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Vlachs and Bulgarians



Bulgars before Baptism (632-864)

Bulgarians after Christianization Coexisting with Long Time Christian Vlachs

Slavs, Bulgars and Magyars on Vlach Land

The Hungarian Point of View


Slavs, Bulgars and Magyars on Vlach Land

Slavs, Bulgars and Magyars
The Slavs

The Slavs spoke an Indo-European language, suggesting they were Aryan. They were polytheists, with shamans and belief in sacrificing creatures as gifts to the gods. The Slavs expanded in various directions from the plains north of the Black Sea. Moving northward, they followed rivers, passed through forests and mixed with Finns and Baltic peoples. From the 540s to the 580s they moved south into the Balkans -- a part of Constantinople's empire -- as far south as central Greece, and they approached Adrianople. Constantinople's Byzantine emperor, Maurice, who ruled from 582 to 602 and spent many years warring against them, wrote:
The History of the Balkan Peninsula, by Ferdinand Schevill, 1922, p. 75.
They have abundance of cattle and grain, chiefly millet and rye, but rulers they cannot bear and they live side by side in disunion. [note]
Slavs in the Balkans have been also been described as "scores of dissociated tribes," living in villages, herding, farming and sharing as within a family. They fished, kept bees, made pottery and  weaved baskets. Merchants from Constantinople and Thessalonica came and sold them jewelry, silks and spices and gave contact with Byzantine culture, including Christianity.
Following the defeat of the Avars by Emperor Heraclius in the 620s, many Slavs broke free of Avar control. Some Slavs came under the authority of Avars, and some voluntarily or involuntarily joined the mounted Avar forces as infantry. Some Slavs moved farther west than others, to become known as Slovenes, Slovaks, Croats and Serbs. The Slavs mixed with people indigenous to the Balkans,only after christianization, except for those indigenous peoples who had fled to coastal and other areas hoping for imperial protection. Heraclius did what he could to protect these refugees and to win back control over the Balkans. He recovered Greece from Slavic control, but he felt compelled to grant Croats and Serbs settlement rights in the Balkan northwest, hoping they would guard the area from other incursions. 
The Creation of Bulgaria
The Bulgars have been described as a Turkic people, speaking a language described by Wikipedia as "alongside with Khazar, Hunnic and Chuvash, a member of the Oghuric branch of the Turkic language family," a statement supported by much documentation. (See Wikipedia/Bulgars.)
The Bulgars are described as a herding people who fought their way westward from Asia, raiding for plunder in Constantinople's empire in the Balkans during the rule of Justinian I, and then retreating.
The Bulgars are described as having been under Avar domination. A man named Kubrat, Kuvrat or Kurt,
meaning "Wolf," rose to prominence among the Avars and Bulgars. He had a Bulgar mother and an Avar father -- males of a dominant people often taking women from among those they dominate. Kubrat grew up as a hostage in Byzantium. Between the years 630 and 635, in the Ukraine (north of Constantinople's empire), Kubrat, freed from captivity, organized a federation consisting of Avars and Bulgars - Onoguria. 

Within a few decades, Onoguria divided and some of the people from there moved together southward across the Danube River into the Byzantine Empire in the Balkans. According to a Byzantine chronicler this was the year 679. Constantinople was annoyed but busy warring against Muslim Arabs.
The Bulgar invaders were under a military leader, or khan, and they behaved as conquerors had before them. They were uninterested in farming and made themselves lord and master over Slav farmers they came upon, exploiting peasant labor -- a plunder with continuity.
During the rule of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine V (741- 775) the Arab danger had abated, and Constantine felt free to attack the Bulgarians, but by now the Bulgarians had consolidated their power and were able to withstand his attacks. The warring lasted into the 800s, with Emperor Nicephorus against the khan named Krum. In 811, Khan Krum outwitted the Byzantines and trapped them in closed valleys, killing nearly all of them, including Emperor Nicephorus. Krum made a drinking cup of Nicephorus' skull -- an object of pride during feasting with his captains.
Krum harassed Thrace and laid siege to Constantinople in 813.  People climbed their city's walls for a view of those they considered exotic barbarians. A description of the attackers survives.
Krum offered sacrifices after the custom of his nation by slaughtering men [human sacrifice!] and cattle before the Golden Gate [a gate to the city]. He then washed his feet in the sea and performed his ablutions, after which he besprinkled the people crowding around to do him honor. Returning to his camp he passed through the array of his concubines who worshiped and glorified their lord.
Krum's appeals to his gods was to no avail. His army was unable to penetrate Constantinople's walls, and he had no fleet of ships to block Constantinople's contacts by sea. He returned to Thrace, whence he had come.
More Cultural Diffusion
As early as the 500s and 600s, Christianity had been spreading slowly and in bits and pieces from Byzantium to the Slavs in the Balkans, and by the 800s it was spreading to the Bulgars, despite their having considered Byzantium decadent. But the Bulgars also recognized Constantinople as advanced in civilization -- as having writing, books and learning.
Living more than 200 years side by side with the Slavs, and intermarrying with them, the Bulgar's difference from the Slavs diminished. The Slavs had been more culturally advanced, and it was their alphabet and language that the Bulgars adopted. Bulgaria was organized and united to the degree that it became the first Slavic state on the Balkan peninsula worthy of being called a state. 
The Bulgarian khan, Boris, adopted Christianity and opened Bulgaria to influences from Constantinople. And he sent one of his sons, Simeon, to be educated by the Byzantines.

