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Terra Maramures. In Memoriam Radu Popa, Ph.D.

 

 

File:07.zori in Valeni.2.jpg

   Valeni, Iza Valley  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maramure%C5%9F_County

Maramuresh, this sacred realm of Romania, lies in the northern side of the Oriental Carpathians which encircle with the range of Rodna mountains - the northern Volcanic Carpathians and Maramuresh mountains - the largest depression of the region: Maramuresh depression.The Maramures county, situated at the Northern border of Romania with Ukraine, consists in the old "lands" of Maramures, Chioarul, Lapus and Baia Mare Depressions.

The Maramures county is set in the North-Western Romania. In the Northern Part of Maramures is the State of Ukraina, in the Est is Suceava, in the South-Estern part Bistrita Nasaud, in the South Cluj and in the Western side lies Satu Mare.

        Thanks to its richness in gold, silver, lead, copper, salt, its large pastures and natural hay fields, forests and agricol fields, its fauna and flora, this county was inhabited many millenaries ago


The hilly areas, the terraces of the rivers, the meadows and the valleys, but also the mountains up to a certain altitude have always offered favorable conditions for human settlements.
Historically speaking, the "Maramuresh Country" is an ancient Romanian home, inhabited from immemorial times. The archaeological diggings and accidental discoveries have disclosed traces of culture and civilization going back to the Neolithic Age.
The Bronze Age is represented by a rich culture whose vestiges can be seen in most of the present villages of Maramuresh, having elements of continuity in the Iron Age, the presence of the Dacians and of the Celts being acknowledged in the area.
The continuity along the first centuries of this millennium is proved by the social structures of the communities, having elements specific to the free Dacians and to a symbiosis of the Dacians, Romans and Celts. In the Middle Ages, principalities of the valley (cnezate) and communities, ruled by a "voivode" are rising, their existence helping the development of the relations between people, families and villages and the resistance to the pressures from outside.
Starting with the 14th century, the western neighbour, the Magyar royalty, imposed its presence even more on this area, infiltrating the first communities of "guests" on the Tisa Valley.
The model of political and military organization of the "voievodat" (a voivode - ruled community) and of the principality of the valley led to the assertion of the ethnical identity of the Romanians from Maramuresh, who, in the 14th and 15th centuries, during the battles against the Tartars and other enemies, proved to be good organizers and soldiers, being recognized and acknowledged on their ancestors' properties even by the Magyar kings, who had already extented jurisdiction over these territories, too.
Romanian resistance against the Magyar penetration reached the climax with the voivode Bogdan the First's rebellion; he left for Moldavia together with most of his soldiers, and proclaimed himself its first Ruler.
Most of the villages from Maramuresh had always been Romanian, their inhabitants having the status of free people, to which they added the rank of "nemes", namely of small noblemen.
The basic institution of the society of Maramuresh was the family: the large family, consisting of all the blood related people, who had the same family name and the small family - the family reduced to few members.
Usually, the large families were related between themselves within the same community by marriages between partners of the same social rank, and in case a family could not find a partner of appropriate rank within the original community, they went look to for him/her in another community. This phenomenon influenced the unitary structure of the area, at all levels, including the folk culture.
1391 was a reference year for the history of the Romanian culture, being the date of the first text written in the Romanian language - "Codicele de la Ieud" (a manuscript containing old texts).
In the same year (1391) the Monastery of Peri, founded by the family of voivode Balc and that of Drag Mester, was granted the rank of "stavropighie", obtaining the protection of Constantinople. Within this monastery a very rich spiritual and cultural life developed. From here, through copied manuscripts and later through books, the Romanian culture was spreading over a large area.
Under such an influence, clerks and monks, scholars and priests were later writing in the Romanian language, and many of them even wrote poems and other creations which circulated orally, but also beliefs and myths or events of the community life, preserved over the years in their note-books.
All the above - mentioned come to support professor Mihai Pop's conclusion that the old life of Maramuresh has a "triple collection of functions in a society consisting of political leaders and soldiers, scholars and manufactures, a society G. Dumezil considers as specific to the old Indo-European culture."
The first written attestation of Maramuresh dates back to 1199 and in the centuries to come (the 13th - the 15th) the documents record most of the localities and of the great families of Maramuresh.
Sighetul Marmatiei, the town lying at the confluence of the Iza and Tisa rivers, on the north-western border of the country is the old capital of the historical Maramuresh.
The name of the town comes from the root "zeget" - belonging to the Thracian and Dacian substratum fund of the Romanian language, meaning "fortress". An ancient human settlement, having vestiges from remote times, the town is recorded in the documents of 1326. The fortress hill - Solovan, with a fortress having vestiges dating back to the period of the Thracians and Dacians, is a shield for the settlement. 

 http://www.romanianmonasteries.org/ro/maramures

http://www.losttrails.com/pages/Tales/Notebooks/maramures26.html 

http://www.romanianmonasteries.org/maramures/maramures-traditionst

Dorin Stef: Maramures a Cultural Brand Name at:

http://mek.niif.hu/06300/06351/06351.htm

 

The History of Maramures

 http://www.ovr.ro/MM%20History%20English.html

 Maramures' history is ancient, enchanting and beautiful. It is a civilization and culture carved in wood and stone in word and soul.
There is evidence that this region was first settled as far back as 35,000 BC, the Superior Paleolithic era. Archaeological discoveries of this primitive society have been uncovered in the Iza Valley near the village of Nanesti.
Remnants from a Neolithic culture were discovered in many regions of Maramures. Artifacts were found around Sighetu-Marmatiei, Costiui, Oncesti, Cornesti and Giulesti. Some discoveries can be dated to 6,000 BC.
Inhabitated since Stone Age(100000-40000 BC),during the Bronze and Iron Ages,here followed  the Celts and Dacians ,around 3th century BC-3th century AD.
The Slavs came over in the 7th century,later the Hungarians,around the year 1300. By the Bronze Age the region of Maramures was well settled, though due to the geography the population was quite sparse. Major archaeological discoveries have been found in more than twenty locations from the Bronze Age. This cultural establishment provides the first proof that the settlers of this region were of Gaeto-Dacian ancestry. During this time the lands of Maramures and much of modern Romania was the kingdom of Dacia. Ancient names Dacian: Maramarista Latin: Marmatia
At the height of the Roman Empire's power the Emperor Traian fought for new lands to feed his growing armies and subjects. With overwhelming numbers and the latest armaments the Romans invaded Dacia. Dacia's King Decebal led his people into battle to defend their land. The Dacians are said to have fought bravely, but in the end they could not match the might of the Romans. In 106 AD Dacia fell to the Roman Empire.
Maramures, defended not only by men but by mountains, remained free. These "Free Dacians" stayed in contact with their defeated brothers. They supported each other in exchanges of spiritual ideas as well as material goods.
During the following millennium most of modern day Romania was held in bondage by the Romans and other, no less ruthless, landlords. Never occupied by Roman legions, Maramures went down in history as the land of the free Dacians. The Maramures natives’ physiognomy preserves, as specialists say, the typically ancestral features of the Dacians. Since the 13th century, the Hungarian Kingdom cut its way into this area, too, through its colonists (hospites). Included later on, together with Transylvania, into the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, but preserving a special status, Maramures passed through eventful periods of time but it managed to preserve an indelible and unmistakable Romanian specific character. It is quite significant that the foundation of Moldavia (a Romanian province) took place under the sceptres of the Maramures voievodes Dragos and Bogdan, the latter’s name having been given to one of the most beautiful communes of Maramures.  Maramures, hidden and well protected by its natural surroundings, flourished. Life continued here in an unchanging cycle of seasonal and spiritual events. Many of these ancient traditions continue undisturbed to this day.
The oldest known written document referring to Maramures was a deed written in 1199. The Hungarian King's Chancery, while hunting in Maramures, was nearly killed. A man named Comitele Lawentii saved the chancery's life. As a reward he was given title of the lands of Maramures.
Through the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the presence of documents regarding Maramures increased substantially. From these documents it's been established that the population was organized into small feudal communities known as a "voievodat" (principality). The princes of these estates would send out dispatches and declarations to one another regularly referring to "Tara Maramuresului" (Maramures Country).
The most famous and most revered of these princes was Bogdan of Cuhea.

