary of Demeter at Therae,[55] as well as expelling the Minyans and Lacedaemonians from Lemnos.[56]

[edit] Strabo

Strabo dedicates a section of his Geography to the Pelasgians, relating both his own opinions and those of prior writers. Of his own opinions he says:[27]

"As for the Pelasgi, almost all agree, in the first place, that some ancient tribe of that name spread throughout the whole of Greece, and particularly among the Aeolians of Thessaly."

He defines Pelasgian Argos as being "between the outlets of the Peneus River and Thermopylae as far as the mountainous country of Pindus" and states that it took its name from Pelasgian rule. He includes also the tribes of Epirus as Pelasgians (based on the opinions of "many"). Lesbos is named Pelasgian. Caere was settled by Pelasgians from Thessaly, who called it by its former name, "Agylla". Pelasgians also settled around the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy at Pyrgi and a few other settlements under a king, Maleos.[57]

[edit] Mythology

In The Greek Myths, Robert Graves describes the Pelasgian creation myth, which involves a singular creatrix goddess who dominates man and predates other deities. The goddess gives birth to all things, fertilised not by any male opposite but by symbolic seeds in the form of the wind, beans or insects.[58]

[edit] Language

In the absence of certain knowledge about the identity (or identities) of the Pelasgians, various theories have been proposed. Some of the more prevalent theories supported by scholarship are presented below. Since Greek is classified as an Indo-European language, the major question of concern is whether Pelasgian was an Indo-European language.

[edit] Pelasgian as pre-Indo-European

[edit] Unknown origin

One major theory utilizes the name "Pelasgian" to describe the inhabitants of the lands around the Aegean Sea before the arrival of proto-Greek speakers, as well as traditionally identified enclaves of descendants that still existed in classical Greece. The theory derives from the original concepts of the philologist Paul Kretschmer, whose views prevailed throughout the first half of the 20th century and are still given some credibility today.

Though Wilamowitz-Moellendorff wrote them off as mythical, the results of archaeological excavations at Çatalhöyük by James Mellaart and Fritz Schachermeyr led them to conclude that the Pelasgians had migrated from Asia Minor to the Aegean basin in the 4th millennium BC.[59] In this theory, a number of possible non-Indo-European linguistic and cultural features are attributed to the Pelasgians:

The historian George Grote summarizes the theory as follows:[60]

"There are, indeed, various names affirmed to designate the ante-Hellenic inhabitants of many parts of Greece — the Pelasgi, the Leleges, the Curetes, the Kaukones, the Aones, the Temmikes, the Hyantes, the Telchines, the Boeotian Thracians, the Teleboae, the Ephyri, the Phlegyae, &c. These are names belonging to legendary, not to historical Greece — extracted out of a variety of conflicting legends by the logographers and subsequent historians, who strung together out of them a supposed history of the past, at a time when the conditions of historical evidence were very little understood. That these names designated real nations may be true but here our knowledge ends."

The poet and mythologist Robert Graves asserts that certain elements of that mythology originate with the native Pelasgian people (namely the parts related to his concept of the White Goddess, an archetypical Earth Goddess) drawing additional support for his conclusion from his interpretations of other ancient literature: Irish, Welsh, Greek, Biblical, Gnostic, and medieval writings.[61]

[edit] Tyrsenian

According to the Iliad, Lemnos has no Pelasgians, but a Minyan dynasty.[62]

[edit] Iberian-Caucasian

Some Georgian scholars (including R. V. Gordeziani and M. G. Abdushelishvili) connect the Pelasgians with the Iberian-Caucasian cultures of the prehistoric Caucasus, known to the Greeks as Colchis.[63]

[edit] Pelasgian as Indo-European

[edit] Anatolian

In western Anatolia, many toponyms with the "-ss-" infix derive from the adjectival suffix also seen in cuneiform Luwian and some Palaic; the classic example is Bronze Age Tarhuntassa (loosely, "City of the Storm God Tarhunta"), and later Parnassus may be related to the Hittite word parna- or "house". These elements have led to a second theory, that Pelasgian was to some degree an Anatolian language.

