Romanian History and Culture

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Getian and Dacian Kings 550 BC - 10 BC, North and South of Danube


 Odrysian Thracian-Getian King and his wife.  Mural painting from his tomb at Kazanlik-Bulgaria, 3rd century BC. Below a gold-wreath similar to the one the King is wearing.

Sofia - Odrysian Wreath from Golyamata Mogila

A golden wreath and ring from the burial of an Odrysian Getae Aristocrat at the Golyamata Mogila tumulus (part of the Sboryanovo Archaeological Reserve), situated between the villages of Zlatinitsa and Malomirovo in the Yambol region.The burial, wreath and signal ring are dated to the mid 4th century BC.







Sarmis Basileus against Alexander Macedon (Romanian)


The Gold Wreath Crown of the King Dromichaetes

 Deceneneus and Cosmicos


Basileos Thiamarcos  king of Buridava






Scorilo (Coryllus)

Getas Basileus










Coins of the Getai and Dacian Kings

Map of Kings

Map of Dacia

Getian and Dacian Kings  time-line

The History of the Getai

Enciclopedia Dacica


Charnabon of the Getae who came into power when grain was first given to men[10] mentioned by Sophocles[11] Carnabon,"Carnabon. King of the Getae in Thrace who came into power when grain was first given to men [see also Lyncus, and CONSTELLATIONS] [Hyg.Ast.2.14]."Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 41: "... Trixae and Sophocles (Triptolem, FR 547) mentions a local king, Charnabon, as a typical anti-hero. 

Triptolemus, in a winged cart  starting on his mission of educating the whole of Greece in the art of agriculture. Side A of an Attic red-figure crater with ear handles by the Painter of the Yale Oinochoe, ca. 460 BC.

Louvre, Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Sully wing, Campana Gallery (G 368)

Photographer: Jastrow (2006)

Triptolemus (Τριπτόλεμος)(also Buzyges), in Greek mythology, was the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica.

While Demeter was searching for her daughter, having taken the form of an old woman called Doso, she received a hospitable welcome from Celeus. He asked her to nurse Demophon and Triptolemus, his sons by Metanira. As a gift to Celeus, because of his hospitality, Demeter planned to make Demophon immortal by burning his mortal spirit away in the family hearth every night. She was unable to complete the ritual because Metanira walked in on her one night. Instead, Demeter chose to teach Triptolemus the art of agriculture and, from him, the rest of Greece learned to plant and reap crops. He flew across the land on a winged chariot while Demeter and Persephone cared for him, and helped him complete his mission of educating the whole of Greece on the art of agriculture.


Later, Triptolemus taught Lyncus, King of the Scythians the arts of agriculture, but he refused to teach it to his people and then tried to kill Triptolemus. Demeter turned him into a lynx.

 Triptolemus and Korē, tondo of a red-figure Attic cup by the Aberdeen Painter, ca. 470/60 BC, found in Vulci.

Louvre, Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Sully wing, Campana Gallery (G 452)

Photographer: Jastrow (2006)

The myth is not known from any extant Greek sources, but it is found in Ovid's Met. 5.648-661 (hence Hyginus, Fab. 259, Servius, Comm. Aen. 1.323):

"Now the youth [i.e. Triptolemus] was carried high over Europe and Asia. He turned his face towards Scythia where, Lyncus was king. He stood before the king's household gods. He was asked how he had come there, and the reason for his journey, his name and his country. He said 'Athens, the famous city, is my home, Triptolemus, my name. I came not by ship, on the sea, or by foot, over land. The clear air parted for me. I bring you the gifts of Ceres. If you scatter them through the wide fields, they will give you back fruitful harvests, and ripening crops.' The barbarian was jealous. So that he might be the author, of so great a gift, he received him like a guest, but attacked Triptolemus, with a sword, while he was in deep sleep. As he attempted to pierce the youth's breast, Ceres turned the king into a lynx, then ordered the youth, of Athens, the city of Mopsopus, to drive the sacred team back through the air." (trans. A. S. Kline[1])


Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

Artist/Maker Triptolemos Painter (eponymous vase)
Triptolemos' departure. Side A from an Attic red-figure stamnos, ca. 480 BC. From Canino.
Dimensions H. 35.3 cm (13 ¾ in.), Diam. 31 cm (12 in.), W. 38.3 cm (15 in.)