Archaeologists have discovered an ancient Christian cemetery on a feudal residence dating from the thirteenth or fourteenth century. Traces of one of the first stone churches constructed in Maramures have also been found here. http://www.ovr.ro/MM%20Villages%20English.html

In 1359 Bogdan led an army made up of Maramures villagers and crossed over the mountains to Moldova. There, Bogdan confronted another Maramures Noble, Blac. Blac's tyranny of the Maramures people was supported by the Hungarian King. Blac's influence and oppression had spread throughout Maramures and Moldova. After many fierce battles Bogdan was victorious. Blac was banished. Bogdan proclaimed himself prince and declared Moldova to be an independent state. In honor of his victories the town where he was from changed its name from Cuhea to Bogdan Voda.
Bogdan Voda thus became the first village in Maramures with a Romanian name. Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the majority of villages in Maramures changed or translated their names from Hungarian to Romanian as Bogdan and his descendants influence grew. By the seventeenth century the Chancery's documents note that the rest of the village names in Maramures were translated into Romanian.
Prince Bogdan had many homes in Maramures. In some of these villages where he lived were built great stone churches. In Bogdan Voda and Giulesti the remains of these churches can still be seen. And in Sighetu-Marmatiei its fifteenth century stone church still stands at the western end of the town center. Since its construction it has been rebuilt and is no longer Romanian Orthodox but Calvinist. None the less, it is one of the most impressive buildings in the Romanesque style of architecture.
Even older than these churches however are many of the wooden churches of Maramures. Those in Iued (1364) and Barsana (1391) are particularly impressive, as is the Peri Monastery (1391) in Sapanta

 Short history

http://www.etnictours.ro/tours-scurta-istorie-en.html 

The oldest archaeological proofs certify human presence in these places since the superior palaeolithic and neolithic. The Thracian community in the bronze age (certified in Sighet, Calinesti or Sapanta) developed the brilliant Suciu de Sus culture and created a real wood civilization.

The Romans didn't conquer this region, thus Maramures remained outside Dacia Felix during 2nd and 3rd centuries, although they kept intense economic and spiritual connections, as proved by the archaeological discoveries in Calinesti, Ieud or Giulesti.

 Settlements of II-IV and VIII centuries AD. from Lăpuşel

http://www.cimec.ro/scripts/arh/cronica/detaliu.asp?k=33

Due to insufficient funds allocated, research conducted at the point Ciurgău had a limited character. It was dug one area (10 x 10 m) between IX/1993 S and S VII/1993. It was researched last portion of an oval-shaped hole in the plane and irregular bed bottom (on axis dimensions: 2.40 x 1.40 m, maximum depth: 0.20 m, its level of cutting). Filling occurred in fine gray pottery (especially the bowls), but the lumpy paste, worked fast wheel and a few fragments of pottery made with hands. The specific ornaments (striped belt, belt socket associated with striped button, scallops on the rim) pottery by hand is a poignant character Dacian. The pottery can be dated to the sec. III especially since it is present fine gray pottery prints, pottery wheel worked fine bricks, missing completely gray polished pottery. Occasionally, fragments of Roman pottery have appeared throughout the section studied the terrace edge. But there is a layer of culture in this period. It is likely that the Roman housing was low intensity and for this purpose, pit described could be interpreted as a Lightweight, used as temporary shelter. It was discovered archaeological complex dating from the early medieval period.

The first documentary attestations of Maramures go back in 1199 and 1231, when, in the Hungarian legacy diplomas, the region is called Maramures or Maramorisio, and in 1299 it appears as "terra Maramorus" - "Maramures Country".

The principality of Maramures and the principalities situated on the Iza river (Cuhea, Dragomiresti, Moisei) and on the Mara river remained independent until 14th century, during the Tartars' invasions and the Catholicism attempts of the Magyar royalty.

Noticed for his bravery during the fights against the Tartars, Dragos Voda was delegated by Ludovic I of Anjou the leadership of the territory set free from Moldavia, organized in a "military mark" (1352-1353), considered to be "the first settling" of Moldavia.

Bogdan from Cuhea, the most brilliant voivode of Maramures, "the notorious disloyal" of the Magyar royalty, watching over Romanians' rights to land, religion, language and national costume for over five years, crossed the mountains and dethroned Dragos's successors, vessels of royalty, succeeding in setting up the independent feudal state of Moldavia in 1359. After his death, in 1365, Bogdan left as inheritance Moldavia as an independent state and a dynasty - "Musatinii".

  ATMOSFERA SATULUI AUTENTIC

 Village in Maramures

http://www.restromania.com/About/AboutBaiaMare.htm

 IN MEMORIAM RADU POPA (1933-1993)

 

 

RADU POPA [23 iulie 1933, Cluj - 12 februarie 1993, Bucureşti]. Absolvent al Facultăţii de Istorie [1956] şi al Facultăţii de Drept [1962] din Universitatea Bucureşti. Doctor în istorie cu lucrarea Ţara Maramureşului în veacul al XIV-lea, publicată în 1970 şi distinsă cu premiul Academiei Române.

Muzeograf principal la Muzeul de Artă al României [1956-1963]. Cercetător principal la Institutul de Arheologie "V. Pârvan" din Bucureşti [1963-1993]. Preşedinte al Comitetului Naţional Român al International Council on Monuments and Sites, vicepreşedinte al Comisiei Naţionale a Monumentelor, Ansamblurilor şi Siturilor Istorice şi al Comisiei Naţionale Arheologice a Academiei Române [1990-1993]. Cercetări complexe asupra epocii de formare a statelor medievale româneşti, îndeosebi asupra aşa-numitelor "ţări" din cuprinsul Transilvaniei, ca punct de plecare pentru reconstituirea regresivă a structurilor socio-politice româneşti anterioare sec. XII-XIII. Contribuţii în legătură cu arta şi cultura românească şi bizantină în zona Dunării de Jos.

   http://apar.archaeology.ro/imc_popa.htm  

We commemorate this year (2003) 70 years since the birth of Radu Popa, the man who was to become in later age one of the outstanding personalities of Romanian medieval archaeology.
He was born in Cluj, on July 23rd 1933, in a family of Transylvanian intellectuals. He went to high school first to Sighisoara then to Bucharest where he also graduated. In 1951 he became a student of the History Department at the University of Bucharest, where, despite the dire fact that the communist regime had just launched its campaign for annihilating the cultural and human values of our country, he could benefit by learning from the generation of Romanian scholars of which we can enumerate such names as Ion Nestor, Dionisie M. Pippidi, Mihai Berza, Andrei Otetea, personalities who saw it as their first duty to perpetuate the pre-war Romanian historiographical tradition. Radu Popa felt the attraction of medieval archaeology as early as his university years when he made his apprenticeship at Suceava, on the medieval archaeology site that served as an alma mater for many a Romanian student, a site organized and led by Professor Ion Nestor. In 1956, the year of his graduation, Radu Popa became a researcher at the National Art Gallery where he enlarged and consolidated his knowledge of art history and medieval architecture, also steadily participating all this while to archeological site work. He was also a student of the Law School at the University of Bucharest between 1957 and 1962.
Further to winning the 1963 competition, he was nominated full-time researcher at the Institute of Archaeology in Bucharest. This moment marked the beginning of his research activity as an archaeologist specializing in the middle Ages, which activity he sustained uninterruptedly over a period of three decades. He directed his attention towards the early Middle Ages from the beginning, focusing on the Transylvania region not only as his birthplace but also as one of the targets of so much acute historical controversy. The 60s marked a period of intense activity for Radu Popa, both owing to the numerous archeological excavations made and owing to the strenuous study of the documentary resources. His remarkable intuition prompted him to concentrate on the history of the so-called Transylvanian 'countries/terra' as the starting-point for a regressive re-construction over the centuries of the romanian socio-political structures preceding the 11th and 12th centuries. The weighty fruit of these efforts was his PhD dissertation titled The Maramures Country in the 14th Century, defended in 1968. Published in

