From Viminatium-Kostolac; Lederata-Ram; (now Serbia) Moesia there are three Roman roads going to and into Dacia.
Segmentum VII, 2.0
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger Map) is the unique surviving copy of an old Roman map containing the Roman road network. It was last revised sometimes in the 4th or early 5th century. The landmass and the seas have been stretched and flattened. It is not a world ‘map’ in the true sense of the word, but a cartogram, or itineraria. There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically.)
Tabula Peutingeriana - An Ancient Roman Road Map Video at:
Table of Contents, Cuprins:
The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World you can travel virtual.
Spanning one-ninth of the earth's circumference across three continents, the Roman Empire ruled a quarter of humanity through complex networks of political power, military domination and economic exchange. These extensive connections were sustained by premodern transportation and communication technologies that relied on energy generated by human and animal bodies, winds, and currents.
Conventional maps that represent this world as it appears from space signally fail to capture the severe environmental constraints that governed the flows of people, goods and information. Cost, rather than distance, is the principal determinant of connectivity.
For the first time, ORBIS allows us to express Roman communication costs in terms of both time and expense. By simulating movement along the principal routes of the Roman road network, the main navigable rivers, and hundreds of sea routes in the Mediterranean, Black Sea and coastal Atlantic, this interactive model reconstructs the duration and financial cost of travel in antiquity.
Taking account of seasonal variation and accommodating a wide range of modes and means of transport, ORBIS reveals the true shape of the Roman world and provides a unique resource for our understanding of premodern history.
Într-o combinaţie de studiu istoric, cartografie şi tehnologie media, cercetătorii de la Universitatea Stanford au creat un model prin care curioşii pot afla cât le-ar fi luat să călătorească în diferite puncte ale Imperiului Roman.
ORBIS, The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (n.r. - Modelul Reţelei Geospaţiale Stanford a Lumii Romane) calculează cu detalii câte zile i-ar fi luat unui om să călătorească în diferite puncte şi cât l-ar fi costat, totul depinzând de banii care îi are la dispoziţie şi de ce transportă.
Datele istorice incluse în studiu sunt legate de clima de atunci, drumuri, structura oraşelor şi a porturilor. Calcularea celei mai potrivite rute ţine cont de modalitatea de transport aleasă, pe apă sau pe uscat.
Perioada aleasă de autorii aplicaţiei este în jurul anului 200, când ei au considerat că Imperiul Roman s-a afat la apogeu. În studiu au fost incluse 751 de poziţii de plecare sau sosire.
La doar două săptămâni de la lansare, site-ul s-a bucurat de un real succes, mai ales printre pasionaţii de istorie a Imperiului Roman. Fondatorii au precizat că au primit numeroase răspunsuri de mulţumiri din partea profesorilor de istorie care au reuşit să le insufle pasiunea pentru Roma Antică elevilor.
Derivative works of this file by Codrin B.:
To find on the map location of sites in Dacia see:
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table, Peutinger Map) is an itinerarium showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. The original map of which this is a unique copy was last revised in the fourth or early fifth century. It covers Europe, parts of Asia (Persia, India) and North Africa. The map is named after Konrad Peutinger, a German 15–16th-century humanist and antiquarian.
The map was discovered in a library in Worms by Conrad Celtes, who was unable to publish his find before his death and bequeathed the map in 1508 to Peutinger. It is conserved at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Hofburg, Vienna.
The Tabula Peutingeriana is the only known surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus; it was made by a monk in Colmar in the thirteenth century. It is a parchment scroll, 0.34 m high and 6.75 m long, assembled from eleven sections, a medieval reproduction of the original scroll. It is a very schematic map: the land masses are distorted, especially in the east-west direction. The map shows many Roman settlements, the roads connecting them, rivers, mountains, forests and seas. The distances between the settlements are also given.
The table appears to be based on "itineraries", or lists of destinations along Roman roads, as the distances between points along the routes are indicated. Travelers would not have possessed anything so sophisticated as a map, but they needed to know what lay ahead of them on the road and how far. The Peutinger table represents these roads as a series of roughly parallel lines along which destinations have been marked in order of travel. The shape of the parchment pages accounts for the conventional rectangular layout. However, a rough similarity to the coordinates of Ptolemy's earth-mapping gives some writers a hope that some terrestrial representation was intended by the unknown compilers.
