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Thracians, Getai-Dacians

 

  

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0OOxovcpS8

 

Herodotus calls the Geti of Muntenia, Moldavia and the North of Bulgaria as well as the Dacians of the Carpathian Mountains "the bravest and the justest of all the Thracian tribes."

Ostrusha tomb, near Kazanlik, coffer painting of a Thracian woman

 Picture at: http://www.picturesofbulgaria.com/article/thracian_tomb_of_ostrusha.html

 

 http://farm1.static.flickr.com/80/234799395_f8faa402a0.jpg

  http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/05/images/2006090505301301.jpg

SOFIA, Bulgaria A 2,200-year-old set of gold jewelry was unearthed from a Thracian burial mound on Bulgaria's Black Sea coast, the archaeologist who led the excavations said Monday.   Daniela Agre said her team in late August found dozens of tiny jewelry pieces in the tomb of a woman, most likely a Thracian priestess, near the resort of Sinemorets, about 500 kilometers (310 miles) southeast of the capital, Sofia.   The discovery included two earrings, crafted like miniature chariots, as well as parts of gold necklaces, one decorated with a sculpture of a bull's head.   A tiny plaque that appears to be the necklace's fastener bears a Greek inscription, saying "made by Demetrius," Agre said, suggesting this could have been the name the nobleman who ordered the jewelry.   The artifacts were unearthed Aug. 25-27 during urgent recovery works at the Sinemorets mound, which was half destroyed, allegedly by a local hotel owner who thought the pile of earth was an ugly sight for tourists. 

 

 

 Oxus Treasure and other objects from the British Museum

  Achaemenid Gold Chariot from the British Museum

The Thracians - Getae lived on both sides of the Danube river.

Thracian Virtual Museum at: http://www.gebeleizis.org/tracic/5.html

 General Appearance - Eyes, Hair, and Stature

Text at: http://home.exetel.com.au/thrace/appearan.html

"First marched the Thracians, who he [Nasica] himself tells us, inspired him with the most terror; they were of great stature, with bright and glittering shields and black frocks under them, their legs armed with greaves, and they brandished as they moved straight and heavily ironed rhomphaias over their right shoulders. "(Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paulus, 168 BC).

http://home.exetel.com.au/thrace/rhomphai.htm

Xenophanes describes the Thracians as being "light haired and grey eyed", though "They were said to be largely red haired." The Thracians "were large, powerfully built men, ... and a skin white, delicate and cold; and they had a tendency to put on flesh. They are spoken of as straight haired and with their hair dressed in a kind of top knot. The chin beard of the Thracian ... is characteristic of his race ... the cheeks are shaved, apart from short side�whiskers." C A H Vol VIII, p 544

Xenophanes, Satires - Fragments

(16)  the Thracians say theirs {gods} have blue eyes and red hair. R. P. 100 b.

The reference to top knots comes from Homer (Iliad IV): "A Thracian captain, Peiros, having first smashed the ankle of Greek Diores with a jagged stone, had despatched him with his spear, whereupon 'Aetolian Thoas hit him in the chest with a spear, below the nipple, and the bronze point sank into the lung. Thoas came up to him, pulled the heavy weapon from his breast and, drawing his sharp sword, struck him full in the belly. He took Peiros' life but did not get his armour. For Peiros' men, the Thracians with topknots on their heads, surrounded him. They held their long spears steady in their hands and fended Thoas off, big, strong and formidable though he was. Thoas was shaken and withdrew."' (Chris Webber) Read the full text

Left: a Thracian cavalryman with top knot. 5cm silver-gilt applique from Letnitsa, mid-fourth century BC.   This applique presents another scene from the dragon-fighter myth, the hero's triumph.  After he has won the combat and consummated his marriage to the princess, the hero becomes the ruler of the kingdom.  His new status is indicated by the presence of the bow (behind his back), which in Thrace is an insignia of royalty. (plate 93, page 164, Ancient Gold)

Plato Republic 327a (Loeb)

Socrates: I went down yesterday to the Peiraeus with Glaucon, the son of Ariston, to pay my devotions to the Goddess*, and also because I wished to see how they would conduct the festival since this was its inauguration.  I thought the procession of the citizens very fine, but it was no better than the show, made by the marching of the Thracian contingent. * Presumably Bendis

Plutarch, Theseus, 5

On a colouful note, Papazoglu draws attention to the hairstyle worn by the Thracian Abantes, as being apparently the same as the Moesians and some Arab tribes (taken from Plutarch, Life of Theseus. 5). The front of the head was apparently shaved (in the case of the Abantes, in order to prevent the enemy getting a ready hold in battle - presumably similar in style to the hair worn by the woodland Ottawa tribe of the North American Great Lakes region?):    " 'The Abantes' adds Plutarch, were the first people to cut their hair in this fashion; they had not learnt it from the Arabians, as some think, nor did they imitate the Moesians, but did it because they were hand-to-hand fighters - to avoid giving the enemy the chance to sieze them by the hair." From Fanula Papazoglu, The Central Balkan Tribes in Pre-Roman Times. Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1978, p.460.  This information kindly supplied by David Karunanithy.    David adds: M.E. Durham Some Tribal Origins, Laws and Customs of the Balkans. London: Allen & Unwin, 1928. See especially Section III, pp.101-143: "Tattooing and the Symbols Tattooed." This is a mine of information on Balkan tattooing customs, and includes one or two minor references on the Thracians which appear not to be included in your website. The section noted here also has many figure diagrams of the style of tattoo still worn by some women in rural areas - and the designs follow very closely on those preserved on Greek pottery for Thracian women.  Another section of the book describes and illustrates traditional Albanian hairstyles. Interestingly, one of the styles appears completely shaved at the front - and could perhaps preserve something of the appearance of the Thracian Abantes hairstyle noted by Plutarch. 

Thracian language at:

http://indoeuro.bizland.com/project/glossary/thra.html 


 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ancient_cities_in_Thrace_and_Dacia 

  TattoosThe Agighiol greave

Tattooed leg (from a Greek vase) - Casson, p 165The Thracians also wore tattoos. "To be tattooed is a sign of birth; to bear no such marks is for the baser sort." (Herodotus V, 6) "It was in special favour with the women, and the more nobly born they were, the richer and brighter coloured were the designs they used. Agathyrsi painted both their faces and their limbs with indelible designs (distinctive tribal marks), while the nobles also died their hair blue." The stripes and other designs on the woman's face of the Agighiol greave (found near Vratsa, dated around 380 BC) may represent tattoos. Levi says, "The strange ornaments, the parallel stripes on the woman's head, represent tattooing. Thracian witches who could enchant the moon out of the sky, and the tattooed faces of Thracian women had been proverbial in Athens in the 5th century"(8) The Scythian had similar customs. A frozen Scythian king, dug out of the Siberian permafrost, was covered in spirals and animal tattoos. The Getai, being under heavy Scythian influence, probably followed this practice. (Chris Webber)

 Picture of the greave at: http://www.losttrails.com/media/ThracoGetae/romania003-19tn.jpg


The Greek general and military historian Xenophon during his march within Persia and Thrace in 401-399 BC has added in Anabasis (VI, 1, 4-6): ‘After sacrificing some of the oxen which they have captured and other animals too, they provided a feast which was quite a good one, though they ate reclining on low couches and drunk out of horn cups which they had come across the country. When they had poured the libations and sung the Paean, first of all two Thracians stood up and performed a dance to the flute, wearing full armour. They leapt high into the air with great agility and brandished their swords. In the end one of them, as everybody thought, struck the other one, who fell to the ground, acting all the time. ... Then some more Thracians carried the stripped man out, , as though he was dead, though actually he had not been hurt in the slightest. ...(VII, 4, 4) It was then (in winter) easy to see why the Thracians wear fox skins round their heads and ears, and why they have tunics that cover their legs and not only the upper part of the body, and why, when they are on horseback, they wear long cloaks reaching down to their feet instead of our short coats.’

http://amvarna.com/eindex.php?slid=3&lid=2&lang=2

c.800 - 700 BC
The Thracians are driven out of the region of Mygdonia by the newly arriving Macedonians.

 The Thracians, 700 BC - AD 46 By Christopher Webber, Angus McBride

Read selection on line.

http://www.jstor.org/pss/3065378

Recovering ancient Thracian city of Seuthopolis (Sevtopolis)

hotelstay.eu Seuthopolis was an ancient city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes III, and the capital of the Odrysian kingdom since 320 BC. It was a small city, built on the site of an earlier settlement, and its ruins are now located at the bottom of the Koprinka Reservoir near Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province, in central Bulgaria.

 Thracian (Peonian) Gold prayer book - leaf by The Traveling Frog - Rossitza and Stevan Olson.

 Thracian (Peonian) Gold prayer book - leaf

Museum of Macedonia - Archaeological Department

http://www.flickr.com/photos/rossitza/

 

Thracian Prayer Book by The Traveling Frog - Rossitza and Stevan Olson.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/rossitza/sets/72157619100824341/

National Historical Museum, Sofia, Bulgaria

Unique book goes on display
 The world's oldest multiple-page book - in the lost Etruscan language - has gone on display in Bulgaria's National History Museum in Sofia.

It contains six bound sheets of 24 carat gold, with illustrations of a horse-rider, a mermaid, a harp and soldiers.

Etruscan book
The book dates back to 600BC
The small manuscript, which is more than two-and-a-half millennia old, was discovered 60 years ago in a tomb uncovered during digging for a canal along the Strouma river in south-western Bulgaria.

It has now been donated to the museum by its finder, on condition of anonymity.

Reports say the unidentified donor is now 87 years old and lives in Macedonia.

The authenticity of the book has been confirmed by two experts in Sofia and London, museum director Bojidar Dimitrov said quoted by AFP.

The six sheets are believed to be the oldest comprehensive work involving multiple pages, said Elka Penkova, who heads the museum's archaeological department.

There are around 30 similar pages known in the world, Ms Penkova said, "but they are not linked together in a book".

 

Etruscan book
 
 

 

The Etruscans - one of Europe's most mysterious ancient peoples - are believed to have migrated from Lydia, in modern western Turkey, settling in northern and central Italy nearly 3,000 years ago.

They were wiped out by the conquering Romans in the fourth century BC, leaving few written records.

 

 

THE GOLDEN PLATES OF PHYRGI-LAMINAE PHYRGIENSES

 

Bulgaria's ancient Thracian heritage has been thrust into the spotlight this year with a number of key archaeological discoveries in the so-called "Valley of the Thracian Kings".

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3999145.stm

Thracian gold
The find near Shipka uncovered beautiful gold artefacts (2004)
Among the latest archaeological finds (in present day Bulgary) was the discovery of a 2,400-year-old Thracian shrine near the small town of Shipka, in the very heart of Bulgaria. Experts say it contains the burial of local king Seutus III - a mighty rival to Alexander the Great.

The shrine consisted of three chambers buried under a big hill. The entry was sealed with a marble door, a masterpiece in itself.

Gold valley

In the first chamber, there lay the skeleton of a horse. But the real treasure waited in the third. The team went in to find a lavishly arranged burial place, a gold wreath and objects lying around.

 

THE THRACIANS
Thracian statue found near Shipka
Lived in what is now Bulgaria, Romania, northern Greece and Turkey from around 4000 BC
Conquered by Romans in AD46
Not thought to have had own alphabet
Described by Herodotus as "savage, blood-thirsty warriors"
Finds include ceramics, bronze, gold and silver jewels
It took the archaeologist several minutes to realise that the cracking sound under their feet came from smaller gold parts lying all over the place.