 http://www.hieronymus.ro/act_pd_5.htm

volume form in 1970, Radu Popa's contribution immediately won him well-deserved recognition as a methodologically rigorous authority and he awarded the Romanian Academy Nicolae Balcescu Prize. The study of the historical Maramures meant for Radu Popa the beginning of a road whose numerous stages would be represented by as many similar monograph studies dedicated to the Transylvanian so-called countries; these studies became in turn and quite naturally the bricks for an ample synthesis covering the whole of the Transylvanian province at the beginning of the Middle Ages. There followed excavation campaigns/sessions at the Voivozi and Sânnicolaul de Beius sites, in Bihor county, which were further extended to the whole of Transylvania. The same period saw Radu Popa's fruitful cooperation with the former Direction of the History and Art Monuments' Commission, in the guise of archaeological site work at locations such as Strei, Rachitova, Colt, Malaiesti, Râu de Mori, Sântamarie Orlea, and Strei Sângeorgiu. As a participant to the numerous sessions, symposium, congresses and exchanges with foreign archaeologists, especially at the meetings of the Mixed Romanian-Hungarian Historical Commission he represented and defended the point of view held by the Romanian historical researches with dignity, competence and in observance of the ascertained historical facts; thus he justly won the unanimous recognition of the colleagues abroad. In his variegated studies, beside those dedicated to his beloved Transylvania, Radu Popa embraced and brought his contribution to the field of research methodology and that of the publication and valorization of findings and monuments from other parts of Romania. These include the researches at Pacuiul lui Soare or Suceava.
The wide range of his vision, grounded in the solid experience acquired in time, enabled Radu Popa to open again in 1977 the discussion regarding the 'hot' issue of the Romanian people's ethnogenesis. In 1988 was published his study Outlook on the Beginnings of the Romanian Middle Ages. The Hateg Country, an exceptionally worthy contribution to the study of the Middle Ages to the north of the Danube; this was unanimously acknowledged as valuable in Romania and elsewhere. In this work Radu Popa started from his older archaeological excavations and used the findings of the Gurasada, Sarmizegetusa-Britonia and Pesteana sites, he studied a considerable number of documents, invoked the genealogical reconstruction data, made very careful analyses of some very old toponyms and, as a result, he managed to reconstruct a highly plausible image of the Hateg Country as a socio-political entity around the year 1400; this offered his colleagues the solid grounds for further investigations and a brilliant model of methodological research. As a matter of fact, Radu Popa himself anticipated the extension of the research beyond the Hateg Country and the Mid-Carpathian region, into northern Oltenia, and he set out to organize a novel ample-scope research on site in the Tismana, Crasna and Novaci depression, with a view to identifying the archaeological objects pertaining to the Litovoi moment. The subsequent research activities of his collaborators in the northern Gorj region confirmed his forecasts through the findings at Polata and Valea Manastirii. Towards the end of his activity, Radu Popa directed his attention to the northern Banat hilly region by the excavations at Gladna and Faget, then by the Ungra site research and, moreover, by the exceptional excavations at Feldioara/Marienburg, in the Tara Bârsei "Country". Acting almost as a strategist of romanian mediaeval archaeology, Radu Popa was intending to create a whole new basis for the extension of research to the extra-Carpathian vicinities, by investigating the south-eastern Transylvanian corner, after undertaking the preliminary study of the German colonization and the presence of the Teuton Knights here.
It is a fact that throughout his career as an archaeologist and historian, Radu Popa often rose against the abuses of the professional, deontological standards. The last time he did so was not long before his untimely demise on February 12th 1993. His study titled Observations and Reconsiderations of the Romanian Year 1000 History that appeared alongside its German version in 1991 contains a severe but more than welcome critique launched from the standpoint of the ascertained historical truths against the spurious tenets absurdly held for over two decades which regarded the Romanian people ethnogenesis in a most distorted way. Through its entire content, this study should have been a ground-breaking manifesto, but the merciless fate turned it into the ethical-professional testament of an authentic, highly authoritative historian.
It was only after 1990 that Radu Popa came to be granted the right to teach in the History Department at the University of Bucharest. On the regrettably few occasions when he was in a position to address the students as a Professor, Radu Popa knew how to present for them convincingly the controversial beginnings of the Romanian Middle Ages, always turning away firmly from the dangerously deceitful road strewn with mystifications and tokens of pseudo-science; this earned him both the solid trust of the younger generations and the "honor" of being slandered by the national-communist specialists of all hues. As a man of an extraordinarily generous disposition, genial and endowed with a good sense of humor he naturally attracted around him numerous students and other young people that he directed closely and initiated patiently in the secrets of the profession, so that he naturally became a true master of the newer generations, thus proving his capacities as a continuator of the forerunners' tradition. Quite a number of his disciples gradually turned into his collaborators and enjoyed sharing in the magister's experience, proud to have been his disciples and proud to have become his friends.
Devoting part of his attention to the everyday business of Romanian archaeology, Radu Popa got involved in the concerns related to the good management of the Institutute of Archaeology and served as the Deputy Director of the Institute between 1976 and 1981, tactfully helping the General Director, Professor Dionisie M. Pippidi. As a member of the Romanian Archaeological Commission for several years he did his best to improve the discipline in the field of archaeological excavations, and to bring his contribution to saving the national interest sites or the monuments threatened by the pharaonic projects of the day. In times of serious national crisis, he stood up firmly and openly against the demolishing of buildings of great historical and/or architectural worth, although he was well aware of the risks he was incurring. He was an active member of the Central Board for the Preservation of the National Heritage as well as of the Romanian ICOMOS Committee all the time these continued in existence, i.e., until their abusive dissolution by the communist regime. Right after the collapse of the totalitarian state at the end of 1989, Radu Popa had the initiative of reorganizing the CNMASI (The National Board for the Preservation of the National Archives and Heritage) and he became its Vice- President. He also re-established the National ICOMOS Board in 1990 and was designated its president. In 1991 he was nominated chairman of the Mixed Romanian-Hungarian Commission for Historical Monuments. At about the same time he became Vice-President of the National Archaeological Commission of the Romanian Academy and the first Romanian member of the European Council Archaeological Commission. As a fully deserved distinction, he was awarded the ICOMOS Award for Eastern Europe - just a few days before his death.
After his long-term membership in the editorial board of the review "Studii si Cercetari de Istorie Veche si Archeologie", in 1974 he became the deputy editor of the same and made an important contribution to retaining the high standards associated with this publication. After 1990, he was editor in chief of the two reviews edited by the Historical Monuments' Commission: the "Buletinul Comisiei Monumentelor Istoriceon" and the "Revista Monumentelor Istorice".
After the December 1998 watershed, Radu Popa was the only noteworthy romanian archaeologist who undertook to participate in the general effort for the democratization of our country. He was a founding member of the Social Dialogue Group and participated, in this position, to numberless debates organized in Romania and abroad, on a very wide variety of themes related to the lawful state; at the time, he never hesitated to go into the streets whenever the injustices became outrageous. The leaders that he published in the prestigious civic magazine "22" testified to a columnist's talent and, moreover, to the moral altitude of the archaeologist Radu Popa.
Several of the APAR members have had the privilege of knowing Radu Popa and collaborating with him. Many of his ideas and attitudes served as models that preceded the establishment of our association, but the most outstanding among these are his methodological acribiousness, his intransigence towards mystification and, last but not least, his overpowering humor that often served him to outdo his adversaries. APAR considers this a good opportunity to remember Radu Popa's prodigious activity and wishes to do homage to his memory as a way of making a beginning in the reconsideration of the mediaeval archaeological activity to the north of the Danube.

Bibliography Radu Popa:
(Selected)

Volumes
1 - Şantierul arheologic Cuhea. Un centru voievodal din secolul al XIV-lea, Baia Mare 1966, coauthor.
2 - Cnezatul Marei. Studii documentare de teren în Maramureşul istoric, Baia Mare 1969.
3 - Ţara Maramureşului în veacul al XIV-lea, Bucureşti 1970.
4 - Păcuiul lui Soare. Cetatea bizantină, Bucureşti 1972, coauthor.
5 - Mărturii de civilizaţie medievală românească. O casă a domniei şi o sobă monumentală de la Suceava din vremea lui Ştefan cel Mare, Bucureşti 1979, coauthor.
6 - La începuturile evului mediu românesc. Tara Hategului, Bucureşti 1988.