The stages and cities are represented by hundreds of functional place symbols, used with discrimination from the simplest icon of a building with two towers to the elaborate individualized "portraits" of the three great cities. Annalina and Mario Levi, the Tabula's editors, conclude that the semi-schematic semi-pictorial symbols reproduce Roman cartographic conventions of the itineraria picta described by Vegetius, of which this is the sole testimony.
The fourth-century tabula was the distant descendant of the one prepared under the direction of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a friend of Augustus. After Agrippa's death, the map was engraved on marble and placed in the Porticus Vipsaniae, not far from the Ara Pacis. That early imperial dating for the archetype of the map is also supported by Glen Bowersock, based on numerous details of the Roman Arabia province that look entirely anachronistic for a 4th-century map. Therefore, he also points to the map of Vipsanius Agrippa.
And the map contains other details which indicate the original probably dates back to the 5th century, including the city of Aquileia, which was destroyed in 452 by the Huns.
The Tabula Peutingeriana was included in the Unesco Memory of the World Register this year, and was on limited view in Vienna on 26 November 2007.
1st road N. of Danube: Apo, Moesia-Arcidava, Dacia-Centum Putea, Dacia- Berzovia, Dacia-Aizisis,Dacia.
Trajan's itinerarium in the first Dacian War. The Transylvania Road.
1st road: contines with Caput Bubali (Cornutel) to Tivisco(Caransebes) The Banat Road
The name of Tibiscum appears to be of thraco - dacian origin, meaning “swampy place”. From this place the roman troops, led by Traian, went to Tapae (which is probably localized in the area of the Zeicani train station, after the Bucova village), where the Emperor Traian defeated the Dacians (Dio Cassius – Roman History).
After the occupation of Banat and Oltenia by the Romans and after the peace agreement between the Romans and the Dacians (102 A.D.), along with the organizing of the province, the bases for the military garrison of Tibiscum are put, through the construction of a small fort made of earth, followed by a bigger fort. On the right side of the Timis River they also build another fort, which remains there until the year 170 A.D.
At Tibiscum several roman legions were placed: Cohors I Sagittariorum, Numerus Palmyrenorum, both was brought from Syria, Cohors I Vindelicorum, from Raetia and Numerus Maurorum, from North Africa.
In A.D.118-119, the Dacia province is put under the exceptional command of Quintus Marcius Turbo. The Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa Colony erects two statues, one at Sarmisegetusa and the other at Tibiscum, for the bravery he had against the enemies who wanted to conquer Dacia.
In A.D.170 Tibiscum is destroyed by the Marcomans or by their allies, the free Dacians. The roman defense in Banat falls and the Marcomanian war lasts until A.D. 180.
During the rule of the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (A.D. 193-211) imposing monuments are built at Tibiscum. It is possible that the civilian settlement near the military fort received the rank of town, and so the roman town Tibiscum joins the other 11 roman cities in Dacia.
After the retreat of the roman administration to the south of the Danube (in A.D. 275, during of the rule of Aurelian), the remaining locals continue their lives, evidenced through the reconstruction of some buildings and the discovery of important monetary treasures.