[edit] Greek

In 1919, N. Giannopoulos published an inscription from Pharsalos (Thessaly) supposedly containing terms in "Pelasgian". Werner Peek, a prominent epigrammist, published his analysis of the inscription in 1938 and concluded that the language inscribed was Greek.[64]

[edit] Thracian

Vladimir I. Georgiev asserted that the Pelasgians were Indo-Europeans, with an Indo-European etymology of pelasgoi from pelagos, "sea" as the Sea People, the PRŚT of Egyptian inscriptions, and related them to the neighbouring Thracians. He proposed a soundshift model from Indo-European to Pelasgian.[65]

[edit] Albanian

In 1854, an Austrian diplomat and Albanian language specialist, Johann Georg von Hahn, identified the Pelasgian language with Ur-Albanian. This theory is entirely rejected by contemporary archaeological and historical circles, but retains staunch support among Albanian nationalists.[66]

[edit] Undiscovered Indo-European

Following Vladimir I. Georgiev,[67] who placed Pelasgian as an Indo-European language "between Albanian and Armenian",[68] Albert Joris Van Windekens (1915—1989) offered rules for an unattested hypothetical Indo-European Pelasgian language, selecting vocabulary for which there was no Greek etymology among the names of places, heroes, animals, plants, garments, artifacts, social organization.[69] His 1952 essay Le Pélasgique was critically received.[70]

[edit] Inscriptional attestations

Documentary evidence of the Pelasgians of Pelasgiotis is at least as early as 150-130 BC, when an inscription written in the Thessalian koinon dialect on a fragment of a marble stele at Larissa in Thessaly records that on request of the consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus, son of Quintus, "friend and benefactor of our country (ethnei hēmōn)" in return for services rendered by him, his family and the S.P.Q.R., the Thessalian League decreed to send 43,000 coffers of wheat to Rome, to be taxed from different regions under the league. The Pelasgiōtai and the Phthiōtai are to provide 32,000 while the Histiōtai and Thessaliōtai must provide the remaining 11,000, with 25% going to the army, all in different months.[71]

[edit] Archaeology

[edit] Early 20th century

[edit] Attica

During the early 20th century, archaeological excavations conducted by the Italian Archaeological School and by the American Classical School on the Athenian Acropolis and on other sites within Attica revealed Neolithic dwellings, tools, pottery and skeletons from domesticated animals (i.e. sheep, fish). All of these discoveries showed significant resemblances to the Neolithic discoveries made on the Thessalian acropolises of Sesklo and Dimini. These discoveries help provide physical confirmation of the literary tradition that describes the Athenians as the descendants of the Pelasgians, who appear to descend continuously from the Neolithic inhabitants in Thessaly. Overall, the archaeological evidence indicates that the site of the Acropolis was inhabited by farmers as early as the 6th millennium BCE.[72][Note 1]

It should be noted, however, that contrary to what Prokopiou suggests about the results of the American excavations near the Clepsydra, Sara Imerwahr in her definitive publication of the prehistoric material unequivocally states that no Dimini-type pottery was unearthed.[73]

[edit] Lemnos

In August and September 1926, members of the Italian School of Archaeology conducted trial excavations on the island of Lemnos. A short account of their excavations appeared in the Messager d'Athénes for January 3, 1927. The overall purpose of the excavations was to shed light on the island's "Etrusco-Pelasgian" civilization. The excavations were conducted on the site of the city of Hephaisteia (i.e. Palaiopolis) where the Pelasgians, according to Herodotus, surrendered to Miltiades of Athens. There, a Tyrrhenian necropolis (ca. 9th-8th centuries BC) was discovered revealing bronze objects, pots, and over 130 ossuaries. The ossuaries contained distinctly male and female funeral ornaments. Male ossuaries contained knives and axes whereas female ossuaries contained earrings, bronze pins, necklaces, gold-diadems, and bracelets. The decorations on some of the gold objects contained spirals of Mycenean origin, but had no Geometric forms. According to their ornamentation, the pots discovered at the site were from the Geometric period. However, the pots also preserved spirals indicative of Mycenean art. The results of the excavations indicate that the Tyrrhenians or Pelasgians of Lemnos were a remnant of a Mycenean population.[74][Note 2]