Studies
7 - Păcuiul lui Soare. O asezare dunareana cu trasaturi urbane în veacurile XIII-XIV, Studii 17.1, 1964.
8 - La céramique émaillée des XIIIe et XIVe sičcles de Păcuiul lui Soare, Dacia NS 9, 1965.
9 - În legatura cu extragerea metalelor pretioase la Baia Mare în secolul al XVI-lea, SCIV 16.1, 1965.
10 - Biserica de piatra din Cuhea si unele probleme privind istoria Maramuresului, SCIV 17.3, 1966.
11 - Recherches d'archéologie médiévale au Maramures. Résultats et perspectives, RRH 5.5, 1966.
12 - Câteva observatii asupra Manastirii Golia din Iasi, SCIA 13.2, 1966.
13 - La porte nord dela forteresse Byzantine de Păcuiul lui Soare, Dacia NS 11, 1967.
14 - O casa domneasca din secolul al XV-lea lânga Cetatea Sucevei, SCIV 20.1, 1969.
15 - Ctitoria cnezilor giulesteni. Un nou monument de piatra în Maramures, SCIV 20.2, 1969.
16 - Despre începuturile Manastirii Remeti-Maramures, BMI 29.2, 1970.
17 - Noi cercetari de arheologie medievala în Maramures. Şantierul Sarasau, SCIV 22.4, 1971.
18 - Über die Burgen der Terra Hazeg, Dacia NS 16, 1972.
19 - O spada medievala din Valea Streiului si câteva consideratii istorice legate de ea, Sargetia 9, 1972.
20 - Culture urbaine et culture villageoise au Bas-Danube aux XIIIe et XIVe sičcles, in Actes du IIe Congrčs International des etudes du sud-est européen, II, Histoire, Athčnes 1970 (1972).
21 - Cetatile Tarii Hategului, BMI 41.3, 1972.
22 - Sapaturi într-o "villa rustica" de lânga Hateg, AMN 9, 1972.
23 - Les recherches archéologiques dans la problčme de la formation des États médiévaux roumains, RRH 12.1, 1973.
24 - O soba cu cahle-oala din secolul XIV la Cuhea-Maramures, SCIV 24.4, 1973.
25 - Pe marginea unor consideratii privind "Zidul medieval" de la Păcuiul lui Soare, BMI 43.2, 1974.
26 - Realizari ale arheologiei românesti în ultimele trei decenii, SCIVA 25.3, 1974, coauthor.
27 - Urmele unui sat parasit din feudalismul timpuriu în hotarul Sighetului Marmatiei, SCIVA 26.2, 1975.
28 - Structures socio-politiques roumaines au sud de Transylvanie au commencement du Moyen Âge, RRH 14.2, 1975.
29 - Zür Kirchlichen Organisation der Rumänen in Nordsiebenbürgen im Lichte des patriarchalischen Privilegium von 1391, Ostkirchliche Studien 24.4, 1975.
30 - Streisângeorgiu. Ein Zeugnis rumänischer Geschichte des 11.-14. Jahrhunderts im Süden Transilvaniens, Dacia NS 20, 1976.
31 - Dezvoltarea stiintei istorice în România în ultimul deceniu. Rezultate si perspective., in "Lucrarile comisiei mixte de istorie româno-maghiare" I, Bucureşti 1977.
32 - Les etapas históricas de la formación de la lengua y del pueblo rumano a la luz de los recientes resultados de las investigaciones argueológicas, in Semestre Histórico 6, Caracas 1977.
33 - Observatii privind zidurile cu mortar din cetatile dacice hunedorene, Sargetia 13, 1977.
34 - Observatii privind vechimea semnificatia ca izvor istoric a unor toponime maramuresene, Marmatia 3, 1977.
35 - Consideratii istorice pe marginea toponimiei vechi maramuresene, RIR 30.8, 1977.
36 - Marginales historiques á un volume d'ethnographie anhistorique, RRH 16.4, 1977.
37 - Problema mostenirii voievodatului lui Menumorut în lumina ultimelor descoperiri arheologice, in Documente noi descoperite si informatii arheologice, Bucureşti 1977.
38 - Tours d'habitation au commencement du Moyen Âge roumain, Bulletin IBI 34, 1978.
39 - Streisângeorgiu. Marturii de istorie româneasca din secolele XI-XIV în sudul Transilvaniei, RMM seria MIA 47.1, 1978.
40 - Realism si prejudecati în cercetarea istorica, Viata Româneasca 31.5, 1978.
41 - Probleme de metoda a cercetarii arheologice a satului medieval românesc, SCIVA 30.4, 1979.
42 - Integrarea în patrimonial cultural-istoric a unor noi zone ale arhitecturii medievale de zid din România, ca urmare a cercetarilor arheologice, RMM 8, 1980.
43 - Premisele cristalizarii vietii statatle românesti, in Constituirea statelor feudale românesti, Bucureşti 1980.
44 - "Descalecari" transilvanene si "întemeieride tara". Între traditie istorica si dovezi materiale, Transilvania 9 (86), 1980.
45 - Documente de cultura materiala oraseneasca în Transilvani din a doua jumatate a secolului al XIII-lea, SCIVA 31.1, 1980, coauthor.
46 - Ein monumentales Keramikmodell der Festung Suceava. Betrachtungen über einen Kachelofen vom Ende des 15. Jahrhunderts, Bulletin IBI 39, 1981.
47 - Contributions archéologiques ŕ l'étude et ŕ la valorization de l'architecture médiévale en maçonnerie ŕ ses débuts en Roumanie, in Il Brunelleschi, Quaderni dell'Instituto di Storia dell'Architettura e di Restauro (Studi e contribute dedicate a Pieri Sanpaolesi), Florence 1982.
48 - Cnezatul Râu Barbat, in vol. Stat, societate, natiune. Interpretari istorice. Omagiu lui David Prodan, Cluj 1982.
49 - Burgen und Festungen in den Pässen de Südkarpaten, Bulletin IBI 41, 1983.
50 - Aux débuts de l'histoire médiévake roumaine.. Problčmes spécifiques et resultants des recherches récentes, Anuario de estudios medievales 13, 1983.
51 - Observatii noi si câteva consideratii istorice privind biserica româneasca din Gurasada, jud. Hunedoara, SCIVA 35.1, 1984, coauthor.
52 - Knaufkrone eines wikingerzeitlichen Prachtschwert von Păcuiul lui Soare, Germania 62.2, 1984.
53 - Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa britonia, Zeitschrift für Archäologie des Mittelalters 12, 1984.
54 - O resedinta feudala din secolele XI-XII la Sânnicolaul de Beius.. Contributii la istoria Bihorului medieval, RMM seria MIA 15,.2, 1984.
55 - Câteva observatii pe marginea recentelor cercetari arheologice din centrul municipiului Iasi, SCIVA 35.4, 1984.
56 - HochmittelalterlicheWasserburgen an der Unteren Donau, Bulletin IBI 42, 1984.
57 - Forteresse en terre et chateaux ŕ motte sur le territoire de la Roumanie, Bulletin IBI 43, 1985.
58 - Cercetarile de la Voivozi si contributia lor la cunoasterea începuturilor bisericii românilor din Bihor, in Îndrumator bisericesc, misionar si patriotic, Episcopia ortodoxa a Oradei, Oradea 1987.
59 - Pe marginea izvoarelor istoriei rasaritului Transilvaniei la începuturile mileniului nostru, SympThrac 5, 1987.
60 - Cercetarile arheologice de la Voivozi. Contributii la istoria Bihorului în secolele XII-XIV, Crisia 1987, coauthor.
61 - O cetate medievala la izvoarele Begheiului. Cercetarile de la Gladna Româna, jud. Timis, RMM seria MIA 18, 1987.
62 - Viata bisericeasca a românilor din spatiul intracarpatic în secolele XII-XIII. Biserica din Densus, in Episcopia ortodoxa româna de la Alba Iulia, Îndrumator bisericesc, misionar si patriotic 12, 1988.
63 - Siedlungsverhältnisse und Ethnodemographie des Hatzeger Landes 13.-14. Jahrhunderts, Forschungen zur Volke- und Landeskunde 31, 1988.
64 - Marturii arheologice din Maramures apartinând mileniului I î.e.n., SCIVA 40.3, 1989.
65 - Caransebesul si districtul sau românesc în sec. X-XIV, SCIVA 40.4, 1989.
66 - Apport de la Transylvanie, Monuments Historiques 169, 1990.
67 - Formations social-territoriales aux débuts des Etats roumaines, Études roumaines et aroumaines. Sociétés européennes, Paris -Bucarest 8, 1990.
68 - Monuments historiques de la Roumanie. Héritage malheureux et perspectives pour le moment incertaines, Bulletin IBI 47, 1990-1991.
69 - Kreutzritterburgen im Südosten Transilvanien, Bulletin IBI 47, 1990-1991.
70 - Observatii si îndreptari la istoria României din jurul anului O MIE, SCIVA 42.3-4, 1991.
71 - Aoutour des sources de l'architecture ecclésiatique roumaine, in Hommage N. Moutsopoulos, ARMOS 3 1991.
72 - De Vlad l'Empaler ŕ Dracula: éthique professionelle et mise en valeur du patrimoine, Entretiens du Patrimoine 11 (IV), 1991 (1992).
73 - Die Geschichte Rumäniens um das Jahr 1000. Bemerkungen und Berichtigungen, Zeitschrift für siebenbürgische Landeskunde 15 (86), 1991.
74 - Forschungen zum Landesbau im östlichen Karpatenbecken zu Beginn des Mittelalters, in vol. Mensch und Umwelt. Studien zu Siedlungsangriff und Landesausbau in Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Berlin 1992.