2nd Road North of Danube:
3rd Road North across Danube:
From Egeta in Moesia Inferior to Dacia: The Oltenian Road
Drubeta, Amvrtia, Plenedova
continues with Agnavi(a)e,Dacia-Ponte Avgvst-Dacia-Sarmategte (Grădişte),Dacia to Ad Aque and to Calan
3rd Road North across Danube:
continue with Castris novis- Romula-Acidaua-Rufidaua-Ponte Aluti-Burridaua
Continue with: Petris-Germisara-Blandiana to Apulum
3rd Road North of Danube:
Burridava- Cast tragana -Arutela-Pretorio- Ponte vetere-Sternarum, Cedonie, Deidaua ? to Apulum
At Apulum Road no 2 and 3 converge. From here another road goes to Napoca and Potaissa. We will call it Road no.4
There are two roads South of Danube going to Tomis:
Showing the Danube Delta
Viae militaris in Dacia during Trajan
by Florin Fodorean
- abstract -
Our contribution is focused on the aspects regarding the construction of the Roman roads in Dacia during the immediate moments after the conquest of the province. At the beginning of our study we discussed the signification of the term via militaris. Historians and researchers such as Albert Grenier, Raymond Chevalier, Thomas Pekary, Pierre Fustier and others have emphasized the role of the roads in the Roman Empire. Th. Pekary thought that these viae militaris were strategic roads, which connected Rome with the capitals of the provinces and the Roman garrisons. R. Chevallier considered these roads “des routes d’interêt stratégique construites aux frais du trésor militaire”.
We also discussed some scenes on the Trajan’s Column with direct reference to road construction. During the second war against the Dacians, the soldiers from the Roman legions already built the main roads of Dacia.
Another very important source that proves the rapid organization of the Roman road system immediately after the conquest of Dacia is the Roman milestone found at Aiton (Cluj county). This milestone, discovered in 1758, is one of the most important, because if offers an image of the rapid rhythm in which the Romans built the roads of Dacia. The text of the inscription mentions that in the sector Potaissa – Napoca, belonging to the imperial Roman road, and built by the Roman auxiliary troop cohors I Flavia Ulpia Hispanorum miliaria civium Romanorum equitata, was set down this milestone, at the distance of 10 millia passuum from Potaissa (14.785 km). Thus, according to the text of the milestone, this sector of road was already built in 108 AD. The second aspect is the fact that the inscription of the milestone from Aiton offers the first epigraphic mention of Potaissa. We have discussed the concept of via militaris, trying to answer to the question: can be considerate the Roman road Potaissa - Napoca a via militaris? The answer was given by trying to analyze the signification of this term. We reached a conclusion: the Roman imperial road Potaissa – Napoca can be named a military road at least for two reasons. First of all, we have numerous examples, which mention in inscriptions the name of many military units that have effectively participated to the construction and restoration of the roads. We have offered here an example: the inscription of a milliarium discovered in the Northern Africa mentions that in the year 123 A.D., during emperor Hadrianus, the legio III Augusta built the Roman road from Carthage to Theveste. Then, the fact that the inscription of the milestone from Aiton confirms that soldiers from cohors I Flavia Ulpia Hispanorum miliaria civium Romanorum equitata have built, at Trajan’s orders, the sector of the Roman road between Potaissa and Napoca, demonstrates that this was a road built immediately after the conquest of Dacia, by the army and for the needs of the army.
In order to complete our discussion, we reserved some space in our study to the problem of the signification of the toponyms. We have, in Dacia, many examples of Roman roads denominated “drumul lui Traian”, “Trajans weg”, “drumul împăratului”, “calea lui Traian” etc. These examples can be used as a strong argument in order to sustain that the main roads of Dacia were constructed immediately after the conquest of the province.
Another category of sources, the Austrian military maps, provides us important information concerning certain routes (Sarmizegetusa - Ostrov, Turda - Bogata - Călăraşi).
We have presented the main military roads built during Trajan’s reign:
3. Tibiscum - Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa – Apulum – Potaissa – Napoca -Porolissum;
4. the Roman road alongside the valley of Olt;
5. the Roman road Drobeta – Bumbeşti – the Vâlcan pass – Sarmizegetusa.
At the end of our study we will present some aspects regarding the activity of Trajan in other provinces, related to the construction of roads.
conf univ dr Horia Ciugudean
Drumul (lat. via) reprezintă unul dintre elementele definitorii ale civilizaţiei romane şi totodată, o moştenire încă vizibilă în multe ţări ale continentului european, printre care şi România. Reţeaua de drumuri a Imperiului roman a servit unor raţiuni strategice, pentru apărarea sau pacificarea provinciilor sale, dar şi unor interese economice, asigurând o circulaţie sigură a mărfurilor şi în ultimă instanţă, realizând unitatea lumii romane. Read more on line.