[edit] Late 20th century

[edit] Boeotia

During the 1980s, the Skourta Plain Project identified Middle Helladic and Late Helladic sites on mountain summits near the plains of Skourta in Boeotia. These fortified mountain settlements were, according to tradition, inhabited by Pelasgians up until the end of the Bronze Age. Moreover, the location of the sites is an indication that the Pelasgian inhabitants sought to "ethnically" (a fluid term[75]) and economically distinguish themselves from the Mycenaean Greeks who controlled the Skourta Plain.[76][Note 3]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ According to Prokopiou: "Some forty years ago excavations on the Athenian Acropolis and on other sites in Attica brought to light many indications of neolithic life - dwellings, vases, tools, skeletons of sheep - which confirmed the traditions recorded by Herodotus that the Athenians were descended from the Pelasgians, the neolithic inhabitants of Thessaly. Indeed the neolithic vases of Attica date from the earliest neolithic age (5520–4900) like the ceramics from the Thessalian acropolis of Sesclos, as well as from the later neolithic age (4900–3200) like those from the other Thessalian acropolis of Dimini...The search for traces of the neolithic age on the Acropolis began in 1922 with the excavations of the Italian Archaeological School near the Aesclepium. Another settlement was discovered in the vicinity of the Odeion of Pericles where many sherds of pottery and a stone axe, both of Sesklo type, were unearthed. Excavations carried out by the American Classical School near the Clepshydra uncovered twenty-one wells and countless pieces of handmade pottery, sherds of Dimini type, implements of later Stone Age and bones of domestic animals and fish. The discoveries reinforced the theory that permanent settlement by farmers with their flocks, their stone and bone tools and ceramic utensils had taken place on the rock of the Acropolis as early as the sixth millennium."
  2. ^ Professor Della Seta reports: "The lack of weapons of bronze, the abundance of weapons of iron, and the type of the pots and the pins gives the impression that the necropolis belongs to the ninth or eighth century B.C. That it did not belong to a Greek population, but to a population which, in the eyes of the Hellenes, appeared barbarous, is shown by the weapons. The Greek weapon, dagger or spear, is lacking: the weapons of the barbarians, the axe and the knife, are common. Since, however, this population...preserves so many elements of Mycenaean art, the Tyrrhenians or Pelasgians of Lemnos may be recognized as a remnant of a Mycenaean population."
  3. ^ French reports: "The fourth and final season of the survey of the Skourta plain was conducted in 1989 by M. and M.L.Z. Munn (ASCS). Explorations begun in 1985 and 1987 were extended into new parts of the plain and surrounding valleys, so that by now a representative portion (approximately 25%) of most of the inhabitable areas of the three koinotites of Pyli, Skourta, and Stefani have been examined intensively. 66 sites were discovered or studied for the first time in the course of this highly productive season, yielding a total of 120 premodern sites studied by our survey since 1985. The survey should have identified all major settlement sites (over 5 ha) and a representative sample of smaller sites in the study area. A summary of the chief conclusions to be drawn from the four seasons can be made...MH settlement is established on two summits overlooking the plain...one of which, Panakton...becomes the most substantial LH site in the area. A fortified MH settlement is also established on a peak in rugged country beyond the NE edge of the plain...between the Mazareika and Vountima valleys, in which other settlements are established in the LH era...The remoteness of this NE sector, and the great natural strength of the MH site and a nearby LH IIIC citadel...suggest that the inhabitants of these glens and crags sought to protect and separate themselves from peoples beyond the peaks that surrounded them, perhaps because they were ethnically distinct and economically more or less independent of the Myc Greeks who dominated the plains. Traditions of Pelasgians in these mountains at the end of the BA raise the possibility that these may have been Pelasgian sites. Once abandoned, in the LH IIIC or PG eras, most of these sites in the NE sector are not again inhabited for well over a millennium. Elsewhere, within the more accessible expanse of the Skourta plain itself, LH settlements are established on many sites which are later again important in the C era..."