Ancient findings such as this are not uncommon for this area south of the Balkan Mountains, aptly named the "Valley of the Thracian Kings".

Weeks earlier the same team had discovered a rare gold mask.

  Scientists compare the new find to the discovery of King Agamemnon's tomb in Mycenae by Heinrich Schliemann in the 19th century.

Archaeological excavations have therefore taken centre stage in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian media rediscovered the Indiana Jones type mystery of ancient civilizations and 2004 became "The Year of the Archaeologists".

Public emotion went as far as the idea of using the new gold treasure to promote Bulgaria, under the logo "The Valley of the Thracian Kings".

But can ancient gold change Bulgaria's image and attract foreign tourists and investment?

Historians themselves are not really fond of the idea.

The director of The National Archaeological Museum told the BBC the real treasures are not the gold objects, but the tombs discovered in the area.

About a dozen of these tombs are really interesting and can attract foreign visitors if an adequate infrastructure is developed.

 File:The thracian tomb in Kazanlak from outside.jpg 

 picture at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_thracian_tomb_in_Kazanlak_from_outside.jpg  

The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak (Bulgarian: 'Казанлъшка гробница') is a vaulted brickwork "beehive" (tholos) tomb near the town of Kazanlak in central Bulgaria.

The tomb is part of a large Thracian necropolis. It comprises a narrow corridor and a round burial chamber, both decorated with murals representing a Thracian couple at a ritual funeral feast. The monument dates back to the 4th century BC and has been on the UNESCO protected World Heritage Site list since 1979. The murals are memorable for the splendid horses and especially for the gesture of farewell, in which the seated couple grasp each other's wrists in a moment of tenderness and equality. The paintings are Bulgaria's best-preserved artistic masterpieces from the Hellenistic period.

The tomb is situated near the ancient Thracian capital of Seuthopolis.

The seated woman of the murals is depicted on the reverse of the Bulgarian 50 stotinkas coin issued in 2005.[1]

Gallery

 

   In the summer of 2004 a team of Bulgarian archeologists unearthed a large, intact Thracian mausoleum (Kosmatka Tomb) dating back from the 5th century BC near the central Bulgarian town of Shipka. It is considered as one of the richest tombs of a Thracian ruler ever founded in Bulgaria.

 Archeologists have found a 2500 year old golden mask (depicting a full face with moustache and beard) that was most probably made for a Thracian monarch’s funeral. This rare artifact is made of six hundred grams of solid gold and “is without paragon in archeology”. The unique mask is considered to have belonged to King Seutus III - the Thracian king who was the ruler in the 5th century BC. Except for the mask, the archeologists have also discovered a golden ring showing a rower, and various bronze and silver vessels; besides in one of the tomb’s rooms they have found a golden crown of oak leaves and acorns, which is the first such object discovered in Thracian temple.

Svetitsa Thracian Tomb

 "SVETITSA" THRACIAN TOMB

The finds from Svetitsa Thracian tomb were the greatest archaeological discovery for 2004. The golden mask found here is close to the famous masks known from Mikena. The mask depict a Thracian king Teres and date to the 5th century BC.

 

 

 http://www.baa-tours.archbg.net/body_places_monuments.htm

 Gold mask found in Thracian king’s tomb

 Picture at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19791150/ 

 

Image: Thracian mask
Bulgarian archaeologist Georgi Kitov on Sunday shows an ancient Thracian gold mask at a tomb near the village of Topolchane, east of the Bulgarian capital Sofia.
Petar Petrov / AP

 SOFIA, Bulgaria - A 2,400-year-old golden mask that once belonged to a Thracian king was unearthed in a timber-lined tomb in southeastern Bulgaria, archaeologists said Monday.

The mask, discovered over the weekend, was found in the tomb along with a solid gold ring engraved with a Greek inscription and the portrait of a bearded man.

“These finds confirm the assumption that they are part of the lavish burial of a Thracian king,” said Margarita Tacheva, a professor who was on the dig near the village of Topolchane, 180 miles (290 kilometers) east of the capital, Sofia

 See full size image

 Thracian gold arm band      

 http://www.thecityreview.com/                

Etruscan Kylix A two-handled drinking cup with a stemmed foot.History: The kylix was especially popular from the end of the sixth century down to the fourth century B.C.

 http://homepage.mac.com/pvmantel/Main_Site/Etruscan_pottery/Greek%20and%20Etruscan%20Pottery.htm

   This is a Thracian treasure from the end of the 5th c. BC, found near Plovdiv.

 

    This is a Thracian- Getae treasure from the end of the 5th c. BC, found near Plovdiv (Pulpuedava) one of the oldest stronghold of the Getai.

We don’t know many details about Thracian history before 500BC. It is around 513BC-512BC that Darius invades Thrace in preparation for the war which would end up giving the Greeks a national consciousness. The Thracians did not offer much if any resistance to the Persians because they knew Darius was out to get the Greeks, the Thracian city of Doriscus was relinquished without a fight. The Getae did offer some resistance but it was crushed. That would establish a pattern in Thracian history. The tribes never unified fell one by one to foreign invades. Although no one ever quite managed to control them all simultaneously. One or two big tribes would be conquered but another two or at least one would resist or rebel and generally make life miserable for the would be conquerors. But divided Thracian tribes would fall. The harsh history of the Balkans tolerates no weakness, especially not disunity.Around 490-479 BC Xerxes set out to fight the Greeks. When passing through Thrace the Thracians knew that Xerxes’s primary goal was to destroy the powerful city of Athens, far to the south, and so they offered no resistance to the Persian army.Persian control over Thrace was rather loose. After the Persian Wars, in 480-460 BC the first powerful Thracian state was founded by King Teres, the Kingdom of the Odrysae. Teres managed to unite the many Thracian tribes under his rule and to include in his realm the area of eastern Thrace, plus other regions as far as the Danube. Teres was the first Thracian king to unify several of the big powerful Thracian tribes, starting with his own Odrysians. As Herodotus informs us: “Teres, the father of Sitalces, was the first to establish the great kingdom of the Odrysians on a scale quite unknown to the rest of Thrace, a large portion of the Thracians being independent.” Herodotus also informs us that Teres’ daughter marries Octamasadas, the Scythia king. There is evidence which suggest a close cultural connection between the hero-horseman worshiping Thracians and the nomadic Scytians. Teres created a mighty army and forged political and commercial relations with the Greek cities, the Macedonians and the Scythian chieftains.

 http://www.ancient-bulgaria.com/2006/09/04/a-little-more-thracian-history-from-the-very-beggining/

List of ancient tribes in Thrace and Dacia

This is a list of ancient tribes in Thrace and Dacia ,(Ancient Greek,"Θράκη","Δακία") including possibly or partly Thracian or Dacian tribes, and non-Thracian or non-Dacian tribes that inhabited the lands known as Thrace and Dacia. A great number of Ancient Greek tribes lived in these regions as well albeit in the Greek colonies.

Tribes in Thrace before the Roman period.
Distribution of Thracian tribes in antiquity in the borders with Greeks and Illyrians

Tribes

Thracian

We must note that certain tribes and subdivisions of tribes were named differently by ancient writers but modern research points out that these were in fact the same tribe.[1] The name Thracians itself seems to be a Greek exonym and we have no way of knowing what the Thracians called themselves.[2]Also certain tribes mentioned by Homer are not indeed historical.

[edit] Moesian

[edit] Getic-Dacian

Dacian tribes.

Asiatic

Paionian

Paeonia,tribes and Environs

[edit] Greek

[edit] Phrygian

[edit] Celtic & Germanic

[edit] Scythian

[edit] Thraco-Illyrian

[edit] Illyrian

 