Archaeological reports
75 - Şantierul Suceava, SCIV 4.1-2, 1953, coauthor.
76 - Şantierul arheologic Păcuiul lui Soare, MCA 8, 1962, coauthor.
77 - Şantierul arheologic Sarmizegetusa, jud. Hunedoara (epoca postromana). Raport privind rezultatele cercetarilor campaniei 1978, MCA 13, 1979.
78 - Şantierul arheologic Voivozi, com. Popesti, jud. Bihor. Raport pentru campania de cercetari din anul 1976, CAMNI 3, 1979, coauthor.
79 - Şantierul arheologic Ungra, jud. Brasov, MCA 14, 1980.
80 - O resedinta feudala din secolele XI-XII la Sânnicolaul de Beius pe Crisul Negru, MCA 16, 1986.
81 - Cetatea Fagetului (jud. Timis). Cercetarile arheologice din campanile 1987-1988, RMMN 1, 1991, coauthor.

 Ion Motzoi-Chicideanu

Translated by Ioana Zirra 


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See also: http://www.hieronymus.ro/act_pf11.htm  

http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats4/act%203-6%20recenzie%203.htm

http://www.europalibera.org/content/article/1884409.html

 

 

 

Gyula of Giulesti

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gyula of Giulesti was Prince in Giulesti (Gyulafalvi) and gut (Nyires) and his son Dragos (Dragos of Bedeu) became Voievoda of Moldavia

Duke in Maramures

Gyula of Giulesti was elected prince after his father's departure in Moldova. A luat parte la luptele împotriva lui Bogdan , care trecuse in Moldova şi îi alungase pe urmaşii lui Dragoş. He took part in battles against Bogdan, who passed in Moldova and they drove the followers of Dragos. După moartea sa voievodatul a fost transformat în comitat sub conducerea fiilor lui Sas, Drag şi Balc . After his death was turned into the county Voivodeship led the children of Sas, Drag and Balc.

Gyula de Giulesti (1349) a avut şase fii: Gyula the Giulesti (1349) had six children:

1. Dragos 1368 1. Dragos 1368

2. Stefan 1368 2. Stefan 1368

21.Iuliu 1415 21.Iuliu 1415

22.Costea 1415 22.Costea 1415

23.Dragomir 1415 23.Dragomir 1415

231.Ivanca 1415 231.Ivanca 1415

2311.Retnic (Strămosul familiilor Rednic ) 2311.Retnic (family ancestor Rednic)

2312.Georghe (Strămosul familiilor Rednic ) 2312.Georghe (family ancestor Rednic)

232.Iuliu 1415 232.Iuliu 1415

2321.Fiţe (Strămosul familiilor Perşa ) 2321.Fiţe (family ancestor Persia)

2322.Mihai (Strămosul familiilor Bercea ) 2322.Mihai (family ancestor Bercea)

24.Stana 1415 24.Stana 1415

3. Tătar 1368 3. Tatar 1368

4. Dragomir 1368 4. Dragomir 1368

5. Costea 1368 5. Costea 1368

6. Miroslav 1368 (Strămosul familiilor Feier ) 6. Miroslav 1368 (ancestor of families Feier)

61.Pop Nan 61.Pop Nan

611.Feier 611.Feier

612.Juliu 612.Juliu

613.Joan 613.Joan

References

  • Joódy Pál - Cercetarea calitắţii de nobil in comitatul Maramures. Joódy Pál - Research noble quality in Maramures county. Anii 1749-1769, Editura societắ Years 1749-1769, Publishing companies

ţii culturale Pro Maramures "Dragos Vodắ", Cluj-Napoca, 2003 hold pro Maramures "Dragos Voda, Cluj-Napoca, 2003

  • Joan cavaler de Puscariu - Date istorice privitoare la familiile nobile romắne.Editura societắ Joan knight Puscariu - Historical data concerning noble families romắne.Editura companies

ţii culturale Pro Maramures "Dragos Vodắ", Cluj-Napoca, 2003 hold pro Maramures "Dragos Voda, Cluj-Napoca, 2003

  • Prof. Alexandru Filipascu de Dolha si Petrova - Istoria Maramuresului, Editura "Gutinul" Baia Mare, 1997. Prof. Alexander Filipascu of Dolha and Petrova - History Maramures, Editura "Gutin" Baia Mare, 1997.
  • Wyrostek, Ludwik - Rod Dragow-Sasow na Wegrzech i Rusi Halickiej. Wyrostek, Ludwik - Rod Dragow-Sasow na Wegrzech and Russia Halickiej. RTH t. XI/1931-1932 Rth T. XI/1931-1932


Predecesor: Preceded by
Dragoş Dragos
Cneaz al Maramureşului Prince of Maramures
1351 - 1365 1351 - 1365
Succesor: Succeeded
Balc împreună cu Drag Balc with Drag

 


 
Cuhea in istoria si cultura Maramuresului
 
 
 

Muzeul Maramuresului Sighetul Marmatiei si Asociatiunea pentru Cultura Poporului Roman din Maramures au editat monografia “Cuhea in istoria si cultura Maramuresului”, autori Ion Telman, Ioana Maris-Dancus si Elisabeta Faiciuc. Lucrarea constituie “un manual didactic foarte explicit”, dupa cum aprecia Mihai Dancus, directorul Muzeului Maramuresului.

 


Monografia asezarii Cuhea trateaza istoria si vechimea localitatii, cadrul geografic, asezarea satului, probleme legate de economie, societate, populatie, scoala, biserica, viata cotidiana si realitatile istorice din veacul al XX-lea. Nu sunt omise patrimoniul etnografic (ocupatii, mestesuguri artistice, gospodaria, arhitectura traditionala, portul popular) si patrimoniul abstract (particularitati ale graiului local, texte dialectale de limba veche, glosar de cuvinte).


Memoria diplomelor regale


Primele marturii despre Cuhea sunt cele arheologice, aici fiind descoperit un depozit de bronzuri de peste doua sute de piese. In celebra carte “Diplome maramuresene din secolele XIV si XV”, Ioan Mihalyi de Apsa consemneaza prima atestare documentara a satului Cuhea. Numele localitatii Cuhea apare pentru prima oara in documente intr-una din cunoscutele diplome maramuresene, din 14 mai 1353, data de regele Ludovic de Anjou, regele Ungariei, romanilor Ioan si Stefan, fii ai lui Iuga si nepoti de frate ai lui Bogdan.