[edit] References

  1. ^ Apollonios Rhodios & Green 2007, p. 223 (Commentary on I.987).
  2. ^ "Pelasgian". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. http://www.bartleby.com/61/50/P0155000.html. Retrieved 15 January 2008. "A member of a people living in the region of the Aegean Sea before the coming of the Greeks."
  3. ^ Smith 2001, p. 82: "Besides, does it really matter for the creation of nations? Objective historicity may be important in the long run, but for the mass of the population a narrative must have emotive 'resonance' as much as 'truth-content'."
  4. ^ Pohl 2005; Little & Rosenwein 1998, Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies", pp. 13-24 (On-line text).
  5. ^ Sakellariou 1977, pp. 101–104.
  6. ^ Strabo. Geography, 5.2.4.
  7. ^ Aristophanes. The Birds, 1355ff.
  8. ^ Murray 1960, p. 43.
  9. ^ Pokorny 1969, pp. 831–832.
  10. ^ Gladstone 1858, Chapter 2, Section 3, "Derivation of the Pelasgian Name", pp. 211-215.
  11. ^ Klein 1966, "Pelasgian and Pelagic".
  12. ^ Gladstone 1858. The Pelasgians are covered especially in Volume I.
  13. ^ Homer. Iliad, 2.840-2.843. The camp at Troy is mentioned in Iliad, 10.428-10.429.
  14. ^ Not the same as the Larissa in Thessaly, Greece. Many towns bearing the same (or similar) name existed.
  15. ^ Homer. Odyssey, 19.175-19.177 (Robert Fagles's translation).
  16. ^ Homer. Iliad, 2.681-2.684.
  17. ^ The location is never explicitly given. Gladstone shows, by process of elimination, that it must be in the north of Thessaly. (Gladstone 1858, pp. 100–105.)
  18. ^ Homer. Iliad, 16.233-16.235.
  19. ^ Hesiod & Mair 1908, Fragment 236 (p. 100).
  20. ^ Hesiod & Mair 1908, Fragment 71 (p. 88).
  21. ^ Prichard 1841, p. 489.
  22. ^ Aeschylus. The Suppliants, Lines 249-259.
  23. ^ Aeschylus. The Suppliants, Lines 262-263.
  24. ^ Aeschylus. The Suppliants, Lines 128-129.
  25. ^ Aeschylus. The Suppliants, Lines 154-155.
  26. ^ Aeschylus. The Suppliants, Lines 279-281.
  27. ^ a b c Strabo. Geography, 5.2.4.
  28. ^ Sophocles & Dindorf 1849, Fragment 256 (p. 352).
  29. ^ Euripides. Orestes, Lines 857 and 933.
  30. ^ Ovid. Metamorphoses, 12.1.
  31. ^ Hecataeus of Miletus & Klausen 1831, Fragment 224 (p. 140).
  32. ^ Hecataeus of Miletus & Klausen 1831, Fragment 375 (p. 157).
  33. ^ Mentioned in Apollodorus's Library, 2.1.
  34. ^ Homer. Iliad, 3.75.
  35. ^ Hellanicus, Sturz & Canteri 1826, pp. 49–51.
  36. ^ Hellanicus, Sturz & Canteri 1826, pp. 108–109.
  37. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 1.57. (Herodotus & Strassler 2009, 1.57 (p. 32).)
  38. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 2.51. The text allows two interpretations, that Pelasgians were indigenous there or that they had been resettled by Athens.
  39. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 7.42.
  40. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 5.26.
  41. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 6.137-6.140.
  42. ^ Buck 1979, p. 79.
  43. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 1.58. (Herodotus, Strassler & 2009 p. 33.)
  44. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 8.44.
  45. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 7.94.
  46. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 7.95. (Herodotus & Strassler 2009, p. 533.)
  47. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War, 1.1.3.
  48. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War, 2.6.16-2.6.17.
  49. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War, 4.14.109.
  50. ^ Strabo. Geography, 5.2.4.
  51. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Roman Antiquities, 1.17.
  52. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 8.1.4.
  53. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 8.1.5 and 8.1.6.
  54. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 8.4.1.
  55. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 3.20.5.
  56. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 7.2.2.
  57. ^ Strabo. Geography, 5.2.8.
  58. ^ Graves 1990, Volume I.
  59. ^ Schachermeyr 1976; Mellaart 1965-1966; Mellaart 1975, "Southeastern Europe: The Aegean and the Southern Balkans".
  60. ^ Grote 1862, pp. 43–44.
  61. ^ Graves 1990, Volume 1.
  62. ^ Homer. Iliad, 7.467 and 14.230.
  63. ^ Gordeziani 1985; Kaigi 1969, M. G. Abdushelishvili, "The Genesis of the Aboriginal Population of the Caucasus in the Light of Anthropological Data".
  64. ^ Cadogan & Caskey 1986, p. 94 (Footnote #1): "The supposed 'Pelasgian' words in an inscription from Pharsalos in Thessaly, first published by Giannopoulos (1919: 50-51), are read as Greek by Peek (1938: 20-27)." (See also: Giannopoulos, N.I. (1919) "Φαρσάλου Άντρον Επιγεγραμμένον." ArchEph: 49–53; Peek, Werner. (1938) "Metrische Inschriften". Mnemosynon Theodor Wiegand, (Munich): 14–42.)
  65. ^ Georgiev 1961; Georgiev 1977.
  66. ^ Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers and Bernd Jürgen Fischer, editors of Albanian Identities: Myth and History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press 2002), present papers resulting from the London Conference held in 1999 entitled "The Role of Myth in the History and Development of Albania". The "Pelasgian" myth of Albanians as the most ancient community in southeastern Europe is among those explored in Noel Malcolm's essay, "Myths of Albanian National Identity: Some Key Elements, As Expressed in the Works of Albanian Writers in America in the Early Twentieth Century". The introductory essay by Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers establishes the context of the "Pelasgian Albanian" mythos, applicable to Eastern Europe generally, in terms of the longing for a stable identity in a rapidly opening society.
  67. ^ Georgiev 1937; Georgiev 1941.
  68. ^ Georgiev 1941, p. 63, quoted in H. M. Hoenigswald's review in Language 19.3 (July–September 1943) p. 270.
  69. ^ Van Windekens 1952; Van Windekens 1960.
  70. ^ As, for example, in Gordon Messing's extended review, criticizing point-by-point, in Language 30.1 (January–March 1954), pp. 104-108.
  71. ^ "Central Greece: Thessaly: Larisa: SEG 34: 558: Lines 16-56". Searchable Greek Inscriptions. The Packard Humanities Institute. 2007. http://epigraphy.packhum.org/inscriptions/main?url=oi%3Fikey%3D296631%26region%3D3%26subregion%3D9%26bookid%3D172%26caller%3Dsearch%26start%3D2682%26end%3D2689. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  72. ^ Prokopiou & Smith 1964, pp. 21–22.
  73. ^ Immerwahr 1971, p. 19: "It is the Late Neolithic period that provides most of our parallels, yet, curiously, the striking Dimini-type painted wares of Thessaly are completely lacking, and there is only one small recognisable sherd of the related Mattpainted ware of Central and Southern Greece."
  74. ^ Heffner 1927, pp. 123–124.
  75. ^ The American Forum for Global Education 2000.
  76. ^ French 1989-1990, "Skourta Plain project", p. 35.