[edit] References

  1. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 601
  2. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 597: "We have no way of knowing what the Thracians called themselves and if indeed they had a common name...Thus the name of Thracians and that of their country were given by the Greeks to a group of tribes occupying the territory..."
  3. ^ Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley),9.119.1,"CXIX. As Oeobazus was making his escape into Thrace, the Apsinthians of that country caught and sacrificed him in their customary manner to Plistorus the god of their land; as for his companions, they did away with them by other means. Artayctes and his company had begun their flight later, and were overtaken a little way beyond the Goat's Rivers,1 where after they had defended themselves a long time, some of them were killed and the rest taken alive. The Greeks bound them and carried them to Sestus, and together with them Artayctes and his son also in bonds.
  4. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,2001, page 11: "... After the battle, 10,000 Thracians drawn from the Astii, Caeni, Maduateni and Coreli occupied each side of a narrow forested pass ..."
  5. ^ The Cambridge ancient history Volume 3,page 604,by John Boardman - 1991 ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,"The Astae appeared only from the late Hellenistic era, second-first century b.c."
  6. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 606: "In the middle hebrus valley and to the east of the Odrysae and the Coleates minores are the Benni""
  7. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,2001,page 13: "... of the Emperor Augustus) who returned the favour, defeating the Bessi when they attacked Macedonia. This tribe must have impressed the Romans, as they took to calling all Thracians `Bessi'; they wrote it down as the tribe of origin ..."
  8. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen,2005,ISBN 0-19-814099-1,page 854,""... Various tribes have occupied this part of Thrace: Bisaltians (lower Strymon valley), Odomantes (the plain to the north of the Strymon) ...""
  9. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 452: "... I10 The Thracian tribes lying along his route were the Paeti, Cicones, Bistones, Sapaei, Dersaei, Edoni, and Satrae; ..."
  10. ^ Strabo, Geography,book 7, chapter fragments: ... and a fourth to Pelagonia. Along the Hebrus dwell the Corpili, the Brenæ still higher up, above them, and lastly
  11. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 600: ";The Triballi were the western neighbours of the Treres and the Tilataei who occupied in general the region of Serdica"
  12. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 601-602
  13. ^ Polyaenus: Stratagems - BOOK 7 ,The generals of the Cebrenii and Sycaeboae, two Thracian tribes, were chosen from among the priests of Hera. Cosingas, according to the tradition of the country, was elected to be their priest and general; but the army took some objection to him, and refused to obey him. To suppress the rebelliousness that had taken hold of the troops, Cosingas built a number of long ladders, and fastened them one to another. He then put out a report, that he had decided to climb up to heaven, in order to inform Hera of the disobedience of the Thracians. The Thracians, who are notoriously stupid and ridiculous, were terrified by the idea of their general's intended journey, and the resulting wrath of heaven. They implored him not to carry out his plan, and they promised with an oath to obey all of his future commands.
  14. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 452: "... I10 The Thracian tribes lying along his route were the Paeti, Cicones, Bistones, Sapaei, Dersaei, Edoni, and Satrae; ..."
  15. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 452: "... I10 The Thracian tribes lying along his route were the Paeti, Cicones, Bistones, Sapaei, Dersaei, Edoni, and Satrae; ..."
  16. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 600
  17. ^ a b The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 607: "The existence of a tribe called Diobessi (Plin.Loc.Cit.) links together ethnicallly the Bessi and the Dii"
  18. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 607: "Of these interminable struggles which never ceased to plague Thrace the best know were those between the Apsynthii and the Dolonci"
  19. ^ Plin. Nat. 4.18,"Thrace now follows, divided into fifty strategies1, and to be reckoned among the most powerful nations of Europe. Among its peoples whom we ought not to omit to name are the Denseletæ and the Medi, dwelling upon the right bank of the Strymon, and joining up to the Bisaltæ above2 mentioned; on the left there are the Digerri and a number of tribes of the Bessi"
  20. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,2001, page 11: "... After the battle, 10,000 Thracians drawn from the Astii, Caeni, Maduateni and Coreli occupied each side of a narrow forested pass ..."
  21. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 452: "... I10 The Thracian tribes lying along his route were the Paeti, Cicones, Bistones, Sapaei, Dersaei, Edoni, and Satrae; ..."
  22. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 606: "... The other branch of this tribe, the Coelaletae maiores, lived in the region of the High Tonzos between Stara ...""
  23. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,2001, page 11: "... After the battle, 10,000 Thracians drawn from the Astii, Caeni, Maduateni and Coreli occupied each side of a narrow forested pass ..."
  24. ^ Strabo, Geography,book 7, chapter fragments: ... and a fourth to Pelagonia. Along the Hebrus dwell the Corpili, the Brenæ still higher up, above them, and lastly
  25. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 601-602
  26. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 256: "The tribe of Thracians called Crobyzi"
  27. ^ John Boardman in his History wrote “However, a text of the Hellanicus associates the Crobyzi as well the Terizi (From the Tirizian promotory) with the Getae, who “immortalize” (Hdt IV94) that is “render immortal” by ritual. The Crobizi were a subgroup of the Getae tribes. Already known to Hecataeus they are grouped by Herodotus with Thracians” The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 598
  28. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,2001, page 11: "... After the battle, 10,000 Thracians drawn from the Astii, Caeni, Maduateni and Coreli occupied each side of a narrow forested pass ..."
  29. ^ The Spartacus War by Barry Strauss,ISBN 1-4165-3205-6,2009,page 31: "... ancient text might have referred not to nomads but to Maedi (singular, Maedus). The Maedi were a Thracian tribe
  30. ^ Anabasis by H. G. Dakyns,2006,ISBN 1-4250-0949-2,page 321: "... his sway extended over the Melanditae, the Thynians, and the Tranipsae. Then the affairs of the Odrysians took ..."
  31. ^ A Lexicon to Xenophon's Anabasis: Adapted to All the Common Editions, for the Use Both of Beginners by Alpheus Crosby, Xenophon,ISBN 1-110-27521-8,2009,page 83,"... 6. I Ideki.vo+iyet, for, (itxrydir) the [pan - ie-eate re] Melinophagi, a Thracian peo- ple near Sahnydessus on the Euzine, perhaps Stmbo's *Agra, ..."
  32. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 271, "The Thracians of... those who live beyond Apollonia and Mesembria, known as the Scyrmiadae and Nipsaeans, surren- dered without fighting; but the Getae, ..."
  33. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece Messenia,4.33.1,"but settled among the Odrysae when pregnant, for Philammon refused to take her into his house. Thamyris is called an Odrysian and Thracian on these grounds"
  34. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 452: "... I10 The Thracian tribes lying along his route were the Paeti, Cicones, Bistones, Sapaei, Dersaei, Edoni, and Satrae; ..."
  35. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen,2005,ISBN 0-19-814099-1,page 803: "... a C3e decree from Gonnoi (Gonnoi 2.6). Originally populated by Thracian Pieres, Leibethra and this part of Pieria were conquered by the ..."
  36. ^ Pausanias's Description Of Greece V4: Commentary On Books VI-VIII by James G. Frazer,2006, page 132: "... 10. 6. led an army against . . . Abrupolis, king of the Sapaeans etc. The Sapaeans were a Thracian tribe in the neighbourhood of Abdera..."
  37. ^ Euripides: Hecuba (Euripides) by M. Tierney,2003,ISBN 0-906515-17-3,Back Matter: "... vii, 111, tells of an oracle of Dionysus among tlae Satrae, a Thracian tribe. The Greeks also regarded him as a god of ..."
  38. ^ Polyaenus: Stratagems - BOOK 7 ,The generals of the Cebrenii and Sycaeboae, two Thracian tribes, were chosen from among the priests of Hera. Cosingas, according to the tradition of the country, was elected to be their priest and general; but the army took some objection to him, and refused to obey him. To suppress the rebelliousness that had taken hold of the troops, Cosingas built a number of long ladders, and fastened them one to another. He then put out a report, that he had decided to climb up to heaven, in order to inform Hera of the disobedience of the Thracians. The Thracians, who are notoriously stupid and ridiculous, were terrified by the idea of their general's intended journey, and the resulting wrath of heaven. They implored him not to carry out his plan, and they promised with an oath to obey all of his future commands.
  39. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 271, "The Thracians of... those who live beyond Apollonia and Mesembria, known as the Scyrmiadae and Nipsaeans, surren- dered without fighting; but the Getae, ..."
  40. ^ Greek colonisation: an account of Greek colonies and other settlements overseas ,ISBN 90-04-15576-7 ,by Gocha R. Tsetskhladze - 2008,page 488,"The territory of the Thracian Sintians"
  41. ^ The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae,Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians,ISBN 90-256-0793-4,page 69,by Fanula Papazoglu - 1978,"were directed against the Thracian coast. The Greeks came into contact with the ... says that "the outstanding Thracian tribes were the Sithones"
  42. ^ Psyche: the cult of souls and the belief in immortality among the Greeks -page 281 by Erwin Rohde,ISBN 0-415-22563-9,2000,"It appears that a branch of the Thracian tribe of the Tralles"
  43. ^ Plutarch\'s Lives Volume III by Plutarch,2007,ISBN 1-4264-7592-6,page 183: "... have been connected with diem. Liddell and Scott speak of "Trallians" as "Thracian barbarians employed in Asia as mercenaries, torturers, and executioners. ..."
  44. ^ Anabasis by H. G. Dakyns,2006,ISBN 1-4250-0949-2,page 321: "... his sway extended over the Melanditae, the Thynians, and the Tranipsae. Then the affairs of the Odrysians took ..."
  45. ^ Herodotus,"The Trausi in all else resemble the other Thracians, but have customs at births and deaths which I will now describe. When a child is born all its kindred sit round about it in a circle and weep for the woes it will have to undergo now that it is come into the world, making mention of every ill that falls to the lot of humankind; when, on the other hand, a man has died, they bury him with laughter and rejoicings, and say that now he is free from a host of sufferings, and enjoys the completest happiness." (Histories, 5.4)
  46. ^ History of Greece: Volume 3 by George Grote,ISBN 1-4021-7005-X,2001,page 253: "... to speak of several invasions, in which the Trêres, a Thracian tribe, were concerned, and which are not clearly dis- criminated; ..."
  47. ^ The Spartacus War by Barry Strauss,ISBN 1-4165-3205-6,2009,page 183: "... their women, who likely stood in the rear ranks. The Triballi, a tough Thracian people, ..."
  48. ^ The Cambridge ancient history Volume 3- page 599,by John Boardman - 1991 -"Pliny speaks of the Moesic tribes...but their names remain almost unknown; in the Roman period, the tribes of the Artakioi"
  49. ^ A Grammar Of Modern Indo-European: Language & Culture, Writing System & Phonology, Morphology And Syntax by Carlos Quiles,2007,page 74: "... did not put an end to the language, as Free Dacian tribes such as the Carpi may have continued to speak Dacian ..."
  50. ^ Getae,Britannica Online," an ancient people of Thracian origin, inhabiting the banks of the lower Danube region and nearby plains. First appearing in the 6th century bc, the Getae were subjected to Scythian influence and were known as expert mounted archers and devotees of the deity Zalmoxis. Although the daughter of their king became the wife of Philip II of Macedon in 342 bc, the Macedonians under Philip II’s son Alexander crossed the Danube and burned the Getic capital seven years later. Getic technology was influenced by that of the invading Celts in the 4th and 3rd centuries bc. Under Burebistas (fl. lst century bc), the Getae and nearby Dacians formed a powerful but short-lived state. By the middle of the following century, when the Romans had gained control over the lower Danube region, thousands of Getae were displaced, and, not long thereafter, references to the Getae disappeared from history. Later writers wrongly gave the name Getae to the Goths.The Getae and Dacians were closely related; some historians even suggest that these were names applied to a single people by different observers or at different times. Their culture is sometimes called Geto-Dacian. "
  51. ^ The Cambridge ancient history Volume 3,page 598,by John Boardman - 1991 ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8
  52. ^ a b c The Cambridge ancient history Volume 3,page 598,by John Boardman,1991,ISBN-0521227178,"Getic tribes were probably the Aedi,the Scaugdae and the Clariae ... They were known in antiquity as Getae"
  53. ^ Romania: An Illustrated History by Nicolae Klepper,2003,page 33: "... the Carps and the Roxolani), by Bastarns, and by Tyragetae (another Geto-Dacian tribe)
  54. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean, ISBN 0-415-41252-8, 2007, page 3: "... the Black Sea (where Dobrudja is today), and soon the Dacian Moesi took over the land between the Danube River and the ..."
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean, ISBN 0-415-41252-8, 2007, page 46
  56. ^ a b PTOLEMY'S MAPS OF NORTHERN EUROPE A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PROTOTYPES BY GUDMUND SCHUTTE PH. 1917 by Gudmund Schutte
  57. ^ John Boardman in his History wrote “However, a text of the Hellanicus associates the Crobyzi as well the Terizi (From the Tirizian promotory) with the Getae, who “immortalize” (Hdt IV94) that is “render immortal” by ritual. The Crobizi were a subgroup of the Getae tribes. Already known to Hecataeus they are grouped by Herodotus with Thracians” The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 598
  58. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 598: "The cultural level of some Getic tribes was so low that they lived in 'houses' dug into the earth (such underground villages are know among Phrygians and Armenians).The Greeks called them Troglodytae"
  59. ^ Anabasis by H. G. Dakyns,2006,ISBN 1-4250-0949-2,page 321: "... his sway extended over the Melanditae, the Thynians, and the Tranipsae. Then the affairs of the Odrysians took ..."
  60. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 601: "Earlier certain tribes of the Maedi emigrated to Asia minor were they were known by the name of the MaedoBythini"
  61. ^ Early symbolic systems for communication in Southeast Europe, Part 2 by Lolita Nikolova,ISBN 1-84171-334-1,2003,page 529,"eastern Paionians (Agrianians and Laeaeans)"
  62. ^ The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, Richard Crawley, and Victor Davis Hanson,1998,ISBN 0-684-82790-5,page 153,"... of them still live round Physcasb- and the Almopians from Almopia. ..
  63. ^ Early symbolic systems for communication in Southeast Europe, Part 2 by Lolita Nikolova,ISBN 1-84171-334-1,2003,page 529,"eastern Paionians (Agrianians and Laeaeans)"
  64. ^ The Cambridge ancient history The Cambridge Ancient History, Martin Percival Charlesworth, ISBN 0-521-85073-8, 9780521850735 Volume 4 of Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, C. 525 to 479 B.C, John Boardman,page 252,"The Paeonians were the earlier owners of some of these mines, but after their defeat in the coastal sector they maintained their independence in the mainland and coined large denominations in the upper Strymon and the Upper Axius area in the names of the Laeaei and the Derrones"
  65. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen,2005,ISBN 0-19-814099-1,page 854,""... Various tribes have occupied this part of Thrace: Bisaltians (lower Strymon valley), Odomantes (the plain to the north of the Strymon) ...""
  66. ^ Paeonian,Britannica Online
  67. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 315, "... was that a number of Paeonian tribes - the Siriopaeones, Paeoplae, ..."
  68. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 452,"... Then he passed through the country of the Doberes and Paeoplae (Paeonian tribes living north of Pangaeum), and continued in a ..."
  69. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,ISBN 0-14-044908-6,2003,page 315, "... was that a number of Paeonian tribes - the Siriopaeones, Paeoplae, ..."
  70. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 7.73. "The Phrygian equipment was very similar to the Paphlagonian, with only a small difference. As the Macedonians say, these Phrygians were called Briges as long as they dwelt in Europe, where they were neighbors of the Macedonians; but when they changed their home to Asia, they changed their name also and were called Phrygians. The Armenians, who are settlers from Phrygia, were armed like the Phrygians. Both these together had as their commander Artochmes, who had married a daughter of Darius."
  71. ^ The Armenians, Anne Elizabeth Redgate,Edition: illustrated, reprint Blackwell Publishing, 2000, ISBN 0-631-22037-2
  72. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 1015: "... *Priam relates that he went as an ally to a Phrygian army gathered under Mygdon and ... of the Thracian or Phrygian Mygdones. H.J. R Myia, daughter of *Pythagoras (1), is called a ..."
  73. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century bc.It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin"
  74. ^ Dio Cassius: Roman History, Volume IX, Books 71-80 (Loeb Classical Library No. 177) by Dio Cassius, Earnest Cary, and Herbert B. Foster,1927,Index: "... 9, 337, 353 Seras, philosopher, condemned to death, 8. 361 Serdi, Thracian tribe defeated by M. Crassus, 6. 73 Seretium,
  75. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0-631-19807-5,Page 140,"... Autariatae at the expense of the Triballi until, as Strabo remarks, they in their turn were overcome by the Celtic Scordisci in the early third century Sc. ..."
  76. ^ Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World: Essays and Reflections by Frank W. Walbank, ISBN 0-521-81208-9,2002,Page 116,"... in A7P 60 (1939) 452 8, is not Antigonus Doson but barbarians from the mainland (either l'hracians or Gauls from Tylis) (cf. Rostovtzrf[and Welles (1940) 207-8, Rostovize0'(1941) 111, 1645), nor has that inscription anything to do with the Cavan expedition. On ..."
  77. ^ How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower by Adrian Goldsworthy,ISBN 0-300-13719-2,2009,page 105,"... who had moved to the Hungarian Plain. Another tribe, the Bastarnae, may or may not have been Germanic. ..."
  78. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,2001,page 12: "... never got near the main body of Roman infantry. The Bastarnae (either Celts or Germans, and `the bravest nation on earth' - Livy ..."
  79. ^ a b Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean, ISBN 0-415-41252-8, 2007, page 47
  80. ^ a b c Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza,ISBN 0-7618-4465-1,2009,page 51: "In a short time the Dacians imposed their conditions on the Anerati,Boii,Eravisci,Pannoni,Scordisci,"
  81. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber and Angus Mcbride,2001,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,page 16: "... back, which could be to accommodate a top-knot. Among the Agathyrsi (a Skythian tribe living near the Thracians, and practising some Thracian customs) the nobles also dyed their ..."
  82. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0-631-19807-5.,Page 85,"... Whether the Dardanians were an Illyrian or a Thracian people has been much debated and one view suggests that the area was originally populated with..."
  83. ^ a b Strabo,"To the Dardaniatae belong also the Galabrii, among whom is an ancient city, and the Thunatae,"
  84. ^ Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza,ISBN 0-7618-4465-1,2009,page 51: "... Many Scordisci and Breuci settled in Dacia nevertheless and were eventually absorbed into the local population. Among ..."
  85. ^ a b c ALBURNUS MAIOR (Roşia Montană) Alba, Romania.,"An important settlement, center of gold mining in Roman Dacia Superior, in the Apuseni mountains. In the hills of Cetatea Mare and Cetatea Mică traces are preserved of ancient Roman mines.Under Trajan Dalinatian colonists (Pirustae, Baridustae, Sardeates) settled here, each tribe dwelling in a separate village or quarter.