Credit line Canino Collection; purchase, 1843

Accession number G 187

Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Sully, first floor, room 43, case 25
Photographer/source Jastrow (2007)




Zalmoxis (Zalmox-is)   The Supreme God of the Dacians. The God and king of the Thracians (Plato, Charmides, 5); also known as Gebeleizis/Gebeleixis (Herodotus, Historiae, IV.94); equivalent to Kronos (Mnaseas of Patras, Hesychius of Alexandria). The historian of religion Mircea Eliade proposes two deities, (1) Zalmoxis, ”God of Misteries” and (2) Gebeleizis, the Storm-God, worshipped as one deity as a result of religious syncretism (De Zalmoxis, p. 61). Romulus Vulcănescu and others identify Gebeleizis as ”god of the sky, sun and tempests” (Mitologie Română, p. 111). Having regard to the fact that Zalmoxis is equated with Kronos (the Sky-God), we may surmise that he was, indeed, the Sky-God who, as has been the case with equivalent Indo-European deities, eventually took over the features and functions of the Storm-God. Considering that with Indo-Europeans in general the Sky-God is the God of Light (bright sky = daylight), we may further surmise that the Dacian Sky-God had the Sun-God as hypostasis or manifestation (cf. Apollo, son of Zeus; Christ, son of Heaven, etc.).

According to his function and position in Dacian religion, Zalmox/Zalmoz/Zalmos would signify: (1) The Great and Mighty One, Thr. *zal, power, Gk. zale, storm, za(*l)menes, very strong, powerful, furious, Pers. zal, power, Skr. shura, powerful, valiant, hero (cf. Slav. sila, Lith. siela, Goth. saiwala, power, vital force, soul, spirit, Skr. shilayati, to worship, practise, excel); (2) The Radiant One, Lett. zelts, gold, Lith. želtas, golden, Slav. zlato, Russ. zoloto, Pers. zaranya, Skr. hiranyam, gold, hari, yellow, gaura, white, yellow, bright, gold, Gauri, The Bright/Golden One, Hindu goddess, IE *ghel- (*ghol-), shining. Gebeleizis (Zebeleizis), Thr. *z(i)bel, Lith. žaibas, lightning, žybeioti, to gleam, to flash, Lett. zibens, zibet, IE *g’heib, light, lightning. For -mox (-moxis) see Moş.

Jordanes, Getica

(39)To return, then, to my subject. The aforesaid race of which I speak is known to have had Filimer as king while they remained in their first home in Scythia near Maeotis. In their second home, that is in the countries of Dacia, Thrace and Moesia, Zalmoxes reigned, whom many writers of annals mention as a man of remarkable learning in philosophy. Yet even before this they had a learned man Zeuta, and after him Dicineus; and the third was Zalmoxes of whom I have made mention above. Nor did they lack teachers of wisdom. (40) Wherefore the Goths have ever been wiser than other barbarians and were nearly like the Greeks, as Dio relates, who wrote their history and annals with a Greek pen. He says that those of noble birth among them, from whom their kings and priests were appointed, were called first Tarabostesei and then Pilleati. Moreover so highly were the Getae praised that Mars, whom the fables of poets call the god of war, was reputed to have been born among them. Hence Virgil says:

"Father Gradivus rules the Getic fields."

Dacian royal helmet, 400 BC, discovered at Poiana Cotofenesti, Romania. On the right side it seems to be the tauroctony scene of the Mithraic Mysteries
Română: Coif dacic din aur, datat 400 i.e.n.
Almost a kilogram heavy, the helmet is very well preserved, missing only part of it's skull cap. It has matching sacrifice scenes engraved on each cheek protectors, large studs on the top of the skull and two very large apotropaic eyes, meant ward off the evil and magic spells. It was established that it belonged to an unknown local Dacian king from around year 400 BC. One of the theories, without any poof, however, is that this item was the sacred helmet of Zalmoxis, the living god-prophet of the Dacians

The Polovragi cave is connected with the ancient story of Zalmoxis, (or Zalmoxes) the god or king of the Dacian people, about the beginning of the second millenium.  


