Romanian History and Culture

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Romans in Geto-Dacian Land South of the Danube

 

Scythian Minor (Dobrudja)

Dobrudja was conquered and colonized by the Romans before Dacia and became part of the Moesia Inferior.

 

 Photo of Roman Oil Lamps from Dobrudja  at:

http://www.restromania.ro/images/vederi/wm_mari/Dobrogea_RomanOilLamps.jpg


 File:Ovid among the Scythians.jpg

  

 
Roman Navy Units  Pretorian coins at: 
 
 

John Richmond, University College Dublin

 
Here in Dobrogea was exiled Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – AD 17 or 18), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, a Roman poet who wrote about love, seduction, and mythological transformation. He is considered a master of the elegiac couplet, and is traditionally ranked alongside Virgil and Horace as one of the three canonic poets of Latin literature. His poetry, much imitated during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, decisively influenced European art and literature. The Elegiac couplet is the meter of most of Ovid's poems: the AmoresArs Amatoria, Remedia Amoris — are didactic long poems; the Fasti, about the Roman calendar; the Medicamina Faciei Femineae, about cosmetics; fictional letters from mythologic heroines, the Heroides or Epistulae Heroidum; and all of the works written in exile (five Tristia books, four Epistulae ex Ponto books, and "Ibis", a long curse-poem). The two extant fragments of the tragedy Medea are in iambic trimeter and anapest, respectively; the Metamorphoses is in dactylic hexameter; the meter of the Aeneid, by Virgil and of the Odyssey and the Iliad, by Homer.

Ovid was born in Sulmo (Sulmona), in an Apennine valley, east of Rome, to an equestrian family, and was educated in Rome. His father wished him to study rhetoric toward the practice of law. According to Seneca the Elder, Ovid tended to the emotional, not the argumentative pole of rhetoric.

After the death of his brother, Ovid renounced law and began travelling — to Athens, Asia Minor, and Sicily. He held minor public posts, but resigned to pursue poetry. He was part of the circle centered upon the patron Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus. He was thrice-married and twice-divorced by the time he was thirty years old; yet only one marriage yielded offspring — a daughter. [1]Originally, the Amores were a five-book collection, circa 20 BC; the surviving, extant version, reduced to three books, includes poems written as late as AD 1. Book 1 contains 15 elegiac love poems about aspects of love. Most of the Amores is tongue-in-cheek, and, while Ovid adhered to standard elegiac themes — such as the exclusus amator (locked-out lover) lamenting before a paraklausithyron (a locked door) — he portrays himself as romantically capable, not emotionally struck by it, (unlike Propertius, whose poetry portrays him under love's foot). He writes about adultery, rendered illegal in Augustus's marriage law reforms of 18 BC. Ovid's next poem, the Ars Amatoria, the Art of Love, parodies didactic poetry whilst being a manual about seduction and intrigue.[2] He identifies this work in his exile poetry as the carmen, or song, which was one cause of his banishment.

By AD 8, he had completed Metamorphoses, an epic poem derived from Greek mythology. The subject is "forms changed into new bodies". From the emergence of the cosmos from formless mass to the organized, material world, to the deification of Julius Caesar, the poem tells of transformation. The stories follow each other in the telling of human beings transformed to new bodies — trees, rocks, animals, flowers, constellations et cetera. Famous myths, such as Apollo and Daphne, Orpheus and Eurydice, and Pygmalion are contained. It explains many myths alluded to in other works, and is a valuable source about Roman religion, because many characters are gods or offspring of Olympian gods.