Cel mai important document istoric din veacul al XIV-lea ramane insa o diploma din 2 februarie 1365, data de acelasi rege Ludovic, prin care mosia Cuhea era confiscata de la Bogdan (voievodul maramuresean care se revoltase impotriva coroanei maghiare si trecuse la rasarit de Carpati unde a intemeiat statul feudal Moldova) si era data voievodului Balc si fratilor sai Drag, Dragomir si Stefan. Diploma respectiva este importanta prin faptul ca sunt amintite si satele apartinatoare de mosia Cuhea: Ieud, Bocicoiel, cele doua Visaie, Moisei, Borsa si cele doua Salisti.


Din trecutul medieval al asezarii se mai stie ca, in 1447, Iancu de Hunedoara, in calitate de guvernator al Ungariei, a intarit Cuhea ca “donatie noua”, unei familii de cnezi locali in frunte cu Simion de Cuhea si ca Miron Costin a trecut prin Cuhea in 1674, amintind localitatea in scrierile sale.


Din lucrare nu lipsesc legende legate de etnogeneza romanilor maramureseni (la originea acestora ar sta doi frati, Roman si Vlachata, fugiti din Venetia) si de patrunderea maghiarilor in zona (ducele Almos, tatal lui Arpad, seful suprem al maghiarilor, ar fi cazut la Cuhea in urma unui conflict cu localnicii). Este reliefat rolul cnejilor si, mai apoi, al voievozilor maramureseni in faurirea structurilor statale din aceasta parte de tara, precum si aportul lui Bogdan la intemeierea Moldovei.  


Cuhenii mai pastreaza si astazi acea mandrie a descendentei lor nobile dintr-o familie voievodala de exceptie, dintr-o obste de oameni liberi. Si pentru ca mandria lor sa fie astazi sporita, mesterii in lemn din Maramures au ridicat la Cuhea in secolul al XVIII-lea o biserica de lemn reprezentativa pentru monumentele religioase pastrate din veacul al XVIII-lea. Vestita astazi pentru armonia proportiilor si zveltetea turnului, biserica de lemn de la Cuhea, ridicata probabil dupa atacul tatarilor din 1717, in urma caruia vechea biserica a fost arsa, este singura biserica de acest gen care pastreaza “proportia de aur”.


Monografia lucrarii mai cuprinde date despre ocupatiile localnicilor (agricultura, cresterea animalelor, torsul, tesutul, cojocaritul, fieraritul si prelucrarea lemnului), despre obiceiurile crestine si cele legate de ocupatiile agricole si pastorale, povestiri fantastice, descantece, blesteme, farmece, legende, credinte si superstitii care circula in zona. 

Ioan BOTIS

Paul Lazăr Tonciulescu - "De la Țara Luanei la Ieud", Editura Miracol, București, 1998

Capitolul III. „Manuscrisul de la Ieud; considerațiuni noi privind vechimea scrisului în limba român

Manuscrisul de la Ieud a fost remarcat de Andrei Bârseanu în august 1921 la expoziția organizată la Sighetul Marmației cu ocazia Adunării generale a societății ASTRA. Acesta conține trei texte în limba română: Legenda sfintei dumineci, Învățătură întru sfânta și marea dumineca Paștilor și Învățătură despre sfânta cuminecătură. Cercetătorii au ajuns la concluzia că cele trei texte sunt copii, și nu originalele traducerilor românești, și au datat manuscrisul ca fiind din jurul anului 1392. Însă mai cu seamă primul text, o scrisoare de mustrare din partea Domnului către păcătoși, a ajutat la stabilirea vechimii originalului și a putut servi ca premisă pentru estimarea anului traducerii în limba română.
Legenda sfintei dumineci conține varianta în limba slavonă și cea în limba română. Interesant este faptul că nici una nu o traduce pe cealaltă, fiind versiuni independente. La începutul celei românești stă scris "Vă leat 6900 povestea fu de demult întru sfânta cetate Ier(usa)l(i)mului întru atâția ani vă leat 6000". După o argumentare logică, cercetătorii au ajuns la concluzia că originalul a fost conceput în anul 6000 de la facerea lumii (492) și a stat la baza tuturor variantelor în diferite limbi, iar 6900 (1392) reprezintă anul la care a fost copiat textul aflat în Manuscrisul de la Ieud. Copiat sau tradus? O analiză lexicală, gramatică și de istorie a vocabularului lasă să se întrevadă o vechime mult mai mare a textului. Trebuie menționat de la început că, în acele vremuri, cei care scriau astfel de scrisori aveau predilecția de a le lansa la ani "rotunzi", din 100 în 100 de ani. Și catastrofele semnalate între 492 și 1392 au îndreptățit de fiecare dată punerea în circulație a câte unei copii din "Legenda sfintei dumineci". O astfel de copie a apărut și în Codex Sturdzanus, cu circa două secole mai devreme, având text cu rotacism arhaic. Și cele două învățături, rotacizate și ele, sunt mai vechi decât legenda din Manuscrisul de la Ieud, dar mai noi (după tipul rotacismului) decât cea din Codex.
Așadar cercetătorii au stabilit următoarea cronologie:

  • "Legenda sfintei dumineci" ieudene (text nerotacizat) - 1392
  • Cele două "Învățături" (text rotacizat) - 1292
  • "Legenda sfintei dumineci" din Codex Sturdzanus (text cu rotacism arhaic) - 1192
  • Copia care a stat la baza legendei ieudene - 1092
  • Copia care a stat la baza cele din Codex - 992
  • Copia comună celor două legende - 892
  • Traducerea în limba română a "Legendei sfintei dumineci" (originalul românesc) - 792
  • Exemplarul care a stat la baza traducerii în limba română - 692

Copiiștii au păstrat forma arhaică a textului, schimbând rareori vreo formulare care li se părea nelalocul ei. Astfel putem constata că traducătorul legendei din Codex a păstrat elemente lexicale din originalul latin, într-o vreme în care slujba de cult se mai practica în latină: "Tremeșu și a doao carte, iară nu-și vă încredzut cuvântului meu. Tremeș și a treia scriptură, multe lucrare și seamne lăsaiu pre voi, e voi nu și vă încredzut și nu vă pocăit nec cuvântul îngerului meu n-ați ascultatu, nece înțeleasetu!" Îl vedem aici pe latinul e alături de românescul și; același fenomen s-a întâmplat cu nec (NEK) plasat în aceeași frază cu nece (NEЧE). La noi s-au pierdut primele forme, rămânând în uz doar cea de-a doua. Mai trebuie remarcată folosirea formei arhaice a perfectului compus, doar cu participiu, fără verbul a avea. În legenda ieudeană, mai nouă, a mai scăpat doar un ae, citit e, pe post de și.
Această analiză a confirmat încă o dată concluzia anterioară, și anume că traducerea Legendei sfintei dumineci s-a făcut într-o perioadă foarte veche, atunci când limba vorbită pe meleagurile ardelene mai păstra forme lexicale și gramaticale comune cu latina arhaică din Lex XII Tabularum.

La 399, patriarhul Ioan Chrysostomos (Ioan Gură de Aur) afirma într-o cuvântare că sciții, tracii, schiromații, maurii și indii au tradus scripturile în limba lor națională.

Constantin Kostenețchi, denumit "Filosoful", a scris pe la 1420 o lucrare intitulată "Despre scriere". Iată ce ne spune acesta: "Așa în limba română se scrie corect bea (Бѣ), cu ѣ (ea) și nu cu e". Așadar Constantin Filosoful cunoștea limba română și văzuse destule texte scrise, astfel încât să desprindă o regulă generală de ortografie.