See also


List of rulers of Thrace and Dacia

Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585

This article lists rulers of Thrace and Dacia or parts of them whether Thracian, Paeonian, Celtic, Dacian, Scythian, Persian or Ancient Greek till its fall to the Roman empire. The mythological figures originate from Greek mythology.

Mythological[1]

Thracian king Rhesus slain by Odysseus

Persian

The Persian Empire in 490 BC

Tribal kings

Thracian tribes before the Roman period.

[edit] Paeonian

Paeonia,tribes and Environs

[edit] Celtic

[edit] Greek

Map of the territory of Philip II of Macedon

[edit] Odrysae

Map of the Odrysian kingdom

Genealogy of Teres founder of the Odrysian kingdom

It should be noted that Thracian kings (and some of the Getae[32]) were the first to be Hellenized[33]. Odrysian kings though called Kings of Thrace never exercised sovereignty over all of Thrace[34]. Control varied according to tribal relationships.[35]

Astaean line

Scythian

 Sapaean[39]

Thrace and Dacia as Roman provinces
  • Roman caretaker rules Rhoemetalces III part of Thrace 26-38

Getic and Dacian

Dacia

Herodotus about Getae-Dacians "the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes."

 References

  1. ^ Greek Mythology by Carlos Parada
  2. ^ Carlos Parada,"Orpheus, king of the Ciconians"
  3. ^ Tereus,"Tereus 1 is the cruel Thracian king who helped King Pandion 2 of Athens in his war against King Labdacus 1 of Thebes, and having received one of his daughters seduced the other"
  4. ^ Phineus,"Phineus is the blind king and seer"
  5. ^ Poltys,"Poltys. An Aenian who entertained Heracles when he came to Aenus in Thrace. He was son of Poseidon [Apd.2.5.9]."
  6. ^ Harpalyce (Ἁρπαλύκη).,"1. A daughter of Harpalycus, king of the Amymnaeans in Thrace. As she lost her mother in her infancy, she was brought up by her father with the milk of cows and mares, and was trained in all manly exercises. After the death of her father, whom she had once delivered from the hand of the Myrmidones, she spent her time in the forests as a robber, being so swift in running that horses were unable to overtake her. At length, however, she was caught in a snare by shepherds, who killed her. (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. 1.321; Hyg. Fab. 193.)"
  7. ^ Peiros, Peiros. Thracian leader, son of Imbrasus and father of Rhigmus. He was killed by Thoas 2, Leader of the Aetolians (Hom.Il.4.520ff., 20.484ff.).
  8. ^ Rhesus Rhesus 2 is chiefly remembered because he came from Thrace to defend Troy with great pomp and circumstance, but died on the night of his arrival, without ever engaging in battle.
  9. ^ Polymestor,"Polymestor 1 (Polymnestor). This is the king of the Bistonians in Thrace"
  10. ^ Carnabon,"Carnabon. King of the Getae in Thrace who came into power when grain was first given to men [see also Lyncus, and CONSTELLATIONS] [Hyg.Ast.2.14]."
  11. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 41: "... Trixae and Sophocles (Triptolem, FR 547) mentions a local king, Charnabon, as a typical anti-hero. ..."
  12. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,ISBN 0-19-860641-9,"page 1515,"The Thracians were subdued by the Persians by 516"
  13. ^ The Histories by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt,page 373: "... 500 mercenaries, and married Hegesipyle, daughter of the Thracian King Olorus. ..."
  14. ^ Plutarch's Lives by Plutarch,2008,ISBN 1-4404-1432-7,page 183: "... Danube, and by winning a signal victory over Syrmus, the King of the Triballi. After this, as he heard that the Thebans had revolted, ..."
  15. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 1515: "... *Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, and *Cicero calls Rabocentus, chief of the Bessi, a faithful ally, although hitherto they had been troublesome (Cic. ..."
  16. ^ Polyaenus: Stratagems - BOOK 7 ,The generals of the Cebrenii and Sycaeboae, two Thracian tribes, were chosen from among the priests of Hera. Cosingas, according to the tradition of the country, was elected to be their priest and general; but the army took some objection to him, and refused to obey him. To suppress the rebelliousness that had taken hold of the troops, Cosingas built a number of long ladders, and fastened them one to another. He then put out a report, that he had decided to climb up to heaven, in order to inform Hera of the disobedience of the Thracians. The Thracians, who are notoriously stupid and ridiculous, were terrified by the idea of their general's intended journey, and the resulting wrath of heaven. They implored him not to carry out his plan, and they promised with an oath to obey all of his future commands.
  17. ^ The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998,ISBN 0-19-815047-4,page 106
  18. ^ Ancient Coins of Greek Cities and Kings: From Various Collections Principally in Great Britain by James Millingen,2004,page 42: "... silver mines so renowned in history. A coin of Geta, king of the Edones, with the legend FETAI HAONEON BAIIAEYI of the same types, ..."
  19. ^ Catalogue of Greek Coins: Thessaly to Aetolia by Percy Gardner, 2004,Front Matter: "... present to the money of Philip II. of Macedon, and Lycceius and Audoleon, kings of Paeonia, that they must be given ..."
  20. ^ Patraus's coin
  21. ^ A Guide to the Principal Gold and Silver Coins of the Ancients: From Circ. B. C. 700 to a. D. 1. (1895) by British Museum Dept. of Coins and Medals, 2009,page 62: "... of Athena, facing. Bee. AYAnA EONTOZ. Horse. Wt. 193.4 grs. Patraus and his son Audoleon reigned over Paaonia between B.C. 340 ..."
  22. ^ Polyaenus, Stratagems of War, 4.12.3,"Lysimachus conducted Ariston, son of Autoleon, to his father's kingdom in Paeonia; under pretence that the royal youth might be acknowledged by his subjects, and treated with due respect. But as soon as he had bathed in the royal baths in the river Arisbus, and they had set before him an elegant banquet, according to the custom of his country, Lysimachus ordered his guards to arm. Ariston instantly mounted his horse and escaped to the land of the Dardani; and Lysimachus was left in possession of Paeonia."
  23. ^ a b Pausanias, Description of Greece Phocis and Ozolian Locri,10.13.1,"A bronze head of the Paeonian bull called the bison was sent to Delphi by the Paeonian king Dropion, son of Leon".
  24. ^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe (Oxford Illustrated Histories) by Barry Cunliffe,2001,page 380
  25. ^ Strabo,Geography(7.5.2),"A part of this country was laid waste by the Dacians when they subdued the Boii and Taurisci, Celtic tribes under the rule of Critasirus"
  26. ^ Celts and the Classical World by David Rankin,ISBN 0-415-15090-6,1996,page 189: "... and destroyed it. According to Polybius, the last of the kings of Tylis, Cavarus, was a man of magnanimity and regal character (8.24). ..."
  27. ^ The Ancient Celts by Barry Cunliffe,ISBN 0-14-025422-6,2000,page 86: "... distinguished suggests that one of the returning groups, led by Bathanatos, finally settled in the Middle Danube region at the confluence ..."
  28. ^ Celts - a History, The by Daithi O HOgain,ISBN 1-905172-20-6,2006,page 60,"... those who, on their return from Greece under their leader Bathanatos, had settled at the confluence of the Danube and the ..."
  29. ^ Heckel, Waldemar. Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire. Blackwell Publishing, 2006, ISBN 1-4051-1210-7, p. 155. "In 306 or 305, he assumed the title of "King", which he held until his death at Corupedium in 282/1."
  30. ^ Heckel, Waldemar. Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire. Blackwell Publishing, 2006, ISBN 1-4051-1210-7, p. 155. "In 323 Lysimachus was assigned control of Thrace, and was probably strategos rather than satrap. The subordinate position of strategos may account for the failure of the sources to mention Lysimachus in the settlment of Triparadeisus; his brother Autodicus was, however, named as a Somatophylax of Philip III at that time
  31. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,2001,page 11,"Philip V of Macedon occupied all the cities in Thrace up to the Hellespont,"
  32. ^ The Thracians, 700 BC - AD 46 by Christopher Webber,ISBN 1-84176-329-2, 9781841763293,2001,page 14,"It shows a Hellenised king of the Getae"
  33. ^ The Peloponnesian War: A Military Study (Warfare and History) by J. F. Lazenby,2003,page 224,"... number of strongholds, and he made himself useful fighting `the Thracians without a king' on behalf of the more Hellenized Thracian kings and their Greek neighbours (Nepos, Alc. ...
  34. ^ The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998,ISBN 0-19-815047-4,page 105
  35. ^ The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998,ISBN 0-19-815047-4,page 107
  36. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms) by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride,2001,ISBN 1-84176-329-2,page 5
  37. ^ The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998,ISBN 0-19-815047-4,page 104
  38. ^ Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations by D. Brendan Nagle and Stanley M. Burstein,ISBN 0-19-517825-4,2006,page 26: "... Ariapeithes, the Scythian king, had several sons, among them, ... by Spargapeithes, king of the Agathyrsi; whereupon Scylas succeeded to the throne, and married one of ..."
  39. ^ Thracian Kings, University of Michigan
  40. ^ Thracian Kings, University of Michigan,"On the death of the last Astaean king in 11 BC, the emperor Augustus conferred all Thrace to his Sapaean uncle Roimētalkēs I. In 46, on the murder of Roimētalkēs III by his wife, the kingdom of Thrace was annexed to the Roman Empire by the emperor Claudius I."
  41. ^ Atlas of Classical History by R. Talbert,1989,page 63,"Getae under Cothelas"
  42. ^ The Hellenistic Age from the Battle of Ipsos to the Death of Kleopatra VII by Stanley M. Burstein,1985,Index Rhemaxos Getic or Scythian ruler
  43. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,Index Dromichaetes King of the Getians
  44. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,Index Rubobostes Dacian King
  45. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 53,"Dacian King Oroles"
  46. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 47,"Dicomes of the Getians"
  47. ^ The Roman History: The Reign of Augustus by Cassius Dio, Ian Scott-Kilvert, and John Carter,1987,page 85: "... Then he completed their destruction with the help of Roles, the king of a tribe of the Getae. When Roles visited Octavian, he was treated as a friend ..."
  48. ^ Cassius Dio. Roman History, Book LI. "While he was thus engaged, Roles, who had become embroiled with Dapyx, himself also king of a tribe of the Getae, sent for him. Crassus went to his aid, and by hurling the horse of his opponents back upon their infantry he so thoroughly terrified the latter also that what followed was no longer a battle but a great slaughter of fleeing men of both arms. Next he cut off Dapyx, who had taken refuge in a fort, and besieged him. In the course of the siege someone hailed him from the walls in Greek, obtained a conference with him, and arranged to betray the place. The barbarians, thus captured, turned upon one another, and Dapyx was killed along with many others. His brother, however, Crassus took alive, and not only did him no harm but actually released him."
  49. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 48,"The Dacian king Cotiso"
  50. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 146,"Zyraxes who ruled in Dobruja"
  51. ^ Studies in Ancient Greek and Roman Society by Robin Osborne,2004,page 128: "... of its citizens, named Akornion, went on an embassy to Burebista, the first and greatest of the kings in Thrace'"
  52. ^ Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,Index (Decaeneus/Dekaineus/Dicineus) Dacian High priest"
  53. ^ a b Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 72,"At least two of his succesors Comosicus and Scorillo/Corilus/Scoriscus became high priests and eventually Dacian kings"
  54. ^ a b Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 47 ,"Kings Coson (who minted his own coins) and Duras"
  55. ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis". http://www.roman-emperors.org/assobd.htm#t-inx. Retrieved 2007-11-08. "In the year 88, the Romans resumed the offensive. The Roman troops were now led by the general Tettius Iulianus. The battle took place again at Tapae but this time the Romans defeated the Dacians. For fear of falling into a trap, Iulianus abandoned his plans of conquering Sarmizegetuza and, at the same time, Decebalus asked for peace. At first, Domitian refused this request, but after he was defeated in a war in Pannonia against the Marcomanni (a Germanic tribe), the emperor was obliged to accept the peace."
  56. ^ inscription in Rome, Muratori 1039 and Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe Gudmmd Schotte
55) The histories by Herodotus, Donald Lateiner, G. C. Macaulay - 2004