In AD 8, Emperor Augustus banished Ovid to Tomis, on the Black Sea, for political reasons. Ovid wrote that his crime was carmen et error — "a poem and a mistake", [3] claiming that his crime was worse than murder, [4] more harmful than poetry. [5][6] The Emperor's grandchildren, Agrippa Postumus and Julia the Younger, were banished around the time of his banishment; Julia's husband, Lucius Aenilius Paullus, was put to death for conspiracy against Augustus; Ovid might have known of that. The Julian Marriage Laws of 18 BC were fresh in the Roman mind. These promoted monogamous marriage to increase the population's birth rate. Ovid's writing concerned the serious crime of adultery, which was punishable by banishment.  In exile, he wrote two poetry collections titled Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto, illustrating his sadness and desolation. Being far from Rome, he had no access to libraries, thus might have been forced to abandon the Fasti poem about the Roman calendar, of which exist only the first six books — January through June. In the Epistulae ex Ponto he claims friendship with the natives of Tomis (in the Tristia they are frightening barbarians) and to have written a poem in their language (Ex P. 4.13.19-20). And yet he pined for Rome and for his third wife, as many of the poems are to her. Some are also to the Emperor Augustus, whom he calls Caesar and God. Yet others are to himself, to friends in Rome, and sometimes to the poems themselves, expressing loneliness and hope of recall from banishment or exile. The first two lines of the Tristia communicate his misery:
Parve — nec invideo — sine me, liber, ibis in urbem:
ei mihi, quod domino non licet ire tuo!
Ovid's statue in Constanţa/Tomis, the city where he died
Little book — for I won't hinder you — go on to the city without me:
Alas for me, because your master is not allowed to go with you!

Ovid died at Tomis after some ten years; a statue commemorates him in the Romanian city of Tomis (contemporary Constanţa), and, in the 1930 renaming of the town of Ovidiu, where he is allegedly buried. The statue's Latin inscription reads (Tr. 3.3.73-76):

Hic ego qui iaceo tenerorum lusor amorum
Ingenio perii, Naso poeta, meo.
At tibi qui transis, ne sit grave, quisquis amasti,
Dicere: Nasonis molliter ossa cubent.
Here I lie, who played with tender loves,
Naso the poet, killed by my own talent.
O passerby, if you've ever been in love, let it not be too much for you
to say: May the bones of Naso lie gently. 

 

From the data presented so far it is clear that the Dacians and the Getae were in constant and frequent interaction with the Romans throughout the late pre-Roman period.[5] The interest in the presence of the native tribes on the lower Danube reaches a significant point when Burebista (82-44 BC)[4] brought all the barbarian tribes over a huge territory under his authority.[5] At that time Burebista established a powerful state, extending his authority over a large area, as far as Pannonia in the west and the Greek cities on the Black Sea to the south and the east.[7] Probably between 89 and 80 BC, Burebista moved his capital to the Southern Carpathians.[1] By 74 BC,[7] the Roman legions reached the lower Danube after a rapid succession of victories against many Dacian tribes settled on its banks, and arrived at the Iron Gates.[2] Burebista was perceived as a powerful dynast at the borders of the empire, important enough to play a role not just within the boundaries of his kingdom but also in the political games of Rome (for example, his last-hour ally of Pompey before the battle of Pharsalus).[5] Julius Caesar planned an expedition against the Parthians and en route hoped to cut short the political development of the Dacians under Burebista.[11] Burebista’s extensive kingdom did not survive him:[7] it broke up into four or five parts.[1]

 

Roman Cavalry  from the Adamclissi Monument, Dobrogea

 Roman conquered the South of Burebista Dacia in the first century AD

The period between Burebista’s death and the accession of Decebalus was marked by much fighting between Dacians and Romans.[5] Both the Dacians and the Getae were still perceived as a threat by the Roman Empire, and because of their frequent raiding expeditions into Roman territories, provincial or central leaders planned and undertook reprisals against them.[5] On the other hand, from the date presented so far it is clear that the Dacians and the Getae were in constant and frequent interaction with the Romans throughout the late Roman period.[5] Often they were diplomatic partners and played active parts in the political games of Rome, often as amicii et socii (“friends and partners”), possibly of Rome herself but usually of individual Roman leaders.[5] For example, in his fight against Mark Antony, Octavian sought to ally himself with the Dacians: in 35 BC, he asked for the hand of King Cotiso’s daughter in exchange for the king’s betrothal to Octavian’s daughter Julia.[2]