Sources for Zalmoxis


The belief of the Getae in respect of immortality is the following. They think that they do not really die, but that when they depart this life they go to Zalmoxis, who is called also Gebeleizis by some among them. To this god every five years they send a messenger, who is chosen by lot out of the whole nation, and charged to bear him their several requests. Their mode of sending him is this. A number of them stand in order, each holding in his hand three darts; others take the man who is to be sent to Zalmoxis, and swinging him by his hands and feet, toss him into the air so that he falls upon the points of the weapons. If he is pierced and dies, they think that the god is propitious to them; but if not, they lay the fault on the messenger, who (they say) is a wicked man: and so they choose another to send away. The messages are given while the man is still alive. This same people, when it lightens and thunders, aim their arrows at the sky, uttering threats against the god; and they do not believe that there is any god but their own.

I am told by the Greeks who dwell on the shores of the Hellespont and the Pontus, that this Zalmoxis was in reality a man, that he lived at Samos, and while there was the slave of Pythagoras son of Mnesarchus. After obtaining his freedom he grew rich, and leaving Samos, returned to his own country. The Thracians at that time lived in a wretched way, and were a poor ignorant race; Zalmoxis, therefore, who by his commerce with the Greeks, and especially with one who was by no means their most contemptible philosopher, Pythagoras to wit, was acquainted with the Ionic mode of life and with manners more refined than those current among his countrymen, had a chamber built, in which from time to time he received and feasted all the principal Thracians, using the occasion to teach them that neither he, nor they, his boon companions, nor any of their posterity would ever perish, but that they would all go to a place where they would live for aye in the enjoyment of every conceivable good. While he was acting in this way, and holding this kind of discourse, he was constructing an apartment underground, into which, when it was completed, he withdrew, vanishing suddenly from the eyes of the Thracians, who greatly regretted his loss, and mourned over him as one dead. He meanwhile abode in his secret chamber three full years, after which he came forth from his concealment, and showed himself once more to his countrymen, who were thus brought to believe in the truth of what he had taught them. Such is the account of the Greeks.

I for my part neither put entire faith in this story of Zalmoxis and his underground chamber, nor do I altogether discredit it: but I believe Zalmoxis to have lived long before the time of Pythagoras. Whether there was ever really a man of the name, or whether Zalmoxis is nothing but a native god of the Getae, I now bid him farewell. As for the Getae themselves, the people who observe the practices described above, they were now reduced by the Persians, and accompanied the army of Darius. -- Book IV, 93-96.


The aforesaid race of which I speak is known to have had Filimer as king while they remained in their first home in Scythia near Maeotis. In their second home, that is in the countries of Dacia, Thrace and Moesia, Zalmoxes reigned, whom many writers of annals mention as a man of remarkable learning in philosophy. Yet even before this they had a learned man Zeuta, and after him Dicineus; and the third was Zalmoxes of whom I have made mention above. -- Getica, V.39.


In fact, it is said that a certain man of the Getae, Zamolxis by name, had been a slave to Pythagoras, and had learned some things about the heavenly bodies from him,1 as also certain other things from the Egyptians, for in his wanderings he had gone even as far as Egypt; and when he came on back to his home-land he was eagerly courted by the rulers and the people of the tribe, because he could make predictions from the celestial signs; and at last he persuaded the king to take him as a partner in the government, on the ground that he was competent to report the will of the gods; and although at the outset he was only made a priest of the god who was most honored in their country, yet afterwards he was even addressed as god, and having taken possession of a certain cavernous place that was inaccessible to anyone else he spent his life there, only rarely meeting with any people outside except the king and his own attendants; and the king cooperated with him, because he saw that the people paid much more attention to himself than before, in the belief that the decrees which he promulgated were in accordance with the counsel of the gods. This custom persisted even down to our own time, because some man of that character was always to be found, who, though in fact only a counsellor to the king, was called god among the Getae. And the people took up the notion that the mountain2 was sacred and they so call it, but its name is Cogaeonum,3 like that of the river which flows past it. So, too, at the time when Byrebistas,4 against whom already5 the Deified Caesar had prepared to make an expedition, was reigning over the Getae, the office in question was held by Decaeneus, and somehow or other the Pythagorean doctrine of abstention from eating any living thing still survived as taught by Zamolxis. -- Geographica, VII, 3:5