 

History of Baia Mare and the Gold of the Dacians

The city's placement on the middle course of Sasar River, in the middle of a plateau with a warm Mediterranean-like climate, facilitated living conditions since the Palaeolithic. During the Bronze Age the region was inhabited by Thracian tribes. Later, Baia Mare was included in the Dacian kingdom formed by the King Burebista when the mining exploration begun, as the area is rich in gold and silver. Baia Mare is first mentioned in written documents released by Charles I of Hungary in 1328 under the name of Rivulus Dominarum (English: Ladies' River). Later, in 1347 the town is presented in documents released by Louis I of Hungary as an important medieval town with a prosperous mining industry with rules of organization characteristic of the free towns of that time. In 1411 the town and its surrounding areas, including the mines, were transferred into the property of the Hunyadi family by the Sigismund who recognized Janos Hunyadi's contribution to stop the Turkish invasion towards Western Europe. Thus, the town entered in a period of prosperity, when St. Stephen Cathedral was built. Today the cathedral tower is one of the best-known of the town's landmarks (see Stephen's Tower). The first school, named Scoala Rivulina, was opened in Baia Mare in 1547 by the Reformed Church. In 1703 Pintea Viteazu and his band managed to free the town for a short period of time. Since then Pintea is seen as an important figure in the town's history, representing the dream of freedom. The city’s mining industry made a leap forward in 1748 when the Austrian authorities created The Superior Mining Headquarters.

In 1919 Baia Mare become part of the Kingdom of Romania. It was occupied by Hungary between 1940-1944. A quick and dynamic development started shortly after World War II when Baia Mare started to grow in both population and inhabited area. A new town centre with modern architecture buildings and structures was built in the late '70s and early '80s.

During the Bronze Age, the region around Baia Mare was the realm of the Thracians, from whom the Geto-Dacians later descended. It was also part of the large Dacian state formed by Burebista. The first mention of the settlement is from 1142, when King Géza II of Hungary settled it with Transylvanian Saxons. The name of the settlement was Frauenbach in German (Asszonypataka in Hungarian, Rivulus Dominarum in Latin), meaning “River of the Ladies” or “Women's Brook”. The richest documentation, however, is found in the act of privilege issued by Louis I of Hungary in 1347.

In 1411, the Hungarian king exchanged the city for Belgrade with Djuradj Branković, prince of Serbia (from 1411 to 1521 Belgrade was a Hungarian border castle). A document from that year speaks of the Mint in Baia Mare, one of the oldest and most famous in Transylvania.

In 1446, the mines and domain of Baia Mare become the property of the Hunyadi family as a token of gratitude for the bravery shown by John Hunyadi in his battles against the invading Turks. John Hunyadi commissioned the Saint Stephen cathedral whose Stephen Tower remains a landmark of the city to this date.

In 1469, King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary bestowed upon the city the right to develop its defense system by erecting fortified walls and keeps, strengthened by deep moats and large palisades to keep out the invaders. Baia Mare thus became an impressive fortress.

In 1567, it was annexed by John Zsigmond, prince of Transylvania. The city was in Szatmár County of the Kingdom of Hungary.

In 1600, as a sign of gratitude for having cancelled several of the city's debts, the tenant of the local mines, Felician Herbstein, ordered a coin to be minted in gold, displaying the effigy of Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul), voivod of Wallachia. Collectors agree that this is an effigy of the prince of great numismatic value.

Between the years 1605 and 1606, 1621 and 1629, and 1645 and 1648, the city and the surrounding county was part of the Principality of Transylvania. From the 16th century the settlement was officially called Nagybánya.

In 1703, the legendary outlaw, Pintea the Brave (Pintea Viteazul), was witness, alongside Francis II Rákóczi, to the freeing of the city from the hands of the Austrian Habsburgs during a kurucs war. The year 1889 saw the printing of the first newspaper in the Romanian language - Gutinul - a weekly paper dealing in social, literary and economic matters. In 1910, the town had 12,877 inhabitants: 9,992 (77.6%) Hungarians, 2,677 (20.8%) Romanians, 175 (1.4%) Germans.[2] In the same time, the municipal area of the town had 30,584 inhabitants, including 83.73% Romanians, and 15.13% Hungarians. [1]

From 1919/1920 (Treaty of Trianon) to 1940 (Second Vienna Award), Baia Mare was part of the Kingdom of Romania, and during 1940-1944 part of Hungary. The Treaty of Paris after the Second World War returned the city to Romania. From 1952 to 1960, Baia Mare was in the Baia Mare Region, from 1960 to 1968 in the Maramureş Region, and since 1968 has been in Maramureş County.

Russia and the World Gold Market

Publication: Eurasia Daily Monitor Volume: 5 Issue: 221
November 18, 2008 03:39 PM Age: 2 yrs
Category: Eurasia Daily Monitor, Russia, Economics

One might ask how far Kremlin-backed Russian companies will go in their quest to take control of valuable gold mining assets not only in Eastern and Central Europe, but in South America and Central Asia as well. One example of their efforts is the recent bid by Russia’s largest gold mining company, Polyus Gold, to acquire a major player in the gold mining industry in Kazakhstan, KazakhGold, which not insignificantly also owns the rights to mine the Baia Mare gold field in Romania. Kazakh Gold is listed on the London exchange.

Polyus Gold is owned by Russian oligarch Mikhail Prokhorov, who is regarded as friendly to the Kremlin. Russian Polyus is under investigation for asset stripping and has subsequently suffered severe financial damage; its current value is just 2.5 percent above that of a year ago. Kazakh Gold has also experienced difficulties, with a dramatic reduction in value on the London Exchange and its market capitalization falling by almost half over the past year.

If the Polyus bid for KazakhGold succeeds, then the Romanian Baia Mare gold field will come under the ownership of Polyus with the result that the Kremlin will have a controlling voice in the management of gold mining in Romania and, by the same token, will be able to exert an even greater influence on the Romanian economy and politics.

The formerly state-owned Baia Mare gold mine is mired in a long history of mismanagement and negligent, if not criminal, behavior. The Baia Mare field was responsible for a tragic cyanide spill into the Somes (Szamos) River which spilled over into the Tisza River. It went 36 miles (60 km) through Romanian territory and more than 360 miles (600 km) through the entire length of the Hungarian part of the Tisza. The spill was described by Hungarian officials as the worst environmental disaster to afflict the region since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, although Romanian officials have denied this.

This fact has not prevented Romanian authorities from issuing preliminary rights to KazakhGold to mine at the Baia Mare site, at the same time preventing a Canadian-American gold mining company from commencing operations at a different mine, Rosia Montana, which is nowhere near the terrible cyanide spill at Baia Mare. The excuse used by the Romanian authorities is that mining at Rosia Montana would be an ecological threat. Baia Mare, however, is apparently seen as an exemplary, progressive project.

According to an article posted on www.mineweb.com on February 27, the UK markets regulator, the Financial Services Authority (FSA):
  

…is to investigate whether Polyus Gold, listed on the main board of the London Stock Exchange since 2006, is the target of an asset-stripping scheme perpetrated by a British Virgin Islands-registered company called Polyus Exploration, Ltd. This appears to be the same as the company called Polyus Geologorazvedka, established last May and registered in Moscow. The English translation of the Russian in the company title is awkward, but they are far from the same company.

  
Another example of Russian “gold digging” is that of Alrosa, the Russian wholly owned state diamond mining company, now diversifying into minerals and oil. Alrosa has already acquired one gold exploration prospect in Armenia.

Meanwhile in Venezuela, President Hugo Chavez, who is apparently dreaming of bringing Venezuela into the Russian sphere of influence and becoming the next Fidel Castro, signed an agreement on November 6 with Russian Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin, the person responsible for the destruction of Yukos Oil Company and the jailing of its CEO Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Under this deal the Russian company Rusoro will be allowed to help develop the large Las Cristinas and Brisas gold mines, according to Venezuelan Mining Minister Rodolfo Sanz (El Universal, November 6).

Las Cristinas, one of Latin America's largest gold projects, is currently operated by Canada's Crystallex, which has waited in vain for years for an environmental license to start mining. Brisas is operated by Canadian-owned Gold Reserve, which has a concession for the project, mainly for gold mining, but has also been waiting for environmental permits.