 

The handing of hostages to the Romans (usually members of kings’ families) might have started as early as 71 BC and continued later under Octavianus Augustus and throughout the 1st century AD.[5] In turn the presence in Dacia of individuals from the Roman Empire as merchants, craftsmen and runaways (slaves or freemen) has been accepted by literary sources.[5] The economic relations induced multiple influences through active exchange of goods and technologies, especially in the area of Orăştie Mountains.[5]

Moesia

 http://people.usd.edu/~clehmann/pir/moesia.htm

Rachel Maiwald

The province of Moesia was founded around 44 BC although the exact date is uncertain. During the reign of Augustus, Marcus Licinius Crassus was sent to bring the native populations under control. He succeeded in conquering the peoples in 30 BC. In the reign of Domitian (AD 85-86) the province was split into Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior. The River Ciabrus (Tsibritsa) served as the boundary between the two. The following information outlines a basic history of

 Moesia and one of its major cities at the time, Tomis.

 

 

 

 

The east coast of Moesia lies on the Black (Euxine) Sea. The Danube River, along with its tributaries, the Drinus (Drina) and the Margus (Morava) Rivers, runs through the province. Moesia was a Roman military stronghold because it lay on the Black Sea and the Danube ran through the province. Moesia's location is on the edge of the Roman Empire which was also a reason for the military presence. Moesia Superior had a main role defending Macedonia. It also connected Thrace to Illyricum and Pannonia. Moesia Inferior had a similar role. Instead of connecting Thrace to another country, its function was to defend Thrace and the imperial interests at the intersection of the Black Sea and the Danube River. The main reason for protection was the threat of invasion from the Goths and Germanic tribes. Protection was vitally important to the Romans, especially when there was land and natural resources at stake.

The objective of the Roman Empire was fully to exploit the natural resources that Moesia had to offer. Those natural resources included gold and other minerals. Along with the precious natural resources, Moesia was rich in farmlands. Ti. Plautius Silvanus Aelianus was the first governor (AD 57-67) to add to the grain supply of Rome a great quantity of Moesian wheat. In addition to the farmlands, there was a vast amount of pasture land and orchards.

Tomis minted its own coins in order to prove its loyalty to Rome. Although the inhabitants of Tomis celebrated games in honor of the Caesars, Moesia never reached the full extent of Romanization. There is some evidence that the Moesians spoke Latin but most influence came from the Greeks. Moesia was never fully Romanized because there was constant movement of the native tribes.

The poet Ovid was banished to Tomis in AD 9. He lived there until his death in AD 17. Ovid was not fond of Tomis, or Moesia for that matter. He described the inhabitants as barbarians. Most of the disdain in letters was probably exaggerated but he was unhappy about being exiled so far from Rome. Some examples come from one of his books in the series Tristia .

When I look at this place, the manners of the people, the way they dress, and their language, and it comes to mind what I am now and what I was, so great is my desire to die that I complain that Caesar in his anger did not punish my wrongs with the sword. But since he once exercised his hatred for me mildly, I still hope for an easier exile in a different place. (Tristia 3.8, trans Evans)

He also wrote that the men could not plow their fields without bringing arms into the fields. The need to constantly arm oneself, even in daily work, was required to live life. Ovid's assertions are supported by a pre-Ovidian Greek inscription. The inscription states that a special militia had to be on day and night duty to deal with such attacks from the Goths and the Germanic tribes. An example of the incessant warfare comes from another letter from a book of the series Tristia (3.10).

Whether the grim force of the mighty North Wind freezes the sea's waters or those of the frozen river, immediately when the Danube becomes level with the dry northern blasts, the savage enemy rides over it on swift horses; an enemy strong in horses and far-flying arrows devastates the nearby soil far and wide.

However, some of the inhabitants spoke Greek and eventually became his friends. Overall Ovid did not paint a friendly picture of Moesia.