  Simeon the Great and the Magyars
Simeon ruled Bulgaria from 893 to 927. He wanted to help his people advance culturally, and he helped in translating numerous books into the language of the Slavs. He also continued the tradition of his forefathers in opposing Constantinople as a power. Simeon held the title of emperor -- tsar in his Slavic language. He wished to destroy that power in order to enhance the power and grandeur of his kingdom, and he was at war with Constantinople through most of his reign. Four times  within eleven years Simeon advanced to Constantinople and attacked its walls, without success.In 895 the Magyars joined Byzantine armies under Emperor Leo VI in a war against the Bulgars. However, the Bulgars emerged victorious.

 To defend itself against Simeon, Constantinople, beginning in 917, supported a migrating Asiatic tribe, the Magyars, who had moved into Pannonia from Asia almost two decades earlier. Constantinople gave them gold and precious robes to encourage them to attack the Bulgarians from the rear. Constantinople urged Serbs to rebel against Simeon, and in 918 some did. For several years the Magyars raided Bulgaria in force. Simeon conquered Serbs outside of Bulgaria, or ravaged their lands, and he drove the Magyars from the Black Sea westward to the Hungarian plain where the Avars and Huns had successively settled before them. The Bulgars were repeatedly attacked by the Magyars [934/962],


Bulgarians after Christianization Coexisting with Long Time Christian Vlachs

Khan Boris the ruler who Christianised Bulgaria and enlarged it greatly
Khan Boris {or Bars} ascended the throne in 852, he was Presiyan’s son. Boris I was not an outstanding military commander. He often suffered defeat but the state’s borders remained unchanged. Boris I was a skillful diplomat. But his greatest act of diplomacy was a domestic one. Boris was surrounded by Christians, Christians everywhere! To the west of him, the Pope, to the east – the Byzantine Patriarch. Bulgaria was a pagan island in an ocean of Christianity.

Hindsight ipod

When Boris inherited the throne from his father, Bulgaria’s territorial, military, and political potential had made it one of the largest states in Europe. Bulgaria’s approximate frontiers were the Dnieper River in the northeast, the Carpathian Mountains in the north, the Tisa {Tisza} River in the northwest, the Adriatic Sea in the west, and the Tomorr {Tomor}, Belasica, Pirin, Rhodope, and Strandzha mountains in the south. Many Slavic tribes lived within the boundaries of the state, together with the Thracians {Vlachs}, and the Bulgars. All of them had different religions, ethnicities, and languages.

Because of this – the Christians, all the Bulgarian peoples and Boris’ goal to merge them all into one indistinguishable mass of Bulgarians; Boris decided to make a truly radical change in Bulgaria’s attitude towards Christianity. The Khans preceding him, had persecuted Christians, but Boris I was going to make Christianity a compulsory religion for all Bulgarians. This would not go over well with a lot of people in Bulgaria. In fact Boris’ eldest son and heir Vladimir {Yet another firstborn Bulgar with a Slavic name.} with the help of like minded Boyars attempted to revive pagan worshipping. Boris, who had abdicated in 889, then returned to active politics. With the aid of Boyars loyal to him and the army, Boris drove his son from the throne. Vladimir was blinded, unfitting him for rule, and was replaced by Boris’ third son, Simeon. To make a point, Boris ordered the execution of fifty-two Boyars, together with their families, who had remained faithful to Vladimir and pagandom. After his death in 907 Boris I was proclaimed the first Bulgarian saint, and traces of his cult during this period can be found as far away as Ireland.