[edit] Sources

 

[edit] Further reading

Pelasgian creation myth

Graves' imaginatively reconstructed "Pelasgian creation myth" features a supreme creatrix, Eurynome, "The Goddess of All Things",[2] who arose naked from Chaos to part sea from sky so that she could dance upon the waves. Catching the north wind at her back and, rubbing it between her hands, she warms the pneuma and spontaneously generates the serpent Ophion, who mates with her. In the form of a dove upon the waves, she lays the Cosmic Egg and bids Ophion to incubate it by coiling seven times around until it splits in two and hatches "all things that exist... sun, moon, planets, stars, the earth with its mountains and rivers, its trees, herbs, and living creatures".[3]

In the soil of Arcadia, the Pelasgians would spring up from Ophion's teeth, scattered under the heel of Eurynome who kicked the serpent from their home on Mount Olympus for his boasts of creating all things. Thereafter, Eurynome, whose name was "wide wandering" set male and female Titans for each wandering planet: Theia and Hyperion for the Sun; Phoebe and Atlas for the Moon; Metis and Coeus for Mercury; Tethys and Oceanus for Venus; Dione and Crius for Mars; Themis and Eurymedon for Jupiter; and Rhea and Cronus for Saturn.[2]

Hercule, pelasgul

Hercule, pelasgul

Nicolae Densusianu - DACIA PREISTORICA

Un simulacru preistoric al lui Hercule in albia raului Cerna

Faima despre calatoriile si faptele lui Hercule in partile de nord ale Istrului mai traieste si astazi in legendele poporului roman.

Poetul Pindar, in odele sale, face amintire despre calatoriile lui Hercule la hiperborei, despre persecutarea cerboaicei cu coarnele de aur pina in tara numita Istria de linga Pontul Euxin. Gramaticul Apollodor aminteste, de asemenea, despre venirea lui Hercule la muntele Atlas din tara hiperboreilor, unde el elibereaza pe Promotheu din catenele sale.

Hercule ia parte la expeditiunea argonautilor pentru a duce in tarile meridionale un vechi paladiu al pastorilor pelasgi, lina de aur din padurea cea sfinta a lui Marte. Herodot ne comunica traditiunea dupa care Hercule apare ca protoparintele agathyrsilor, scythilor si gelonilor, si aminteste de urma sa cea gigantica, lunga de doi coti, imprimata in o stinca de pe tarmurile riului Tyras (Nistru).

In colindele poporale romane, acest ilustru erou al timpurilor preistorice, este celebrat ca junele care se lupta cu leul (nemeic); in baladele romane se cinta invingerea si taierea balaurului celui gigantic al lumii, luptele sale cu Marte (Marcoci = Mavors), relatiunile sale de amor cu Echidna (serpoaica), calatoria sa in partile meridionale ale Dunarii de jos pentru cautarea hergheliei de cai a regelui Diomede din Thracia (Dobrisanul), persecutarea cea strasnica a cerboaicei cu coarnele de aur (a ciutei galbioare) prin muntii Jiului si ai Oltului. Peste tot, in cintecele poporale romane, el este eroul calator, dupa cum tot astfel il infatiseaza si traditiunile grecesti.

Numele sub care Hercule, acest nemuritoriu erou al lumii pelasge, figureaza in cintecele si legendele poporului roman este Iovan Iorgovan, brat de buzdugan, mindru falnic capitan, Iovan cel tare si mare; el este eroul care a cutreierat lumea in lung si in lat si care a invins toate halele sau monstrii din lume.