Ethnically the Moesians were a Thracian tribe settled in the country of Moesi. Little else is known of the tribe until they were subdued by Crassus in 29 BC.

The city of Tomis is still standing. Unfortunately the modern city of Constanza has been built over Tomis. Some excavations have taken place in or around the city. The artifacts recovered include a cache of sculpture and several coins. The sculpture includes a statue of Pontus (representing the Black Sea) and one of Glycon, a sheep-headed snake-god. There was also the discovery of the "Mosaic Building." The building was a large commercial complex that was three stories tall and supported a sixty foot cliff. Warehouses filed with amphorae were uncovered. A large bath house has also been uncovered.

Another god, Sarapis, tended to be worshiped by men of high rank: prefects, legates, and centurions. Sarapis combined the characteristics of many Greek gods with some of those of Osiris, god of the Egyptian underworld and the incarnation of deceased pharaohs. Most people would not fall under this category of worship and it is not clear who they worshiped.

The men who worshiped Sarapis were men of government. The government included a governor, praetors, quaestors, and legates, among others. The average length for a governorship was about three years. If the position was held for any longer, it was possible for the governor to establish as close, personal relationship with the local aristocracy. Maintaining a personal relationship would then have threatened the imperial power.

Moesia passed out of Roman control around AD 395 when Emperor Theodosius died. By now frequent attacks by the Goths were common. Rome no longer had the internal cohesion nor the man power to defend the border. The Romans lost an important military boundary. They also began to lose territory. The relationship between the Roman Empire and the Moesians was a symbiotic one. Rome stimulated agriculture and commerce, raised the standard of living, and encouraged city life. Roman peace provided for the transmission of Greek culture and art. In exchange, the Moesians provided a supply of grain for the Romans. The native inhabitants also supplied men for the defense of the Roman Empire.

Bibliography

Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Library of Congress, 1994. This entry details the basic history of Moesia from first mention of the country of Moesi to the cities held until the sixth or seventh centuries.

 Cambridge Ancient History. Volume 10, The Augustan Empire 43 BC - AD 69. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Economic and social life tidbits with military conquests and wars interspersed.

 Duncan, Marcel. Larousse Encyclopedia of Ancient and Medieval History. New York and Evanston: Harper and Row, 1963.Details different tribes living in the region along with the conflicts the native Moesi had with the Dacians, the Romans, the Germans, and the Goths.

 Evans, Harry B. Publica Carmina: Ovid's Books From Exile. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983. Ovid's letters from exile and the explanations that correspond.

 Grant, Michael, ed. A Guide to the Ancient World. Np: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1986.These articles detail a basic history about Moesia and some of the cities that were contained in Moesia.

 Hammond N. G. L., and H. H. Scullard, eds. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Second edition. S.v. "Moesia," by Max Cary and John Joseph Wilkes. London: Oxford University Press, 1970. This entry details the basic history of Moesia from first mention of the country of Moesi to the cities held until the sixth or seventh century, along with the natural resources.

 MacKendrick, Paul Lachlan. The Dacian Stones Speak. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975. Deals with basic history of Moesia intertwined with Dacian history.

 Moscy, Andras. Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974. Detailed history of Moesia from the establishment of the province to the release from Roman rule.

 "'Romanized' Shepherd-Societies of the Balkans in the Stormy Centuries of the Medieval Migration." Available from http://web.ucs.ubc.ca/szeitz/books/harasztil/iii.html; Internet; accessed 22

 September 1996. This article gives insight as to who settled in the province of Moesia towards the end of Roman rule.

 Stillwell, Richard, W. L. MacDonald, and M. H. McAllister, eds. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976. Tomis, Abrittus, Novae, and Viminacium were cities in Moesia that were major cities or important military locations, with archaeological information to support.

 Stout, Selatie Edgar. The Governors of Moesia. Princeton: The Falcon Press, 1911. This thesis covers all governors of Moesia from beginning to end.