Khan Boris the ruler who Christianised Bulgaria and enlarged it greatly
Khan Boris had a detailed plan for the conversion of Bulgaria. His ultimate goal was not just the forging of one singular Bulgarian ethnicity {What all Khans since Asparuh had wanted.} but also the creation of an autocephalous Bulgarian church. The Khans before him had persecuted Christians precisely because Byzantine used the church as a political tool. But if he could create an autonomous Bulgarian church, he could in fact immunize Bulgaria against the religious-political influence of the Roman empire. Khan Boris took the throne in 852, and in a late autumn night of 864 Boris and his closest associates, his family, and the Boyars who supported his policy were baptized in the palace in Pliska.
Khan Boris the ruler who Christianised Bulgaria and enlarged it greatly
And he was Boris no more, he took the Biblical name Mihail {English Michael} and the Roman title Tsar {or Tzar, or Czar} i.e. Caesar. There was serious opposition by both the nobility and the common people to Boris’ attempt to enforce mass baptism. A pagan rebellion broke out, but Mihail managed to suppress it. That is one important difference to keep in mind about Christianity and Bulgaria. While other nations like Germany and Ireland for example were converted from the “bottom up”, the Bulgarian’s faith came in the form of a government order. Devoted preachers, like St. Patrick and the guy who cut down Odin’s oak in Germany, worked hard to convert everyday people to Christianity. But Bulgarians were converted by force and Bulgaria’s church was born independent and that is why if nobody told you, today you would be hard pressed to tell that Bulgarians are Christians. The names of all the Gods were changed to the names of Christian saints, pagan religious altars were destroyed and/or buried, a lot of churches were built, but that was pretty much it. All the rituals and customs remained virtually unchanged. Mihail was quite active in inculcating the Christian faith among the Bulgarian people, in organizing the Bulgarian church as an independent institution, and in building churches throughout the country. He would also take the old Bulgar ruling elite motto: “We are the ruling elite and that is why we will push the language and culture of the Slavs.” to it’s ultimate end. Bent on introducing Slavonic liturgy and determined to foster the development of Slavonic language {Like all Bulgar Khans before him.} Mihail sought out the help of the brothers Cyril and Methodius. Byzantine Monks, natives of Thessalonica, with Slavic-Bulgarian roots, they were commissioned to create an alphabet, based on the Slavic language, to replace the Greek alphabet, which had been used in Bulgaria. And so the brothers invented an alphabet in which to write the Slavic language which became known as Old Bulgarian. The Bible was translated into Old Bulgarian. This new language was readily adopted in other Slavic regions, where, with local modifications, it remained the religious and literary language of Orthodox Slavs throughout the European Middle Ages. After it’s adaptation in other Slavic regions Old Bulgarian became known as the Old Church Slavonic language. Old Church Slavonic was the first Slavic literary language. This language has continued as a liturgical language into modern times and it has had significant influence on the modern Slavic languages, especially on the Russian literary language that grew out of a compromise style incorporating many Church Slavonic elements into the native Russian vernacular. The Cyrillic Khan Boris the ruler who Christianised Bulgaria and enlarged it greatly alphabet and Old Bulgarian made Bulgaria the first center of Slavonic literature and culture. As a result of the intensive work of scholars, and through Mihail’s will, Old Bulgarian replaced Greek in church services and in literary life and became the country’s official language. And that is why modern Bulgarian is so lexically dominated by Slavic. Soon, in the years to come, the peoples of Bulgaria would merge into one ethnicity, with one language, one culture, and one religion. But not before Vladimir’s rebellion. After Vladimir was deposed and blinded, Boris convened a council that confirmed Christianity as the religion of the state and moved the administrative capital from paganist Pliska to the Slavic town of Preslav.
Khan Boris the ruler who Christianised Bulgaria and enlarged it greatly
The council conferred the throne on Boris’ third son, Simeon, and Boris retired permanently to monastic life, making generous grants to the Bulgarian Church and patronizing Slav scholarship. The Bulgar ruling elite had pushed everything Slavic since 681. But it was Khan Krum’s great grand son, Omurtag’s grand son, the son of Presian, Boris who made the decisive hammer stroke that forged the unified Bulgarian ethnicity.