See also

 ETHNOLOGY OF THE THRACIANS

(Summary) Rumjana Georgieva, Tosho Spiridonov, Maria Rejo (Univ. Press "Sv. Kliment Ohridski", Sofia, 1999) Text at: http://www.kroraina.com/thracia/ethno/thrac_ethnol.html

 The Hero God also Kown as the Thracian Horseman

Published by baksanir in Gods, History, Thracians
The Hero god, also known as the Thracian Horseman, as he was worshiped by the Thracians, was not a specific person. Although ancestor worship of real people who had done great deeds bled into it, the Thracian Hero was an abstract figure, the idea of a Hero. It is this metaphysical entity around which worship centered. The Hero was no doubt the central figure in Thracian religion, the hope and faith of the people. Their hero was all­seeing and all­hearing, he was the sun and also the ruler of the nether world, he was the protector of life and health, and kept the forces of evil at bay. In modern Bulgaria he continues to perform that function going by the name of St. George.

The Thracian Hero was depicted all the time, all over the place. Always on a horse, slaying something, slaying anything, usually with a spear. Over 1500 stone reliefs and more than 100 bronze statuettes of the Horseman have been uncovered on the territory of present-day Bulgaria and Romania. From antiquity, through Roman times, through the middle ages, and today, the immage of the Horseman is inescapable in Bulgaria.

The Thracian Hero is also responsible for the Greek word ‘Heros’ from which the English word ‘hero’ is derived.

 

The Hero god also known as the Thracian Horseman
This hero-god was a war-god, he was the son of Bendis {The Great Mother of Gods} and her lover. He was worshipped at hundreds of sanctuaries, peasants are still making pilgrimages to one of Bulgaria’s main Thracian Horseman sanctuaries, in fact that is how a lot of Thracian archeological sites in Bulgaria have been found.Arheologists just followed the local people to the places where they performed their “Christian” rituals, in fact the rituals and celebrations were {Like St. Trifon} Christian only by name. In most cases the peasants didn’t even know that the places they went to were ex-Thracian altar sites, they had simply been going there since time in memorial, only after the archeologists dug the site, did the people see the Thracian altars. 1000 years earlier the Church had done a very good job of burying “pagan” alters, and erasing the “pagan” names, but it couldn’t change, or eliminate the culture and rituals. Today St. George is the Hero’s new name. You can see images of St. George on a horse, slaying a dragon, all over Bulgaria.Here’s the evolution of the Thracian Hero over the centuries.
The Hero god also known as the Thracian Horseman
The Thracian Horseman
The Hero god also known as the Thracian Horseman
The Madara Rider
The Hero god also known as the Thracian Horseman

St. George
 
Thracian Chariots
 Text and picture at: http://international.ibox.bg/news/id_916079967
 
The archaeological summer in the Bulgarian region of Sliven continues even in November. Archaeologists from Nova Zagora discovered a well-preserved chariot from the funeral of a Thracian aristocrat.
The discovery was made at the so called East mound near the village of Karanovo. The chariots has four wheels and a basket, informs sliveninfo.
The specialists believe it dates back to 1-3 century AD. The archaeologists claim they have stumbled on a secondary funeral in the Thracian mound.
The archaeologists are working in very unfavorable climate conditions and at an unusual time because of the treasure hunters raids.
A month ago the minister of culture announced it will finance a 24-security of the Mound in Karanovo exactly because of the robbers, who are destroying the historical heritage.
Additional funds were given for urgent investigations because of which the archaeologist continued to dig in November as well. It is believed that five years ago the treasure hunters have stolen another chariot.

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thracians

Thracian Warfare

 Cavalry armament for all Thracians except the Getae consisted of 2 cornel wood javelins that could be thrust with or thrown, plus the usual Kopis. The Getae often used bows instead of javelins, and the akinakes instead of the kopis. Thracian tribes also used more exotic weapons such as spiked axles, or carts rolled down steep hills. Thracians were known for their hit and run tactics consisting of random melee attacks followed by quick retreats. The backbone of the Thracian military were the Thracian Peltast, a type of light infantry that was equally at home fighting hand-to-hand and at a distance (throwing javelins). Peltast were unarmoured except for their curved shields. They carried some form of short sword or melee weapon and an assortment of javelins. The wealthy nobility wore helmets with pointed tops in order to accommodate their top-knot hairstyles.

The Thracians were extremely patralineal. Apart from practicing polygamy, men considered women placed on earth to pleasure men. Thracians considered death an honor and accepted it as a natural part of life. The Thracians were extremely proud people. If a man's father was murdered, it was considered practical to slaughter the murderer, his family (extended), and his livestock. Also, upon the death of a husband, the wives would fight over who was loved more by the deceased. Usually determined by the winner of a match to the death. The wives would tie their left legs together and fight with strips of cowhide and a staff. The winner of this death match would then commit suicide and be given the honor of being buried at the right hand of her husband. Centuries later the Thracians were gradually assimilated into the Dacians, a culture thought to be the ancestral Romanian people, and perhaps of early Thracian descent.

Thracians

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thracians

"Thracian" redirects here. For other uses, see Thracian (disambiguation).

The ancient Thracians (Greek: Θρᾴκες) were a group of Indo-European tribes who spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. Those peoples inhabited the Eastern, Central and Southern part of the Balkan peninsula, as well as the adjacent parts of Central-Eastern Europe.[1]

 Etymology

The first historical record about the Thracians is found in the Iliad, where they are described as allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War against the Greeks.[2] The ethnonym Thracian comes from Ancient Greek Θρᾷξ (pl. Θρᾷκες) or Θρᾴκιος (Ionic: Θρηίκιος), and the toponym Thrace comes from Θρᾴκη (Ion. Θρῄκη).[3] Both names are exonyms developed by the Greeks,[4] but are based on the native Thracian term for Thrace (Zraykā) which appears in the first century AD inscription of Flavius Dizalas.[5] According to Romanian linguist and Thracologist Sorin Mihai Olteanu, the ethnonym Thraikios (Θρᾴκιος: Ancient Greek for "Thracian") appears to have the same etymology as Graikos (Γραικός).[5]

 Mythological foundation

In Greek mythology, Thrax (by his name simply the quintessential Thracian) was regarded as one of the reputed sons of the god Ares.[6] In the Alcestis, Euripides mentions that one of the names of Ares himself was Thrax since he was regarded as the patron of Thrace (his golden or gilded shield was kept in his temple at Bistonia in Thrace).[7] 

Origins and ethnogenesis

The origins of the Thracians remain obscure, in absence of written historical records. Evidence of proto-Thracians in the prehistoric period depends on remains of material culture. It is generally proposed that a proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of Proto-Indo-European expansion in the Early Bronze Age[8] when the latter, around 1500 BC, conquered the indigenous peoples.[9] We speak of proto-Thracians from which during the Iron Age[10] (about 1000 BC) as Dacians and Thracians begin developing as we cannot identify Thracians during the Bronze Age

 Identity and distribution

Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not manage to form a lasting political organization until the Odrysian state was founded in the 4th century BC. Like the Illyrians, the mountainous regions were home to various warlike and ferocious Thracian tribes, while the plains peoples were apparently more peaceable, owing to more contact and influence from the Greeks.