"The Tragic Defeat and Exterminiation of the Dak People." Available from http://web.ucs.ubc.ca/szeitz/books/harasztil/ii.html; Internet; accessed 22 September 1996. This article covers mostly Dacian history although it discusses, to some degree, the amount of Romanization that took place.

 Weltin, E. G. ass. ed. Great Events From History, Ancient and Medieval Series, volume 2, AD 1-950. Englewood Cliffs: Salem Press, Inc., 1972.The establishment of the Rhine-Danube Frontier including the use of Moesia and the battles fought.

Zyromski, Marek. "Specialization in the Roman Provinces of Moesia in the Time of the Principate." Anthenaeum 49 (1991): 59-102. This article covers the enitre govermental structure of Moesia.

 

Moesia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moesia

 

The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-38 AD), showing, on the lower Danube river, the imperial provinces of Moesia Superior (Serbia) and Moesia Inferior (N. Bulgaria/coastal Romania), and the 2 legion deployed in each in 125
Provinces of Moesia Inferior (right) and Moesia Superior (left) highlighted
Moesia Superior in the 4th century

Moesia

Mœsia and environs

(Greek: Μοισία, Latin[1],Moesiarum) was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. It included territories of modern-day Northern Republic of Macedonia,[2] Southern Serbia (Upper Moesia), Northern Bulgaria, South-Eastern Romania, Southern Moldova, and Budjak (Lower Moesia).[3]

 

In ancient geographical sources, Moesia was bounded to the south by the Balkans (Haemus) and Šar mountain (Scardus, Scordus, Scodrus) mountains, to the west by the Drina river (Drinus), on the north by the Danube and on the east by the Euxine (Black Sea). The region was inhabited chiefly by Thracian, Dacian and Illyrian peoples.

The region took its name from the Moesi, a Thraco-Dacian tribe that lived there before the Roman conquest 75 BC-c. 29 BC and formally became a Roman province of that name some years later (by 6 AD).

Moesia was re-organized personally by the Emperor Domitian in 87 AD into two provinces: Moesia Superior - Upper Moesia, (meaning up river) and Moesia Inferior - Lower Moesia, (from the Danube river's mouth and then upstream) during relief efforts for the province after the Dacian cross-Danube raids of 86 and early 87 AD).

 History

In 75 BC, C. Scribonius Curio, proconsul of Macedonia, took an army as far as the Danube and gained a victory over the inhabitants, who were finally subdued by M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the triumvir and later also proconsul of Macedonia during the reign of Augustus c. 29 BC. The region, however, was not organized as a province until the last years of Augustus's reign; in 6 AD, mention is made of its governor, Caecina Severus (Dio Cassius lv. 29).

Originally one province under an imperial consular legate (who probably also had control of Achaea and Macedonia), it was divided by Domitian into Upper (Superior) and Lower (Inferior, also called Ripa Thracia) Moesia, the western and eastern portions respectively, divided from each other by the river Cebrus (Ciabrus; modern Cibritza or Zibru). Some, however, place the boundary farther west. Each was governed by an imperial consular legate and a procurator.

After the abandonment of Dacia to the Goths by Aurelian (270–275) and the transference of the Roman citizens from the former province to the south of the Danube, the central portion of Moesia took the name of Dacia Aureliani (later divided into Dacia ripensis and interior). The district called Dardania (in Upper Moesia), was formed into a special province by Diocletian, with the capital at Naissus or Nissa (modern Niš, Serbia), the birthplace of Constantine I in 272.