Cu deosebire, memoria faptelor lui Hercule este localizata in Oltenia si in partile vecine ale Banatului, unde el ne apare in epoca romana ca zeul tutelar al regiunilor Cernei, adorat ca Hercules invictus, Hercules sanctus, Hercules salutiferus, si unde s-au descoperit un numar insemnat de statui ale sale.

Aici, in mijlocul Cernei, ne spun traditiunile poporale romane, a existat odata un chip colosal al lui Hercule, un vechi monument, pe care cintecele noastre eroice il aduc in legatura cu legenda unei frumoase fecioare, ce locuia intr-o pestera din muntii Cernei.

Vom reproduce mai intii traditiunea antica despre relatiunile de amor ale lui Hercule cu nimfa Echidna, ce locuia in o regiune muntoasa numita Paduroasa de linga Scythia.

Grecii, care locuiesc linga Pontul Euxin, scrie Herodot, povestesc urmatoarele despre originea scythilor. Hercule, intorcindu-se cu cirezile ce le luase de la Geryon, a venit si in tara aceasta, pe care acum o locuiesc scythii si care atunci era pustie. Insa, ajungindu-l o vreme grea si un ger, el se acoperi cu pelerina leului si adormi.

In acest timp, iepele de la carul sau, pe care le slobozise ca sa pasca, disparura ca si cind ar fi fost un destin divin. Hercule desteptindu-se incepu sa-si caute iepele si cutreierind toate tinuturile din jur, sosi in urma in o regiune al carei numera era Paduroasa. Aici, locuia intr-o pestera nimfa Echidna (Vipera, serpoaica), care avea o natura mixta. De la briu in sus era femeie, iar de la briu in jos serpoaica, si ea domnea peste Scythia intreaga. Hercule, vazind-o, a ramas uimit, apoi a intrebat-o daca nu cumva i-a vazut iepele sale ratacite. Ea ii raspunse ca iepele sint la dinsa si i le va restitui, daca mai intii se vor culca amindoi. Hercule petrecu apoi mai mult timp la Echidna si avu cu dinsa trei fii, pe Agathyros, pe Gelonos si pe Scythes. In urma, Echidna restituindu-i iepele, Hercule pleca mai departe. Cei trei fii ai lui Hercule si ai Echidnei au fost, dupa traditia ce ne-o comunica Herodot, intemeietorii dinastiilor regale, a agathyrsilor (din Transilvania de astazi), a gelonilor (din partile Podoliei) si a scythilor din nordul Marii Negre.

Herodot crede ca regiunea numita Hylea sau Paduroasa, patria nimfei Echidna, se afla in apropiere de riul Borysthene (Nipru) in Scythia.

Insa dupa traditiunile anterioare epocei lui Herodot, resedinta Echidnei, a acestei femei legendare, nu se afla in tinuturile Scythiei din nordul Marii Negre, ci in tinutul arimilor de la nordul Istrului.

Echidna cea divina si cu inima neinfrinta, scrie Hesiod, era de jumatate nimfa cu ochi negri si gene frumoase, iar de jumatate un sarpe gigantic. Zeii ii destinasera ca locuinta o pestera celebra sub o stinca din o vale incunjurata de munti, departe de zeii nemuritori si de oamenii muritori. Aici, in tinutul arimilor se retrasese sub pamint mizera Echidna, nimfa nemuritoare, si nesupusa batrinetei in toata viata sa.

Vechea legenda despre intilnirea lui Hercule cu Echidna s-a mai pastrat, in parte, pina astazi, in cintecele eroice ale poporului roman.

Continutul acestei traditiuni este urmatorul: Iorgovan, un viteaz mare din partile de rasarit, vine sa vineze cerbi si caprioare in muntii Carunti (ai Cernei), ori, dupa alte variante, in muntii Vergii, ori Covergii, Sovergii sau sa caute o fata frumoasa din Muntii-de-Aur.