First Bulgarian Empire after Baptism (864-1018)

Main article: First Bulgarian Empire

The Bulgarians convert to Christianity

In 864, the ruler of Bulgaria, Boris I (852-889) was baptized and he also allowed the Byzantine clergy to enter Bulgaria and begin their missionary work.[17] In 893 a council declared Christianity a state religion and turned Old Church Slavonic into the official language of Church and State.[17] The ancestors of the Romanians also followed the Old Slavonic rite.[26]

In 971, the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes (969-976) marched against the Russians who had seized the Bulgarian capital of Preslav and defeated them.[27] The emperor forced the Tzar Boris II of Bulgaria (969-971) to abdicate and annexed most of Bulgaria outright advancing the frontier to the Lower Danube for the first time since the early 7th century.[27] Although, Tzar Samuel of Bulgaria (997-1014) could restore the Bulgarian Empire for a while, but by 1018 the whole territory of Bulgaria had been occupied by the Byzantines.[27]

From 1020, the jurisdiction of the archbishopric of Ohrid expanded over Orthodox Romanians within the Byzantine Empire.[3]






The Hungarian Point of View

The Hungarian Point of View

  Text at:

Sometime in the period between Charlemagne's offensive of fall 791  and the autumn of 795, the Avar empire was shaken by a catastrophic civil war. The two leading figures, the kagan and the jugurrus, fell out and waged a bitter struggle against each other. In nomadic empires, the 'right flank' was generally commanded by a leader of lesser rank; in the case of the western part of the Avar empire, this was the tudun. Therefore it is likely that figure who ruled over the region east of the Tisza, the Maros region, and Transylvania was the higher-ranking jugurrus (cf. the Hungarian harka-kündü-gyula triad in the mid 900s). The civil war ended with the defeat of the jugurrus and his followers; he himself was killed. However, time was too short for the kagan to fully reimpose his authority. In the winter of 795–96, the Franks renewed their attacks, and the outcome would be the collapse of the Avar empire. It can be inferred from these events that the Avars themselves decimated their ruling class in Transylvania.

Between 802 and 804, the Avars suffered further grievous blows, perhaps in several waves: the army of Krum, the Bulgar khan, advanced northward into the Tisza region. The invaders put the kagan to flight and captured a host of Avar soldiers; years later, the latter would serve in the Bulgars' campaign against Byzantium.

There is no sign that Krum's military campaign touched Transylvania, nor that any part of the Carpathian Basin was occupied by Bulgars in the first decade of the 9th century. To the contrary, reliable, contemporary sources indicate that 'Dacia on the Danube' (presumably the Temes region) and Sirmia were occupied {1-265.} by Balkan Slavs who were fleeing the Bulgars and seeking the protection of the Franks. These newcomers were the Abroditas (abodriti-praedenecenti 'qui ... contermini Bulgaris Daciam Danubio adiacentem incolunt') and the Timocians (timociani).[19]19. Annales Regni Francorum, aa. 818, 819, 822, 824. The emergence of this protectorate caused friction between the Frankish and Bulgar empires, which failed in the period 824–26 to settle their differences by negotiation. Around 827–31, the Bulgar Khan Omurtag launched a broad offensive against the Central Danube region; his armies occupied Sirmia and East Slavonia as well as parts of the Tisza region that are yet to be identified (perhaps as far as Csongrád = černi grad = 'black castle'). The Bulgar conquest was confirmed in the peace treaty that Khan Malamir concluded in 832 with the Eastern Frankish empire. There is no mention of the Timocians after 825, but the Abodritas are known to have been once again subjected by the Bulgars. The Bavarian Geographus counted among the Bulgars' neighbours the osterabtrezi Slavs — i.e. the eastern Abodritas — who lived in 'Dacia'. Ninth century written sources offer no further information with regard to the eastern half of the Carpathian Basin. However, the events of 863 and 883 show that the Bulgars were quite able to cross the Great Plain and the Garam River to attack Moravia. It is therefore likely that they had military outposts in the Tisza and Maros valleys.