Later, Diocletian renamed Moesia Superior (less Dacia Aureliani) as Moesia Prima, and divided Moesia Inferior (less its westernmost portions) into Moesia Secunda and Scythia Minor. Moesia Secunda's main cities included Marcianopolis (Devnya), Odessus (Varna), Nicopolis (Nikopol), Abrittus (Razgrad), Durostorum (Silistra), Transmarisca (Tutrakan), Sexaginta Prista (Ruse) and Novae (Svishtov), all in Bulgaria today. As a frontier province, Moesia was strengthened by stations and fortresses erected along the southern bank of the Danube, and a wall was built from Axiopolis to Tomi as a protection against the Scythians and Sarmatians. The garrison of Moesia Secunda included Legio I Italica and Legio XI Claudia, as well as independent infantry units, cavalry units, and river flotillas. The Notitia Dignitatum lists its units and their bases as of the 390s CE. Units in Scythia Minor included Legio I Iovia and Legio II Herculia.

Since 238, Moesia was constantly invaded or raided by the Carpi, and the Goths, who had already invaded Moesia in 250. Hard pressed by the Huns, the Goths again crossed the Danube during the reign of Valens (376) and with his permission settled in Moesia.

After their settlement quarrels soon took place, and the Goths under Fritigern defeated Valens in a great battle near Adrianople. These Goths are known as Moeso-Goths, for whom Ulfilas made the Gothic translation of the Bible.The Bulgarian under different names Onogurs Kutigurs Honogondurs attack it during all 6th century. In the 7th century, Bulgars founded the Empire of Bulgaria in 681 and the Serbian principality of Rascia in 825.

The chief towns of Upper Moesia in the Principate were: Singidunum (Belgrade), Viminacium (sometimes called municipium Aelium; modern Kostolac), Remesiana (Bela Palanka), Bononia (Vidin), Ratiaria (Archar) and Skupi (modern Skopje); of Lower Moesia: Oescus (colonia Ulpia, Gigen), Novae (near Svishtov, the chief seat of Theodoric the Great), Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikup; really near the river Yantra), Marcianopolis (Devnya), Odessus (Varna) and Tomi (Constanţa; to which the poet Ovid was banished). The last two were Greek towns which formed a pentapolis with Istros, Mesembria and Apollonia.

The area remained part of the Byzantine empire until the late 7th century, when it was conquered by the Bulgarian Empire.

 See also

 References

  1. ^ C. Suetonius Tranquillus, Vitellius Maximilian Ihm, Ed.
  2. ^ the regions around Skupi and Kumanovo
  3. ^ Map of Moesia Superior and Inferior [1]

[External links

Rachel Maiwald

The province of Moesia was founded around 44 BC although the exact date is uncertain. During the reign of Augustus, Marcus Licinius Crassus was sent to bring the native populations under control. He succeeded in conquering the peoples in 30 BC. In the reign of Domitian (AD 85-86) the province was split into Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior. The River Ciabrus (Tsibritsa) served as the boundary between the two. The following information outlines a basic history of

 Moesia and one of its major cities at the time, Tomis.

 

 

The east coast of Moesia lies on the Black (Euxine) Sea. The Danube River, along with its tributaries, the Drinus (Drina) and the Margus (Morava) Rivers, runs through the province. Moesia was a Roman military stronghold because it lay on the Black Sea and the Danube ran through the province. Moesia's location is on the edge of the Roman Empire which was also a reason for the military presence. Moesia Superior had a main role defending Macedonia. It also connected Thrace to Illyricum and Pannonia. Moesia Inferior had a similar role. Instead of connecting Thrace to another country, its function was to defend Thrace and the imperial interests at the intersection of the Black Sea and the Danube River. The main reason for protection was the threat of invasion from the Goths and Germanic tribes. Protection was vitally important to the Romans, especially when there was land and natural resources at stake.

The objective of the Roman Empire was fully to exploit the natural resources that Moesia had to offer. Those natural resources included gold and other minerals. Along with the precious natural resources, Moesia was rich in farmlands. Ti. Plautius Silvanus Aelianus was the first governor (AD 57-67) to add to the grain supply of Rome a great quantity of Moesian wheat. In addition to the farmlands, there was a vast amount of pasture land and orchards.