Thracians inhabited parts of the ancient provinces: Thrace, Moesia, Macedonia, Dacia, Scythia Minor, Sarmatia, Bithynia, Mysia, Pannonia, and other regions on the Balkans and Anatolia. This area extends over most of the Balkans region, and the Getae north of the Danube as far as beyond the Bug.[11]

 History

 Archaic period

Thracian tribes and heroes.

These Indo-European peoples, while considered barbarian and rural by their refined and urbanized Greek neighbors, had developed advanced forms of music, poetry, industry, and artistic crafts. Aligning themselves in petty kingdoms and tribes, they never achieved any form of national unity beyond short, dynastic rules at the height of the Greek classical period. Similar to the Gauls and other Celtic tribes, most people are thought to have lived simply in small fortified villages, usually on hilltops. Although the concept of an urban center wasn't developed until the Roman period, various larger fortifications which also served as regional market centers were numerous. Yet, in general, despite Greek colonization in such areas as Byzantium, Apollonia and other cities, the Thracians avoided urban life.

The first Greek colonies in Thrace were founded in the 8th century BC.[12]

Thrace south of the Danube (except for the land of the Bessi) was ruled for nearly half a century by the Persians under Darius the Great, who conducted an expedition into the region from 513 BC to 512 BC. The Persians called Thrace Skudra.[13] 

 Classical period

Map of the territory of Philip II of Macedon.

By the 5th century BC, the Thracian presence was pervasive enough to have made Herodotus[14] call them the second-most numerous people in the part of the world known by him (after the Indians), and potentially the most powerful, if not for their lack of unity. The Thracians in classical times were broken up into a large number of groups and tribes, though a number of powerful Thracian states were organized, such as the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace and the Dacian kingdom of Burebista. A type of soldier of this period called the Peltast probably originated in Thrace.

During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers, priests and prophets.

In that period, contacts between the Thracians and Classical Greece intensified which led to strengthening Greek influences in Thracian society, culture, and handcrafts and vice versa. Because their language had no written tradition, in some regions the Thracian aristocracy and administration used classical Greek and Thracian merchants utilized it as a 'lingua franca' in their contacts with other non-Thracian tribes. As a result, a level of Hellenization was observed in the following centuries which was more deeply imposed by the Macedonian conquests over the Thracian territory in the 3rd century BC.

Before the expansion of the kingdom of Macedon, Thrace was divided into three camps (East, Central, and West) after the withdrawal of the Persians. A notable ruler of the East Thracians was Cersobleptes, who attempted to expand his authority over many of the Thracian tribes. He was eventually defeated by the Macedonians.

Thracian civilisation was not urban and the largest Thracian cities were in fact large villages. The Thracians were typically not city-builders[15][16] and their only polis was Seuthopolis.[17][18]  

Hellenistic period

Kingdom of Lysimachus and the Diadochi.

The region was conquered by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC and was ruled by the kingdom of Macedon for a century and a half. Lysimachus of the Diadochi and other Hellenistic rulers ruled part or parts of Thrace till its fall to the Romans. Thracian kings were the first to be Hellenized.[19] Greek clothing replaced the old Thracian garbs until the Thracians looked like Greeks.[20] After some time, most but not all Thracians became Hellenised.[21] Their language and material culture became Hellenic.

In 279 BC, Celtic Gauls advanced into Macedonia, Southern Greece and Thrace. They were soon forced out of Macedonia and Southern Greece, but they remained in Thrace until the end of the century. From Thrace, three Celtic tribes advanced into Anatolia and formed a new kingdom called Galatia.

During the Macedonian Wars, conflict between Rome and Thracia was inevitable. The destruction of the ruling parties in Macedonia destabilized their authority over Thrace, and its tribal authorities began to act once more on their own accord. After the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC, Roman authority over Macedonia seemed inevitable, and the governing of Thracia passed to Rome. Neither the Thracians nor the Macedonians had yet resolved themselves to Roman dominion, and several revolts took place during this period of transition. The revolt of Andriscus in 149 BC, as an example, drew the bulk of its support from Thracia. Several incursions by local tribes into Macedonia continued for many years, though there were tribes who willingly allied themselves to Rome, such as the Deneletae and the Bessi.

Following the Third Macedonian War, Thracia came to acknowledge Roman authority. The client state of Thracia comprised several different tribes.

 Roman rule

Map of the Diocese of Thrace (Dioecesis Thraciae) ca. 400 AD.

The next century and a half saw the slow development of Thracia into a permanent Roman client state. The Sapaei tribe came to the forefront initially under the rule of Rhascuporis. He was known to have granted assistance to both Pompey and Caesar, and later supported the Republican armies against Antonius and Octavian in the final days of the Republic. The familiar heirs of Rhascuporis were then as deeply tied into political scandal and murder as were their Roman masters. A series of royal assassinations altered the ruling landscape for several years in the early Roman imperial period. Various factions took control, with the support of the Roman Emperor. The turmoil would eventually stop with one final assassination.

After Rhoemetalces III of the Thracian Kingdom of Sapes was murdered in 46 by his wife, Thracia was incorporated as an official Roman province to be governed by Procurators, and later Praetorian Prefects. The central governing authority of Rome was based in Perinthus, but regions within the province were uniquely under the command of military subordinates to the governor. The lack of large urban centers made Thracia a difficult place to manage, but eventually the province flourished under Roman rule. However, Romanization was not attempted in the province of Thracia. It is considered that most of the Thracians were Hellenized in these times.

Roman authority of Thracia rested mainly with the legions stationed in Moesia. The rural nature of Thracia's populations, and distance from Roman authority, certainly inspired the presence of local troops to support Moesia's legions. Over the next few centuries, the province was periodically and increasingly attacked by migrating Germanic tribes. The reign of Justinian saw the construction of over 100 legionary fortresses to supplement the defense.

Thracians in Moesia and Dacia were Romanized while those within the Byzantine Empire remained Hellenized.

The Byzantines used the rhomphaia, an exclusively Thracian weapon, although it was most likely used by a few infantry units dating somewhere between Byzantium's golden age of 900-1071 and perhaps even earlier.[22] It was a falx-like weapon[23] that Michael Psellus writes was used without exception by all Varangians.[24] 

War

Thracian peltast, 5th-4th century BC.

The history of Thracian warfare spans from ca. 10th century BC up to the 1st century AD in the region defined by Ancient Greek and Latin historians as Thrace. It concerns the armed conflicts of the Thracian tribes and their kingdoms in the Balkans. Apart from conflicts between Thracians and neighboring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Thracian tribes too.

Thracian Roman era "heros" (Sabazius) stele.
Barbarians

Thracians were regarded as warlike, ferocious, and bloodthirsty.[25][26]

Thracians were seen as "barbarians" by other peoples, namely the ancient Greeks and Romans. Plato in his Republic considers them, along with the Scythians,[27] extravagant and high spirited and his Laws considers them war-like nations grouping them with Celts, Persians, Scythians, Iberians and Carthagianians.[28] Polybius wrote of Cotys's sober and gentle character being unlike that of most Thracians.[29] Tacitus in his Annals writes of them being wild, savage and impatient disobedient even to their own kings.[30] Polyaenus and Strabo write who the Thracians broke their pacts of truce with trickery.[31][32] The Thracians used their weapons on each other before battle.[33][33] Diegylis was considered one of the most bloodthirsty chieftains by Diodorus Siculus. An Athenian club for lawless youths was named after the Triballi.[34] The Dii[35] were responsible for the worst[36] atrocities of the Peloponnesian War killing every living thing, including children and the dogs in Tanagra and Mycalessos.[35] Thracians would impale Roman heads on their spears and rhomphaias such as in the Kallinikos skirmish at 171 BC.[37] Herodotus writes that "they sell their children and let their wives commerce with whatever men they please".[38] 

 Religion

One notable cult that is attested from Thrace to Moesia and Scythia Minor is that of the "Thracian horseman", also known as the "Thracian Heros", at Odessos (Varna) attested by a Thracian name as Heros Karabazmos, a god of the underworld usually depicted on funeral statues as a horseman slaying a beast with a spear.[39][40][41]

Many mythical figures, such as the god Dionysus which the Greek refounded from the Thracian god Sabazios.[42] 

 Extinction

The ancient languages of these people had already gone extinct and their cultural influence was highly reduced due to the repeated barbaric invasions of the Balkans by Celts, Huns, Goths, and Sarmatians, accompanied by Hellenization, Romanisation and later Slavicisation.

After they were subjugated by Alexander the Great and consecutively by the Roman Empire, most of the Thracians eventually became Hellenized (in the province of Thrace)[43] or Romanised (in Moesia, Dacia). The Romanised tribes of the this region later became the ethnic substratum of the Vlach people (that first appeared in historical documents in the 10th century) who evolved into modern Romanians. In the 6th century, some Thraco-Romans and Hellenized Thracians south of the Danube River made contacts with the invading Slavs and were eventually Slavicised.

 Physical characteristics

Xenophanes described Thracians as having blue eyes and red hair.[44] Nevertheless academic studies have concluded that Thracians had physical characteristics typical of European Mediterraneans. According to Dr. Beth Cohen, Thracians had "the same dark hair and the same facial features as the Ancient Greeks."[45] Recent genetic analysis comparing DNA samples of ancient Thracian fossil material from southeastern Romania with individuals from modern ethnicities point to genetic kinship with modern Italian, Albanian and Greek populations, followed by Romanians and Bulgarians.[46

 Famous individuals

A fresco of a red-haired woman in the Ostrusha Mound in central Bulgaria.

This is a list of several important Thracian individuals or those of partly Thracian origin.

 Archaeology

Coin of Bergaios, a local Thracian king in the Pangaian District, Greece.
A gold Thracian treasure from Panagyurishte, Bulgaria.

The branch of science that studies the ancient Thracians and Thrace is called Thracology. The archaeological research of the Thracian culture started in the 20th century and especially after World War II, mainly on the territory of Southern Bulgaria. As a result of intensive excavation works in the 1960s and 1970s a number of Thracian tombs and sanctuaries were discovered. More significant among them are: the Tomb of Sveshtari, the Tomb of Kazanlak, Tatul, Seuthopolis, Perperikon, the Tomb of Aleksandrovo, Sarmizegetusa in Romania, etc.

Also a large number of elaborately crafted gold and silver treasure sets from the 5th and 4th century BC were unearthed. In the following decades those were exposed in museums around the world, thus gaining popularity and becoming an emblem of the ancient Thracian culture. Since the year 2000, Bulgarian archaeologist Georgi Kitov has made discoveries in Central Bulgaria which were summarized as "The Valley of the Thracian Kings".