Only a single piece of information, dating from 892, evokes the Bulgars' rule in Transylvania. King Arnulf's envoys requested that the Bulgar Khan 'Laodimir' (Vladimir) 'not allow the Moravians to buy (and transport) salt' ('Ne coemptio salis inde Maravanis daretur').[20]20. Annales Fuldenses, a. 892. This indicates that in the 9th century, the Bulgars had taken possession of some of Transylvania's salt mines and traded in the salt mined by their subjects.

Fortunately, there are other, archaeological sources that throw light on Bulgar rule in Transylvania: the recently identified traces, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, of the Bulgar khanate. The excavations were conducted on the site of the ancient capital cities, {1-266.} Pliska and Preslav, and at numerous cemeteries as well. Dobrudja, which was under Bulgar rule at the time, has also yielded much useful archaeological data. The finds in Transylvania are consistent with those in Bulgaria dating from the 9th–10th centuries.

The most significant site is the cemetery at Maroskarna. This unusual graveyard, located on the left bank of the Maros, has been repeatedly damaged by flooding. Despite repeated salvage attempts, the only traces of funeral rites are the dishes and skeletons washed up by the river, but this does not exclude the possibility that the cememtery had also contained cremation graves. Some 30 intact dishes, all made on the wheel, are now preserved in a museum. Their shape and decoration cannot be traced back to the earlier, Avar and Slavic pottery found in Transylvania. All of them bear the distinctive features common to Bulgar pottery of the period: yellow and reddish-brown carafes with one or two handles (amphorae); pear-shaped mugs, with thick, 'ringed' brims, and either a smooth finish or deep, web-like decoration; slightly funnel-shaped pots; an unusual, cauldron-like pot with pierced handle; and others that evoke the 'Medgyes type' pots. That last object was a common find in Bulgaria, and Bulgar-Slav influence may be responsible for its dissemination in 9th-century Transylvania. Vessels identical to those from Maroskarna have been unearthed in large numbers at the major settlements (Pliska, Madara, Preslav, Kadiköj) and cemeteries in Bulgaria, as well was in Dobrudja. They spread from Bulgaria toward the Carpathians along the Olt and Zsil valleys, and perhaps also by other routes that led from Dobrudja and Silistra to Transylvania. Traces of villages dating from the 8th and 9th centuries — the period of Bulgar rule — have been identified at Ploieşti-Bucov; the Slav-Bulgar finds reveal the links between Bulgaria and Transylvania. The cemetery, consisting mostly of graves with skeletons, that was discovered in the Mostiştea valley, at Sultana, confirms that the Danubian Bulgars established outpost settlements as they advanced towards Transylvania.

{1-267.} As far as Maroskarna is concerned, the routes leading to the Bulgar motherland are of secondary importance, for the cemetery is far more than the marginal manifestation of a northward-spreading, archaeological 'culture'. It is, in fact, the cemetery of a population that had been collectively resettled,??? along with its material culture, from south of the Danube???. This resettled population formed an 'island', for, judging from its traces, it inhabited only a small number of sites along the middle reaches of the Maros. Graves (with skeletons) yielded fine Bulgar vessels, including distinctive amphorae at Szászsebes (along with iron knives and sheep-bones) as well as at Kudzsir and Sebesán (along with jugs and pots). The intact vessels found at Gyulafehérvár Castle (amphorae and pots with smoothed-in decoration), Gyulafehérvár-Partos, and Magyarszentbenedek originally came from graves as well. At Oláhgorbó, two coffins holding skeletons were unearthed in what is probably a smaller cemetery. The dishes that once held food for the deceased differ slightly from those at Maroskarna, but they are still typical of Danubian Bulgar pottery, and a woman's beads and bronze earrings are 9th-century Bulgar models; sheep bones indicate that meat was buried with the deceased, and thus testify to the Bulgars' pagan rite. The fragment of a hand-made, earthenware cauldron — unique in Transylvania — that was unearthed at the Bulgar site of Oláhdálya-Troján cannot be dated precisely, for the settlement was still in existence in the 10th–11th centuries. Bulgar traces have been found along both banks of the Maros on strips of land 30–40 kilometres wide. A fine, ring-rimmed Bulgar pot with smoothed-in web decoration, found at Kézdipolyán, testifies merely to some contact with the Bulgar settlement area on the Maros or with the Lower Danubian region.