Tomis minted its own coins in order to prove its loyalty to Rome. Although the inhabitants of Tomis celebrated games in honor of the Caesars, Moesia never reached the full extent of Romanization. There is some evidence that the Moesians spoke Latin but most influence came from the Greeks. Moesia was never fully Romanized because there was constant movement of the native tribes.

The poet Ovid was banished to Tomis in AD 9. He lived there until his death in AD 17. Ovid was not fond of Tomis, or Moesia for that matter. He described the inhabitants as barbarians. Most of the disdain in letters was probably exaggerated but he was unhappy about being exiled so far from Rome. Some examples come from one of his books in the series Tristia .

When I look at this place, the manners of the people, the way they dress, and their language, and it comes to mind what I am now and what I was, so great is my desire to die that I complain that Caesar in his anger did not punish my wrongs with the sword. But since he once exercised his hatred for me mildly, I still hope for an easier exile in a different place. (Tristia 3.8, trans Evans)

He also wrote that the men could not plow their fields without bringing arms into the fields. The need to constantly arm oneself, even in daily work, was required to live life. Ovid's assertions are supported by a pre-Ovidian Greek inscription. The inscription states that a special militia had to be on day and night duty to deal with such attacks from the Goths and the Germanic tribes. An example of the incessant warfare comes from another letter from a book of the series Tristia (3.10).

Whether the grim force of the mighty North Wind freezes the sea's waters or those of the frozen river, immediately when the Danube becomes level with the dry northern blasts, the savage enemy rides over it on swift horses; an enemy strong in horses and far-flying arrows devastates the nearby soil far and wide.

However, some of the inhabitants spoke Greek and eventually became his friends. Overall Ovid did not paint a friendly picture of Moesia.

Ethnically the Moesians were a Thracian tribe settled in the country of Moesi. Little else is known of the tribe until they were subdued by Crassus in 29 BC.

The city of Tomis is still standing. Unfortunately the modern city of Constanza has been built over Tomis. Some excavations have taken place in or around the city. The artifacts recovered include a cache of sculpture and several coins. The sculpture includes a statue of Pontus (representing the Black Sea) and one of Glycon, a sheep-headed snake-god. There was also the discovery of the "Mosaic Building." The building was a large commercial complex that was three stories tall and supported a sixty foot cliff. Warehouses filed with amphorae were uncovered. A large bath house has also been uncovered.

Another god, Sarapis, tended to be worshiped by men of high rank: prefects, legates, and centurions. Sarapis combined the characteristics of many Greek gods with some of those of Osiris, god of the Egyptian underworld and the incarnation of deceased pharaohs. Most people would not fall under this category of worship and it is not clear who they worshiped.

The men who worshiped Sarapis were men of government. The government included a governor, praetors, quaestors, and legates, among others. The average length for a governorship was about three years. If the position was held for any longer, it was possible for the governor to establish as close, personal relationship with the local aristocracy. Maintaining a personal relationship would then have threatened the imperial power.

Moesia passed out of Roman control around AD 395 when Emperor Theodosius died. By now frequent attacks by the Goths were common. Rome no longer had the internal cohesion nor the man power to defend the border. The Romans lost an important military boundary. They also began to lose territory. The relationship between the Roman Empire and the Moesians was a symbiotic one. Rome stimulated agriculture and commerce, raised the standard of living, and encouraged city life. Roman peace provided for the transmission of Greek culture and art. In exchange, the Moesians provided a supply of grain for the Romans. The native inhabitants also supplied men for the defense of the Roman Empire.

Bibliography

Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Library of Congress, 1994. This entry details the basic history of Moesia from first mention of the country of Moesi to the cities held until the sixth or seventh centuries.

 Cambridge Ancient History. Volume 10, The Augustan Empire 43 BC - AD 69. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Economic and social life tidbits with military conquests and wars interspersed.

 Duncan, Marcel. Larousse Encyclopedia of Ancient and Medieval History. New York and Evanston: Harper and Row, 1963.Details different tribes living in the region along with the conflicts the native Moesi had with the Dacians, the Romans, the Germans, and the Goths.