 See also

 References

  1. ^ Christopher Webber, Angus McBride (2001). The Thracians, 700 BC–AD 46. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1841763292. 
  2. ^ Boardman, John (1970). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 836. ISBN 0521850738. 
  3. ^ Navicula Bacchi - Θρηικίη (Accessed: October 13, 2008).
  4. ^ John Boardman, I.E.S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N.G.L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 597. "We have no way of knowing what the Thracians called themselves and if indeed they had a common name...Thus the name of Thracians and that of their country were given by the Greeks to a group of tribes occupying the territory..."
  5. ^ a b Sorin Mihai Olteanu - The Thracian Palatal (Accessed: June 18, 2008).
  6. ^ Lemprière and Wright, p. 358. "Mars was father of Cupid, Anteros, and Harmonia, by the goddess Venus. He had Ascalaphus and Ialmenus by Astyoche; Alcippe by Agraulos; Molus, Pylus, Euenus, and Thestius, by Demonice the daughter of Agenor. Besides these, he was the reputed father of Romulus, Oenomaus, Bythis, Thrax, Diomedes of Thrace, &c."
  7. ^ Euripides, p. 95. "[Line] 58. 'Thrace's golden shield' - One of the names of Ares was Thrax, he being the Patron of Thrace. His golden or gilded shield was kept in his temple at Bistonia there. Like the other Thracian bucklers, it was of the shape of a half-moon ('Pelta'). His 'festival of Mars Gradivus' was kept annually by the Latins in the month of March, when this sort of shield was displayed."
  8. ^ Hoddinott, p. 27.
  9. ^ Casson, p. 3.
  10. ^ John Boardman, I.E.S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N.G.L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press, 1982, p. 53. "Yet we cannot identify the Thracians at that remote period, because we do not know for certain whether the Thracian and Illyrian tribes had separated by then. It is safer to speak of Proto-Thracians from whom there developed in the Iron Age..."
  11. ^ The catalogue of Kimbell Art Museum's 1998 exhibition Ancient Gold: The Wealth of the Thracians indicates a historical extent of Thracian settlement including most of the Ukraine, all of Hungary and parts of Slovakia. (Kimbell Art - Exhibitions)
  12. ^ Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 1515. "From the 8th century BC the coast Thrace was colonised by Greeks."
  13. ^ Susan Wise Bauer. The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome. W.W. Norton & Company, 2007, p. 517. "Megabazus turned Thrace into a new Persian satrapy, Skudra."
  14. ^ Herodotus. Histories, Book V.
  15. ^ John Boardman, I.E.S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N.G.L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 612. "Thrace possessed only fortified areas and cities such as Cabassus would have been no more than large villages. In general the population lived in villages and hamlets."
  16. ^ John Boardman, I.E.S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N.G.L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 612. "According to Strabo (vii.6.1cf.st.Byz.446.15) the Thracian -bria word meant polis but it is an inaccurate translation."
  17. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen. An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation. Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 888. "It was meant to be a polis but this was no reason to think that it was anything other than a native settlement."
  18. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride. The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms). Osprey Publishing, 2001, p. 1. "They lived almost entirely in villages; the city of Seuthopolis seems to be the only significant town in Thrace not built by the Greeks (although the Thracians did build fortified refuges)."
  19. ^ John Francis Lazenby. The Peloponnesian War: A Military Study (Warfare and History). Routledge, 2004, p. 224. "Probably he had a number of strongholds, and he made himself useful fighting 'the Thracians without a king' on behalf of the more Hellenized Thracian kings and their Greek neighbours..."
  20. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride. The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms). Osprey Publishing, 2001, p. 19.
  21. ^ Quiles, Carlos. A Grammar of Modern Indo-European. Carlos Quiles Casas, 2007, ISBN 8461176391, p. 76. "Most of the Thracians were eventually Hellenised - in the province of Thrace - or Romanized - Moesia, Dacia, etc. -, with the last remnants surviving in remote areas until the 5th century.
  22. ^ Ian Heath and Angus McBride. Byzantine Armies 886-1118. Osprey Publishing, 1979, p. 10. "One final weapon which needs to be mentioned is the rhomphaia, with which many Byzantine guardsmen were apparently armed."
  23. ^ Ian Heath and Angus McBride. Byzantine Armies 886-1118. Osprey Publishing, 1979, p. 10. "The most convincing theory however and the ones that seems to fit the little written and archeological evidence that is available is that it was a falx like weapon with a slightly curved blade of about the same length as its handle."
  24. ^ Ian Heath and Angus McBride. Byzantine Armies 886-1118. Osprey Publishing, 1979, p. 38. "Psellus, however, claims that every Varangian 'without exception' was armed with shield and rhomphaia, 'a one-edged sword of heavy iron which they carry suspended from the right shoulder' (perhaps meaning it was sloped across the right shoulder when not in use)."
  25. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride. The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms). Osprey Publishing, 2001, p. 1. "Perhaps the prospect of getting to the spoils explains Thucydides VII, 29: `For the Thracian race, like all the most bloodthirsty barbarians, are always particularly bloodthirsty when everything is going their own way.'
  26. ^ Duncan Head and Ian Heath. Armies of the Macedonian and Punic Wars 359 BC to 146 BC: Organisation, Tactics, Dress and Weapons. Wargames Research Group, 1982, p. 51.
  27. ^ Plato. The Republic: "Take the quality of passion or spirit;--it would be ridiculous to imagine that this quality, when found in States, is not derived from the individuals who are supposed to possess it, e.g. the Thracians, Scythians, and in general the northern nations;"
  28. ^ Plato. Laws: "Are we to follow the custom of the Scythians, and Persians, and Carthaginians, and Celts, and Iberians, and Thracians, who are all warlike nations, or that of your countrymen, for they, as you say, altogether abstain?"
  29. ^ Polybius. Histories, 27.12.
  30. ^ Tacitus. The Annals: "In the Consulship of Lentulus Getulicus and Caius Calvisius, the triumphal ensigns were decreed to Poppeus Sabinus for having routed some clans of Thracians, who living wildly on the high mountains, acted thence with the more outrage and contumacy. The ground of their late commotion, not to mention the savage genius of the people, was their scorn and impatience, to have recruits raised amongst them, and all their stoutest men enlisted in our armies; accustomed as they were not even to obey their native kings further than their own humour, nor to aid them with forces but under captains of their own choosing, nor to fight against any enemy but their own borderers."
  31. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. Book 7, The Thracians.
  32. ^ Strabo. History, 9.401 (9.2.4).
  33. ^ a b Polyaenus. Strategems. Book 7, Clearchus.
  34. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride. The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms). Osprey Publishing, 2001, p. 6.
  35. ^ a b Zofia Archibald. The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology). Clarendon Press, 1998, p. 100.
  36. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride. The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms). Osprey Publishing, 2001, p. 7.
  37. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride. The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms). Osprey Publishing, 2001, p. 34.
  38. ^ Herodotus (trans. G.C. Macaulay). The History of Herodotus (Volume II). "Of the other Thracians the custom is to sell their children to be carried away out of the country; and over their maidens they do not keep watch, but allow them to have commerce with whatever men they please, but over their wives they keep very great watch."
  39. ^ Lurker, Manfred (1987). Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses, Devils and Demons. p. 151. 
  40. ^ Nicoloff, Assen (1983). Bulgarian Folklore. p. 50. 
  41. ^ Isaac, Benjamin H. (1986). The Greek Settlements in Thrace Until the Macedonian Conquest. p. 257. 
  42. ^ Patricia Turner and Charles Russell Coulter. Dictionary of Ancient Deities. Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 152.
  43. ^ Quiles, p. 76. "Most of the Thracians were eventually Hellenized (in the province of Thrace)."
  44. ^ J. H. Lesher. Xenophanes of Colophon: Fragments. University of Toronto Press, 2001, p. 90. "Men make gods in their own image; those of the Ethiopians are black and snub-nosed, those of the Thracians have blue eyes and red hair."
  45. ^ Beth Cohen (ed.) Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art. Leiden, 2000.
  46. ^ Cardos, G., Stoian V., Miritoiu N., Comsa A., Kroll A., Voss S., Rodewald A., p. 246. "Computing the frequency of common point mutations of the present-day European population with the Thracian population has resulted that the Italian (7.9 %), the Alban (6.3 %) and the Greek (5.8 %) have shown a bias of closer genetic kinship with the Thracian individuals than the Romanian and Bulgarian individuals (only 4.2%)." 

 Sources

  • Best, Jan and De Vries, Nanny. Thracians and Mycenaeans. Boston, MA: E.J. Brill Academic Publishers, 1989. ISBN 90-04-08864-4.
  • Cardos, G., Stoian V., Miritoiu N., Comsa A., Kroll A., Voss S., Rodewald A. "Paleo-mtDNA analysis and population genetic aspects of old Thracian populations from South-East of Romania". Romanian Journal of Legal Medicine 12(4), pp. 239–246, 2004. (Article)
  • Casson, Lionel. "The Thracians". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 35, No. 1, (Summer, 1977), pp. 2-6.
  • Hoddinott, Ralph F. The Thracians. Thames & Hudson, 1981. ISBN 0-500-02099-X.
  • Irwin, E. Colour Terms in Greek Poetry. Hakkert, Toronto, 1974.
  • Quiles, Carlos. A Grammar of Modern Indo-European. Carlos Quiles Casas, 2007. ISBN 8461176391 

 External links


The Hungarian Point of View

At a time when wheel pottery became common in the Great Hungarian Plain and along the Lower Danube, the Transylvanian peoples continued to inter vessels of the earlier type.

There is no doubt that this early Iron Age people, with its strict rituals, was related to the Scythians. Herodotus, writing at the end of the 5th century B.C. (but using information recorded by Hecataeus at the end of the 6th century B.C.), claims that the Maros passed through the land of the Agathyrsi before joining the Danube;[1]1. Herodotus, IV, 48. and the Agathyrsi were neighbours of the Neuri,[2]2. Herodotus, IV, 125. who, however, lived along the Bug, hear the source of the Tyras (Dniester) River.[3]3. Herodotus, IV, 17, 51. Thus this information may have a bearing not only on Transylvania, but also on the eastern half, or indeed the whole of the Carpathian Basin.

When, at the end of the 6th century B.C., the Persian King Darius waged war in Europe against the Scythians, the Agathyrsi {1-39.} turned against the latter. This suggests a link, possibly an 'alliance' between Persians and Agathyrsi, and lends added significance to the epigraph of Darius found in Transylvania, at Szamosújvár.

According to Herodotus (or Hecataeus), the Agathyrsi were refined people who wore gold jewellery and practised polyandry (or, in a less likely interpretation, group marriage).[4]4. Herodotus, IV, 104. In any case, Hecataeus' information can hardly apply to the majority of Transylvanian cemeteries (Csombord type) that belong to the late period; it must refer to the earlier periods.

The Agathyrsi of Transylvania were still extending their domain around 500 B.C., and their characteristic products have been found in the eastern half of the Great Plain (Ártánd). When, at the beginning of the 5th century B.C., Wallachian (Ferigile culture) and mid-Balkan groups moved into the region, the Agathyrsi evacuate the Great Plain but live on peacefully in their Transylvanian settlements. Finds of metallic objects within and beyond the Carpathian Basin (mirrors, akinakai, quiver closures, etc.) indicate that they continued to supply Scythian objects to neighbouring and even distant regions.