Further up the Maros, the cemetery at Csombord evokes yet another 'island' of settlement. So far, thirty-two graves have been excavated; aligned on an west-east axis, they date from the 9th–10th centuries. The grave goods included women's jewellery: {1-268.} four graves yielded 14 diverse, richly-filigreed pendants, while three others yielded beads, a half-moon shaped pendant (lunula), and a disc-shaped pendant ornament.

Jewels of the same type as those from Csombord and Oláhgorbó have been found only in Bulgaria, almost exclusively in cemeteries dating from the 9th–10th centuries. Bulgarian archaeologists judge that both the Csombord and Maroskarna cemeteries are of Bulgar origin.

In all likelihood, the Maros valley was occupied by a detachment from Khan Omurtag's army. Perhaps it was a unit that veered away from the Tisza in the direction of Transylvania; one of its chiefs, Tarkan Onega(bon) of the Küviar clan, drowned in the Tisza. Or, perhaps, it was another detachment that came up along the Olt River. Following the conquest, which must have occurred around 830, the Bulgars established settlements along the Maros. The settlers came from the right bank of the Lower Danube, in Bulgaria???. Their material legacy — jewellery, and dishes, complete with potters' marks on the bottom — is entirely the product of Danubian Bulgars. The settlers, who enjoyed military protection (grave with spurs at Tatárlaka), were charged with the task of putting back into production the salt mines at Marosújvár, Mezőakna, Sóvárad, and Torda, and to organize the transport of salt on the Maros River. Some of the shipments, towed along the Tisza to Csongrád, went to the Moravians, but most of them were directed downstream towards Belgrade. Since the bulk of the salt was probably shipped to the Bulgar khanate on the Lower Danube, the settlers had easy access to Bulgar products and luxury articles (jewellery). None of the finds indicate that they changed their way of life.

There is no information in historical sources regarding the background of the settlers. The Bulgar empire on the Danube had a mixed population that consisted principally of Bulgaro-Turks (whose language began to acquire Slavic characteristics in the 9th {1-269.} century), various Slavic tribes, and the Balkan Latins (Vlachs). One of the fundamental goals of the early Bulgar khanate's empire-building policy was to resettle the various ethnic groups.??? In the case of Transylvania, the answer lies in burial rituals, for the graves contained skeletons; and there is general agreement that in Danubian Bulgaria's 'pagan' cemeteries of the 8th–9th centuries, these graves held the remains of Bulgaro-Turks. To be sure, cemeteries of this type were less numerous than those that cremation and double rites identify with the Slavic and local Balkanic population; but they reflect the ornate, 'nomadic' attire and wealth of a dominant group. It is therefore likely that Bulgaro-Turk soldiers and their families — the ethnic group that gave the empire its name — were present in Transylvania, a militarily and economically insecure border zone.

There has been linguistic speculation that such toponyms as Brassó, Krassó, Barca, and Barót have a Bulgaro-Turkish derivation. Since the Barcaság bears no traces of Bulgar rule, this hypothesis lacks archaeological confirmation. However, it is possible that, both in the Tisza region and Transylvania, the Bulgar overlords relied on the remnants of another ethnic group: the Onogur-Bulgars (Wangars), who had moved into the region in the same period as the Danubian Bulgars. In this case, the Bulgar-type toponyms of the Barcaság might well be of Onogur-Bulgar origin. A more plausible contention is that the name of the Karas-Krassó River, in the Temes region, is derived directly, or via the Slavs, from Danubian Bulgar. Vessels of the 'Maroskarna type' — archaeological traces of Bulgars — have been found at Temesvár and Parác, as well as in the area of Maros-Aranka (Nagyszentmiklós, Makó, Deszk).

The Romano-Byzantine castle of Singidunum had white stone ramparts, and, in the 9th century, the Bulgar conquerors named it 'Belgrad', meaning 'White Castle'. In Bulgaria, the predominance of the Slavic language can be dated from the death of the last Turkish-named khan, Omurtag (831). Archaeological finds (quantities of Maroskarna-type pottery, including fragments with {1-270.} smoothed-in web pattern) indicate that the Bulgars' central settlement in the Maros region was located within the Roman, white stone walls of Apulum; and it was evidently the Bulgars who named the town Belgrad. For centuries, the Slavs who lived in the region continued to use that name, which probably explains its adoption into modern Romanian (Bălgrad).



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