For some unknown reason, both Venezuela and Romania have decided to penalize Canadian gold mining companies and bend over backward to support Russian firms. Rusoro is controlled by Andre Agapov and his Russian associates in London. In an interview with www.goldeditor.com, Agapov stated that:
  

Every six months there is a Russian/Venezuelan High Commission, which is basically a business forum. It’s the aim of the Russian government to diversify into different sectors, and of course the closest attention is paid to the companies who already operate in Venezuela. Currently, the only company from Russia—actually the first company—is us, Rusoro, a private company until November 2006…. the Russian government supports us and they expect the same from Venezuela (www.goldeditor.com/articledisplay.php?id=2147).

  
In June Peter Hambro Mining, PHM, a Russian-UK company based in London and one of the major companies mining for gold in Russia, announced that it was leading a consortium investing $80 million (40.8 million pounds) in Rusoro Mining with the option of converting the loan into a stake of up to 14 percent in the Venezuelan gold producer.

Executive Chairman of PHM Peter Hambro stated, “We have always said that any investment outside Russia would need to have a Russo centric rationale, and the Rusoro investment is just such an opportunity” (www.peterhambro.com/keyfacts.htm).

 

http://www.hieronymus.ro/act_pd_5.htm http://www.globusz.com/ebooks/Maramures/00000029.htm http://www.maramuresmuzeu.ro/ro/arheologie.htm http://apar.archaeology.ro/imc_popa.htm

Manuscrisul de la Ieud

Manuscrisul de la Ieud; considerațiuni noi privind vechimea scrisului în limba român”

Manuscrisul de la Ieud a fost remarcat de Andrei Bârseanu în august 1921 la expoziția organizată la Sighetul Marmației cu ocazia Adunării generale a societății ASTRA. Acesta conține trei texte în limba română: Legenda sfintei dumineci, Învățătură întru sfânta și marea dumineca Paștilor și Învățătură despre sfânta cuminecătură. Cercetătorii au ajuns la concluzia că cele trei texte sunt copii, și nu originalele traducerilor românești, și au datat manuscrisul ca fiind din jurul anului 1392. Însă mai cu seamă primul text, o scrisoare de mustrare din partea Domnului către păcătoși, a ajutat la stabilirea vechimii originalului și a putut servi ca premisă pentru estimarea anului traducerii în limba română.
Legenda sfintei dumineci conține varianta în limba slavonă și cea în limba română. Interesant este faptul că nici una nu o traduce pe cealaltă, fiind versiuni independente. La începutul celei românești stă scris "Vă leat 6900 povestea fu de demult întru sfânta cetate Ier(usa)l(i)mului întru atâția ani vă leat 6000". După o argumentare logică, cercetătorii au ajuns la concluzia că originalul a fost conceput în anul 6000 de la facerea lumii (492) și a stat la baza tuturor variantelor în diferite limbi, iar 6900 (1392) reprezintă anul la care a fost copiat textul aflat în Manuscrisul de la Ieud. Copiat sau tradus? O analiză lexicală, gramatică și de istorie a vocabularului lasă să se întrevadă o vechime mult mai mare a textului. Trebuie menționat de la început că, în acele vremuri, cei care scriau astfel de scrisori aveau predilecția de a le lansa la ani "rotunzi", din 100 în 100 de ani. Și catastrofele semnalate între 492 și 1392 au îndreptățit de fiecare dată punerea în circulație a câte unei copii din "Legenda sfintei dumineci". O astfel de copie a apărut și în Codex Sturdzanus, cu circa două secole mai devreme, având text cu rotacism arhaic. Și cele două învățături, rotacizate și ele, sunt mai vechi decât legenda din Manuscrisul de la Ieud, dar mai noi (după tipul rotacismului) decât cea din Codex.
Așadar cercetătorii au stabilit următoarea cronologie:

  • "Legenda sfintei dumineci" ieudene (text nerotacizat) - 1392
  • Cele două "Învățături" (text rotacizat) - 1292
  • "Legenda sfintei dumineci" din Codex Sturdzanus (text cu rotacism arhaic) - 1192
  • Copia care a stat la baza legendei ieudene - 1092
  • Copia care a stat la baza cele din Codex - 992
  • Copia comună celor două legende - 892
  • Traducerea în limba română a "Legendei sfintei dumineci" (originalul românesc) - 792
  • Exemplarul care a stat la baza traducerii în limba română - 692

Copiiștii au păstrat forma arhaică a textului, schimbând rareori vreo formulare care li se părea nelalocul ei. Astfel putem constata că traducătorul legendei din Codex a păstrat elemente lexicale din originalul latin, într-o vreme în care slujba de cult se mai practica în latină: "Tremeșu și a doao carte, iară nu-și vă încredzut cuvântului meu. Tremeș și a treia scriptură, multe lucrare și seamne lăsaiu pre voi, e voi nu și vă încredzut și nu vă pocăit nec cuvântul îngerului meu n-ați ascultatu, nece înțeleasetu!" Îl vedem aici pe latinul e alături de românescul și; același fenomen s-a întâmplat cu nec (NEK) plasat în aceeași frază cu nece (NEЧE). La noi s-au pierdut primele forme, rămânând în uz doar cea de-a doua. Mai trebuie remarcată folosirea formei arhaice a perfectului compus, doar cu participiu, fără verbul a avea. În legenda ieudeană, mai nouă, a mai scăpat doar un ae, citit e, pe post de și.
Această analiză a confirmat încă o dată concluzia anterioară, și anume că traducerea Legendei sfintei dumineci s-a făcut într-o perioadă foarte veche, atunci când limba vorbită pe meleagurile ardelene mai păstra forme lexicale și gramaticale comune cu latina arhaică din Lex XII Tabularum.

La 399, patriarhul Ioan Chrysostomos (Ioan Gură de Aur) afirma într-o cuvântare că sciții, tracii, schiromații, maurii și indii au tradus scripturile în limba lor națională.

Constantin Kostenețchi, denumit "Filosoful", a scris pe la 1420 o lucrare intitulată "Despre scriere". Iată ce ne spune acesta: "Așa în limba română se scrie corect bea (Бѣ), cu ѣ (ea) și nu cu e". Așadar Constantin Filosoful cunoștea limba română și văzuse destule texte scrise, astfel încât să desprindă o regulă generală de ortografie

Archeological News

VESTIGIILE UNEI ASEZARI ROMANE IN MARAMURES
Arheologii maramureşeni au făcut câteva descoperiri extrem de importante în situl din satul Bozânta Mică, situat la confluenţa Someşului cu Lăpuşul.  Descoperirea echipei coordonate de dr. Stanciu, din care fac parte arheologii Dan Pop, Raul Cardoş, Marius Ardeleanu, Dorian Ghiman (restaurator) şi Zamfir Şomcutean (conservator), este extrem de importantă şi prin prisma faptului că reprezintă o dovadă a schimburilor comerciale dintre locuitorii din afara graniţelor Imperiului Roman si cei din interiorul imperiului.În acest an, s-au descoperit două monede de epocă romană imperială. Una dintre ele din timpul lui Marcus Aurelius, mai exact pe moneda apare soţia acestuia, Faustina II. Moneda se datează între anii 176-180 d.Chr., fiind emisă dupa moartea împărătesei. A doua monedă este din timpul Iuliei Mamea, mama împaratului Severus Alexander, şi se datează în anul 232 d.ChrÎn timpul săpăturilor arheologice, istoricii au mai descoperit un pandantiv din bronz şi mai multe obiecte metalice încă neidentificate, dar arheologul Marius Ardeleanu a remarcat şi „descoperirea a două complexe medieval timpurii, foarte importante, datate în secolul VIII d.Hr., câteva gropi de stâlpi care delimitau locuinţe sau anexe gospodăreşti de epocă romană, precum şi vetre din epoca bronzului". În situl de la Bozânta Mică au fost identificate trei sate: din epoca bronzului (aproximativ 1500-1000 î.Hr.), din epoca romană - Barbaricum (din afara graniţelor Imperiului Roman) şi din epoca medieval timpurie (sec. VIII-IX d.Hr.).

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