Sosind la Cerna, Iorgovan pleaca calare intr-o joi de dimineata pe malul apei in sus, armat cu arc si sageti si avind cu sine soimi de la Bogaz (de la gurile Dunarii) si ogari din Provaz, iar inaintea sa mergea luind seama cateaua sa cea isteata numita Vija. In aceste timpuri, insa, Cerna era un riu mare, salbatec si cu apa neagra. Talazurile sale erau inalte ca minastirile si ea curgea cu un urlet infiorator. Cerna rapusese pe toti voinicii, citi s-au dus la riu in sus. Iorgovan, negasind nici un vas pe unde sa poata trece pe celalalt mai al apei, se adreseaza Cernei cu rugamintea sa-i moaie talazele, sa-si inceteze urletul, sa-i arate vadul, sa nu-l rapuna si intru adevar sa-i spuna pe unde poate trece, fiindca dinsul a purces si a venit, dupa cum a fost ursit, ca sa gaseasca aici si sa ieie cu sine o fata salbateca mindra si voinica. La rugarea lui, Cerna ii raspunde: sa mearga pe riu in sus pina se va osteni, pina la trei paltinei – la dealul rotat, la malul sapat – acolo trecind pe celalalt tarmure, dinsul va sa nimereasca la o stana de piatra cu muschiul de o scioapa, unde este dusa si unde e ascunsa fata salbateca, mindra si voinica. Iorgovan porneste dupa cum ii invata Cerna si, urcind pe vale in sus, ajunge la trei paltinei, apoi trecind vadul soseste in urma la stana de piatra, cu muschiul de o schioapa, in sus ridicata. Aici, sub acesta stinca, la umbra adinca, plingea ascunsa frumoasa fecioara, cu fata ca luna, cu par auriu, pe umeri leit, cu un grai frumos si glas mingiios. Iorgovan, indata ce o vede, ii spune ca dragostea ei l-a pedepsit amar pe acest pamint, ca el a cutreierat lumea in lung si in lat si n-a aflat pe alta, care sa semene cu dinsa si pe care s-o ieie de sotie. Ea insa ii raspunde ca Iorgovan sa-si aduca bine aminte ca odata au slujit amindoi in casa la o mindra craiasa, ca el a sarutat-o si a insarcinat-o; insa, de la fala lui, de raul mamei si de rusinea tatei, ea s-a pedepsit, s-a pustelnicit, s-a pribegit si aici a venit pe o vale adinca sub lespezi de piatra, de vint nebatuta, de nimeni vazuta si unde s-a salbaticit. {i fiindca tinara fecioara nu voia sa iasa din pestera, Iorgovan, pierzindu-si mintile asmuta, asupra acestei nefericite fete, soimii, ogarii si indeamna pe Vija sa sape sub piatra, ca s-o scoata la lumina zilei. La vointa stapinului, soimii si ciinii se reped numaidecit in pestere, incep sa zgiriie fata cea alba, nebatuta de vint si nevazuta de om, a fecioarei pribegite. In zadar ea plinge si roaga pe Iorgovan sa-si cheme soimii si ogarii care o pisca, o zgirie si copilasul ii plinge. Insa Iorgovan infuriindu-se mai mult voieste acum sa o rapuna cu totul. Atunci fata pribegita si pustelnicita in suferintele si disperarea ei blesteama pe Iorgovan.

Aceasta este traditiunea romana despre mizera si nefericita Echidna, cum o numeste Hesiod, si care in alte fragmente ale poeziei noastre populare ne mai apare si sub numele de {erpoaica, acelasi cuvint cu grecescu Echidna.

Din punct de vedere istoric, aceasta figura impietrita a lui Hercule nu putea sa fie decit o statuie primitiva, sapata in stinca vie, ce in epoca preistorica a fost dedicata acestui mare erou si al carui cult era o data atit de puternic in partile Cernei si unde astazi mai exista atitea legende despre dinsul.

In tinuturile pelasge, Hercule, ca erou national, avea simulacre inca din timpurile cele mai departate.

Dupa cum ne spune Pliniu, cea mai veche statuie in Italia a fost a lui Hercule din Forum Boarium, consacrata de Evandru. Iar Pausania scrie ca in satul numit Hyett din Beotia, locuit de pelasgi, exista o statua primitiva a lui Hercule si care de fapt nu era altceva decit un bolovan inform dupa obiceiurile batrinesti.

Legenda romana despre statuia cea colosala a lui Hercule din Valea Cernei este totodata si legenda apoteozei acestui erou.

Despre ultimele evenimente din viata lui Hercule, nici Homer, nici Hesiod nu amintesc nimic. Insa, dupa naratiunile post-homerice culese de Apollodor, adevarata cauza a mortii lui Hercule a fost trecerea peste un riu periculos de munte. In fond, este aceeasi traditiune, pe care ne-o infatiseaza si legendele romane.