 Evans, Harry B. Publica Carmina: Ovid's Books From Exile. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983. Ovid's letters from exile and the explanations that correspond.

 Grant, Michael, ed. A Guide to the Ancient World. Np: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1986.These articles detail a basic history about Moesia and some of the cities that were contained in Moesia.

 Hammond N. G. L., and H. H. Scullard, eds. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Second edition. S.v. "Moesia," by Max Cary and John Joseph Wilkes. London: Oxford University Press, 1970. This entry details the basic history of Moesia from first mention of the country of Moesi to the cities held until the sixth or seventh century, along with the natural resources.

 MacKendrick, Paul Lachlan. The Dacian Stones Speak. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975. Deals with basic history of Moesia intertwined with Dacian history.

 Moscy, Andras. Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974. Detailed history of Moesia from the establishment of the province to the release from Roman rule.

 "'Romanized' Shepherd-Societies of the Balkans in the Stormy Centuries of the Medieval Migration." Available from http://web.ucs.ubc.ca/szeitz/books/harasztil/iii.html; Internet; accessed 22

 September 1996. This article gives insight as to who settled in the province of Moesia towards the end of Roman rule.

 Stillwell, Richard, W. L. MacDonald, and M. H. McAllister, eds. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976. Tomis, Abrittus, Novae, and Viminacium were cities in Moesia that were major cities or important military locations, with archaeological information to support.

 Stout, Selatie Edgar. The Governors of Moesia. Princeton: The Falcon Press, 1911. This thesis covers all governors of Moesia from beginning to end.

"The Tragic Defeat and Exterminiation of the Dak People." Available from http://web.ucs.ubc.ca/szeitz/books/harasztil/ii.html; Internet; accessed 22 September 1996. This article covers mostly Dacian history although it discusses, to some degree, the amount of Romanization that took place.

 Weltin, E. G. ass. ed. Great Events From History, Ancient and Medieval Series, volume 2, AD 1-950. Englewood Cliffs: Salem Press, Inc., 1972.The establishment of the Rhine-Danube Frontier including the use of Moesia and the battles fought.

Zyromski, Marek. "Specialization in the Roman Provinces of Moesia in the Time of the Principate." Anthenaeum 49 (1991): 59-102. This article covers the enitre govermental structure of Moesia.

 

 

Conflictul dintre Geto-Daci şi Caius Antonius Hybrida, guvernatorul roman al Macedoniei

 

 

Conflictul dintre Geto-Daci şi Caius Antonius Hybrida, guvernatorul roman al Macedoniei.

Cât de apăsător era - sau putea fi - acest control o dovedeşte peste un deceniu răscoala antiromană a cetăţilor greceşti de pe litoralul vestic al Pontului, care nu mai puteau suporta abuzurile fostului coleg de consulat al lui Cicero în anul complotului lui Catilina, 63 î.e.n., Caius Antonius Hybrida, guvernatorul Macedoniei.

Acesta a venit cu trupe asupra lor cu intenţia de a ocupa întregul ţinut dintre Dunăre şi Marea Neagră (62 î.e.n.), dar în primăvara următoare a suferit, undeva "în preajma cetăţii histrionilor" (Dio Cassius), o gravă înfrângere din partea geto-dacilor, grecilor şi bastarnilor.

Ca urmare a acestei înfruntări, oraşele greceşti îşi redobândesc independenţa. Steagurile capturate de la romani au ajuns în cetatea daco-getică Genucla (Cassius Dio, LI, 26).

Preluat din : http://www.dracones.ro

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

1. CRIŞAN Ioan Horaţiu - BUREBISTA ŞI EPOCA SA

2. BERINDE Aurel - GENEZA ROMANITĂŢII RĂSĂRITENE

3. MATEI C. Horia - ISTORIA ROMÂNIEI ÎN DATE

4. *** - ISTORIA MILITARĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN

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