However, the Greeks lose track of the Agathyrsi. Herodotus does mention one of their kings, Spargapeithes, who ruled around the middle of the 5th century B.C.,[5]5. Herodotus, IV, 78. but last to name them is Alexander the Great's teacher, Aristotle: he observes that they were law-abiding people who chanted their laws.[6]6. Aristotle, Problemata 19, 28. The Agathyrsi were still present in Transylvania around the middle of the 4th century B.C. Then, according to archaeological evidence, they cease to bury their dead in Agathyrsi cemeteries and disappear without a trace. Their emigration was prompted by the arrival of the Celts. The latter had appeared on the eastern flanks of the Balkan mountain range at the end of the 4th century B.C. It is known that the Celts sent peace emissaries to Alexander the Great in 335 B.C., and that subsequently Cassandros repelled their attacks in the Balkan mountains.

{1-40.} A depopulated Transylvania attracted Celtic groups in search of a new home. Archaeological evidence of their settlement dates mainly from the beginning of the 3rd century B.C.; the few earlier traces are the graves of warriors who had fought in the Balkans (?Oláhszilvás). Among the La Tène finds in Transylvania, those few objects that can be considered authentically Celtic were unearthed near the Érc Mountains (Nagyenyed, ?Oláhszilvás) and in the Sajó and Nagy-Szamos regions (Újős — if it really belongs here —, Erked, Csépán). Within the population of the Transylvanian part of future Dacia, only one group is of probably Celtic origin, the Kothinoi/Kothensioi.[7]7. Ptolemy, III, 8.3; ILS 8965. The other part of this tribe settled in the western part of the Hungarian North-Central mountain-range and, according to Tacitus, was engaged in the shameful activity of extracting iron ore.[8]8. Tacitus, Germania 43. Correlations between the data allow us to speculate that the Kothinoi of Dacia were descendants of the Celts who had settled in the 3rd century B.C. The latter formed a small if significant minority in Transylvania's population of the Celtic era.

Most of the new settlers were Dacians who came from the Great Plain (Vekerzug group). Despite the predominance of Celtic 'fashion', the earlier characteristics of the Dacians' material culture remain discernible in the widely disseminated, monochrome handicrafts — large pots, single-handled jugs, and small, curved knives. Most of the Late Iron Age cemeteries in Transylvania hold Dacian remains. The burial rites were as varied as in the Great Plain: some of the bodies were entombed, while others were cremated, their ashes being scattered in the bottom of the grave or buried in urns (Nagyenyed, Dipsa, Apahida, Újős).

The spread of wheel pottery, and of iron implements destined for agricultural use and household crafts, indicates the emergence of full-time craftsmen, who conceivably belonged to a distinct ethnic group such as Kothinoi. The presence of weapons, of numerous harnesses, and of war chariots in some settlements (Székelykeresztúr, Prázsmár) and the absence of arms in others (Apahida) {1-41.} suggests the existence of a ruling warrior aristocracy. Such a social structure indicates the production of a significant surplus, which, in turn, invited replacement of the barter system by monetary instruments of exchange in Transylvania and the adjoining regions.

The first 'eastern Celtic', or 'Dacian' coins to be minted were based on the tetradrachmas of Philip II and Alexander the Great; initially, both the original coins of the Macedonian kings and the imitations were in circulation. Minting is a faithful mirror of political change, for when, around 80 B.C., Burebista became ruler, the minting of copies of the Macedonian coins stopped. However, the contact between Transylvania and the 'Celtic world' had been severed earlier; the coins (scypathi) produced by local mints after 150 B.C. were seldom if ever used beyond the Carpathians and the Great Hungarian Plain.

From this point, and until the advent of the Dacian kingdom, the material culture of the Transylvanian Basin's population underwent a gradual transformation. Although striped, painted vessels were placed in graves as late as the 1st century B.C. (Baráthely-Paratély), and the traditions of ironworking endure, a new cultural dimension appears in the Pontus-type finds of 'Dacian forts' and 'Dacian silver hoards'. It seems that an important factor in this development was immigration from Wallachia and Moldavia, although it is still unclear whether the movement occurred within Burebista's kingdom or was a prelude to the establishment of that kingdom. In any case, evidence showing the union of Dacians and Getae under a single ruler belongs to the history of the Dacian kingdom, as does the close contact forged with Greek cities on the Black Sea.

 

 

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Jordanes - The Origin and Deeds of the Goths

 [Sidenote: THE THREE ABODES OF THE GOTHS]

We read that on their first migration the Goths dwelt 38
in the land of Scythia near Lake Maeotis. On the second
migration they went to Moesia, Thrace and Dacia, and
after their third they dwelt again in Scythia, above the
Sea of Pontus. Nor do we find anywhere in their
written records legends which tell of their subjection to
slavery in Britain or in some other island, or of their
redemption by a certain man at the cost of a single horse.
Of course if anyone in our city says that the Goths had an
origin different from that I have related, let him object.
For myself, I prefer to believe what I have read, rather
than put trust in old wives' tales.

To return, then, to my subject. The aforesaid race of     39
which I speak is known to have had Filimer as king while
they remained in their first home in Scythia near Maeotis.
In their second home, that is in the countries of Dacia,
Thrace and Moesia, Zalmoxes reigned, whom many writers
of annals mention as a man of remarkable learning in
philosophy. Yet even before this they had a learned man
Zeuta, and after him Dicineus; and the third was Zalmoxes
of whom I have made mention abo
ve. Nor did
they lack teachers of wisdom. Wherefore the Goths have 40
ever been wiser than other barbarians and were nearly
like the Greeks, as Dio relates, who wrote their history
and annals with a Greek pen. He says that those of noble
birth among them, from whom their kings and priests
were appointed, were called first Tarabostesei and then
Pilleati. Moreover so highly were the Getae praised that
Mars, whom the fables of poets call the god of war, was
reputed to have been born among them. Hence Virgil
says:

"Father Gradivus rules the Getic fields." 41

Now Mars has always been worshipped by the Goths
with cruel rites, and captives were slain as his victims.
They thought that he who is the lord of war ought to be
appeased by the shedding of human blood. To him they
devoted the first share of the spoil, and in his honor arms
stripped from the foe were suspended from trees. And
they had more than all other races a deep spirit of religion,
since the worship of this god seemed to be really
bestowed upon their ancestor.
In their third dwelling place, which was above the Sea 42
of Pontus, they had now become more civilized and, as I
have said before, were more learned. Then the people
were divided under ruling families. The Visigoths served
the family of the Balthi and the Ostrogoths served the
renowned Amali. They were the first race of men to 43
string the bow with cords, as Lucan, who is more of a
historian than a poet, affirms:

"They string Armenian bows with Getic cords."

[Sidenote: THE RIVER DON]

[Sidenote: THE DNIEPER]

 In earliest times they sang of the deeds of their ancestors
in strains of song accompanied by the cithara; chanting
of Eterpamara, Hanala, Fritigern, Vidigoia and
others whose fame among them is great; such heroes as
admiring antiquity scarce proclaims its own to be. Then, 44
as the story goes, Vesosis waged a war disastrous to
himself against the Scythians, whom ancient tradition
asserts to have been the husbands of the Amazons. Concerning
these female warriors Orosius speaks in convincing
language. Thus we can clearly prove that Vesosis
then fought with the Goths, since we know surely that he
waged war with the husbands of the Amazons. They
dwelt at that time along a bend of Lake Maeotis, from
the river Borysthenes, which the natives call the Danaper,
to the stream of the Tanais. By the Tanais I mean the 45
river which flows down from the Rhipaeian mountains
and rushes with so swift a current that when the neighboring
streams or Lake Maeotis and the Bosphorus are
frozen fast, it is the only river that is kept warm by the
rugged mountains and is never solidified by the Scythian
cold. It is also famous as the boundary of Asia and
Europe. For the other Tanais is the one which rises in
the mountains of the Chrinni and flows into the Caspian
Sea. The Danaper begins in a great marsh and issues 46
from it as from its mother. It is sweet and fit to drink
as far as half-way down its course. It also produces fish
of a fine flavor and without bones, having only cartilage
as the frame-work of their bodies. But as it approaches
the Pontus it receives a little spring called Exampaeus,
so very bitter that although the river is navigable for the
length of a forty days' voyage, it is so altered by the
water of this scanty stream as to become tainted and
unlike itself, and flows thus tainted into the sea between
the Greek towns of Callipidae and Hypanis. At its mouth
there is an island named Achilles. Between these two
rivers is a vast land filled with forests and treacherous
swamps.

From their name or race Pompeius Trogus says the     48
stock of the Parthians had its origin. Hence even to-day
in the Scythian tongue they are called Parthi, that is,
Deserters. And in consequence of their descent they are
archers--almost alone among all the nations of Asia--and
are very valiant warriors. Now in regard to the
name, though I have said they were called Parthi because
they were deserters, some have traced the derivation of
the word otherwise, saying that they were called Parthi
because they fled from their kinsmen. Now when this
Tanausis, king of the Goths, was dead, his people worshipped
him as one of their gods.

 
 

Illyrians, Thracians, and Getai

The earliest people recorded in the Balkans belonged to three tribal groups–the Illyrians, Thracians, and Getai. Historians are still out on the question if Thracians and Geto-Dacians were the same people or just closely related, Illyrians and Thracians were also related and are often referred to as “Thraco-Illyrian”.A German proverb says, Location is destiny. Bulgaria’s location has destined her to be in the vortex of history. In the Eastern Mediterranean, which is the home of some of the greatest civilizations the world has ever seen, and at the western edge of the Eurasian steppe, which is the melting pot of Eurasia and home to some of the greatest warriors that ever lived.

According to historians, the people of Bulgaria used to trade with the Mediterranean, and almost the whole of Europe and Asia as early as 7000 years BC. Bulgaria was populated by amazing ancient cultures. In 1972 after a tractor accidentally unearthed a stunning Chalcolithic cemetery near Bulgaria’s port city Varna, archaeologists discovered the oldest gold treasure in the world c. 4500-4000 BC.If the size of his burial trove and the scepter in his right hand are anything to judge by, this 6,000-year-old skeleton was once an important ruler in the ancient Balkans. His grave site was excavated along with about 300 other burials, stocked with over 3,000 gold artifacts: bracelets, beads, pectorals and appliques – the oldest hoard of gold ever found in the world. The rich assortment of gold and copper ornaments found in many of the graves reveal that Bulgaria was a center of wealth and metallurgy 6 thousand years ago.

Isn’t it really amazing ??? I know it is :)

It is assumed that by approximately 3200BC Bulgaria was already populated by Thracians.

Thracian - maybe the oldest tribe who has populated Bulgarian lands

This is what a Thracian warrior is supposed to have looked like. The hat he’s wearing is a fox­-skin hat. Bulgaria’s climate is known for it’s hot summers and cold winters, the highest mountain peak in the Balkans – , is also in Bulgaria. It is cool up there, even on the hottest summer’s day.

Musala peak in Rila Mountain - highest bulgarian peak

Here’s what Casson says about the difference in climate between Thrace and Greece:

Homecoming movie

“The extremes, however, are great. A mean temperature in winter months only a little above freezing point, and a summer mean maximum well above 80 degrees, is such as to eliminate the unfit. Southern Greece has no such extremes.” It was in southern Thrace that Xenophon operated:

“… and a number of Greeks lost their noses and ears through frostbite. It was then easy to see why the Thracians wear fox-­skins around their heads and ears, and why they have tunics {zeira} that cover their legs and not only the upper part of the body.” {Greek tunics covered only the upper body.}

It is still possible to see people wearing fox-skin caps in the Rhodope Mountains today, although it is very rare now, the ones from the stores are cheaper and the better ones are warmer. The high leather boots embades were also important for the Thracian winter.



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