Hercule, scrie Apollodor, sosi cu frumoasa Deianira, fiica lui Oeneu, la riul Even, o apa salbatica. Hercule trecu de-a dreptul prin riu fara frica, iar pe Deianira o incredinta centaurului Nessus, care, pentru sentimentele sale de dreptate, obtinuse de la zei privilegiul sa treaca pe calatori peste aceasta apa fugatoare, fireste pe linga o remuneratiune oarecare. In timpul acestei treceri, Nessus, admirind frumusetile Deianirei, incerca sa o sileasca, insa cind ajunse pe celalalt mal, Hercule trase cu arcul asupra-i si-i strapunse pieptul cu sageata. In ultimele sale momente, Nessus, ca sa-si razbune asupra lui Hercule, invata pe Deianira sa pregateasca cu singele inveninat din rana sa o alifie de dragoste pentru Hercule. Dupa un timp oarecare, Hercule avind sa faca un sacrificiu lui Joe pe promontoriul Cenaeon din Eubea, Deianira, ca sa-i cistige si mai mult iubirea, ii trimise pentru acesta ceremonie o camasa solemna unsa cu alifia ce o invatase Nessus. Se intimpla, insa, ca in timpul sacrificiului, Hercule apropiindu-se de foc, camasa se incalzi si veninul de hidra, cu care a fost infectat singele lui Nessus, patrunse in corpul eroului. Hercule, vazind acum ca nu mai poate scapa cu viata, isi construi singur, in mijlocul durerilor sale, un rug pe muntele Oeta, se aseza pe acest pat de lemn si incepu sa roage pe trecatori sa se indure de dinsul si sa-i puna foc. Insa nimeni nu cuteza. Un singur pastoriu cu numele Poias, care-si cauta turmele sale ratacite, cuprins de mila pentru suferintele eroului, ii facu acest ultim serviciu, iar Hercule drept multumire ii darui arcul sau.

In fine, mai aflam la Herodot inca o alta traditiune, dupa care riul Dyras, din Thessalia, la vestea ca Hercule arde viu, iesi din albia sa si alerga repede catre locul de suferinta al eroului, ca sa-i salveze viata cu apele sale, sa-i stinga rogul.

Amindoua aceste legende antice aduc, asadar, sfirsitul vietii lui Hercule in legatura cu un riu oarecare repede curgator.

Examinind fondul acestor naratiuni cu privire la ultimele momente ale eroului, traditiunea romana ne apare ca fintina originala a mitului grecesc, anume ca riul Cerna este acela care a cauzat moartea marelui erou pelasg.

Nimfa Deianira, cu care doreste Hercule sa treaca pste riul salbatic, nu este altcineva decit Dierna, numele cel vechi al Cernei; iar numirea de Even pe care autorii grecesti o dau riului, peste care trece eroul, este numele poporal al lui Hercule din nordul Istrului, Ivan sau Iovan.

Viata sa ca pastor, agricultor si luptator cu arcul sau sageata, cu buzduganul, maciuca, sabia sau palosul, cu sulita, cu soimii si ciinii; calatoriile sale prin lume, mai mult pe uscat decit pe mare; un erou care cutreiera muntii dupa lei, porci salbatici, cerbi, fete, balauri; epitetele sale de rimlean, roman, mocan si craiovean, ce i se dau in legendele romane; traditiunile care il pun ca protoparintele agathyrsilor, gelonilor, scythilor si latinilor; fortele sale corporale, tipul sau fizic, cultul sau particular in tinutul Cernei, toate acestea ne prezinta pe un erou pelasg din nordul Istrului de jos.

Herodot, in calatoriile sale prin Egipt si Fenicia, cercase cu deosebire a se informa despre originea traditiunilor si a cultului lui Hercule. Insa, dupa cum ne spune dinsul, nu a putut sa afle nici de la egipteni, nici de la fenicieni, care a fost adevarata patrie a lui Hercule, decit numai atit ca cultul acestui erou era foarte vechi.

Poetul Homer in Odyssea sa consacra memoriei lui Hercule citeva cuvinte, care sint de o valoare nepretuita pentru insemnatatea ce o avuse intr-o vechime foarte departata monumentul cel legendar din valea Cernei.

Astfel, dinsul aminteste de un curios simulacru a lui Hercule, de o figura reala, insa fara viata a eroului, pe care o numeste idolul puterii lui Hercule.

Aceasta forma fara de suflet a lui Hercule, si care nu era o statua cioplita de mina omeneasca, se afla, dupa Homer, in partile extreme ale riului Oceanos potamos (sau Istrul), acolo unde la Plato ne apare patria hiperboreilor celor pii si unde, dupa care ne spune Hesiod, Joe aruncase in o pestera adinca pe balaurul cel gigantic al lumii vechi.

Este, asadar, fara indoiala, ca idolul puterii lui Hercule, de care ne vorbeste Homer, aceasta statuie primitiva de linga Oceanos potamos era unul si acelasi simulacru traditional cu figura cea impietrita a eroului de pe valea Cernei, de care amintesc cintecele noastre eroice."

Sfinxul de la Toplet, de pe valea Cernei, de langa Baile Herculane

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