His approving answers reassured me, and I began by degrees to regain confidence, and the vital heat returned. Such, Charmides, I said, is the nature of the charm, which I learned when serving with the army from one of the physicians of the Thracian king Zamolxis, who are to be so skilful that they can even give immortality. This Thracian told me that in these notions of theirs, which I was just now mentioning, the Greek physicians are quite right as far as they go; but Zamolxis, he added, our king, who is also a god, says further, "that as you ought not to attempt to cure the eyes without the head, or the head without the body, so neither ought you to attempt to cure the body without the soul; and this," he said, "is the reason why the cure of many diseases is unknown to the physicians of Hellas, because they are ignorant of the whole, which ought to be studied also; for the part can never be well unless the whole is well." For all good and evil, whether in the body or in human nature, originates, as he declared, in the soul, and overflows from thence, as if from the head into the eyes. -- Charmides, 156-8


Plato -- if I may quote him again -- in another passage dealing with a certain Zalmoxis, a Thracian and also a master of this art has written that magical charms are merely beautiful words. If that is so, why should I be forbidden to learn the fair words of Zalmoxis or the priestly lore. of Zoroaster? -- Apology, II, 26

Diodorus Siculus

Thus it is recorded that among the Arians Zathraustes claimed that the Good Spirit gave him his laws, among the people known as the Getae who represent themselves to be immortal Zalmoxis asserted the same of their common goddess Hestia, and among the Jews Moyses referred his laws to the god who is invoked as Iao. They all did this either because they believed that a conception which would help humanity was marvellous and wholly divine, or because they held that the common crowd would be more likely to obey the laws if their gaze were directed towards the majesty and power of those to whom their laws were ascribed. -- Book I, c.94,


Apparently Hellanicus also gives the story from Herodotus in his "Nomina Barbarica", remains of which in FGrH, 4 F 73.


14. Pythagoras had another youthful disciple from Thrace. Zamolxis was he named because he was born wrapped in a bear's skin, in Thracian called Zalmus. Pythagoras loved him, and instructed him in sublime speculations concerning sacred rites, and the nature of the Gods. Some say this youth was named Thales, and that the barbarians worshipped him as Hercules.

15. Dionysiphanes says that he was a servant of Pythagoras, who fell into the hands of thieves and by them was branded. Then when Pythagoras was persecuted and banished, (he followed him) binding up his forehead on account of the scars. Others say that, the name Zamolxis signifies a stranger or foreigner. -- Vita Pythagorae, 14-15.


Those who came from this school, not only the most ancient Pythagoreans, but also those who during his old age were still young, such as Philolaos, and Eurytus, Charendas and Zaleucus, Brysson and the elder Archytas, Aristaeus, Lysis and Empdocles, Zamoixis and Epimanides, Milo and Leucippus, Alcmaeon and Hippasus, and Thymaridas were all of that age, a multitude of savants, incomparably excellent, --- all these adopted this mode of teaching, both in their conversations, and commentaries and annotations. -- ch. 23 -- use of parables in instruction.

Nor need we specially admire those (above mentioned professional) legislators. Pythagoras had a slave by the name of Zamolxis, hailing from Thrace. After hearing Pythagoras's discourses, and obtaining his freedom, he returned to the Getae, and there, as has already been mentioned at the beginning of this work, exhorted the citizens to fortitude, persuading then that the soul is immortal. So much so is this that even at present all the Galatians and Trallians, and many others of the Barbarians, persuade their children that the soul cannot be destroyed, but survives death, so that the latter is not to be feared, so that (ordinary) danger is to be met with a firm and manly mind. For instructing the Getae in these things, and for having written laws for them, Zamolxis was by them considered as the greatest of the gods.-- ch.30.

Diogenes Laertius

He had brothers, the eldest of whom was named Eunomus, the middle one Tyrrhenius, and a slave named Zamolxis, to whom the Getae sacrifice, believing him to be the same as Saturn, according to the account of Herodotus (4:93). -- Life of Pythagoras 1


I should now like to name the famous persons I saw. To17 begin with, all the demi-gods, and the besiegers of Troy, with the exception of Ajax the Locrian; he, they said, was undergoing punishment in the place of the wicked. Of barbarians there were the two Cyruses, Anacharsis the Scythian, Zamolxis the Thracian, and the Latin Numa; and then Lycurgus the Spartan, Phocion and Tellus of Athens, and the Wise Men, but without Periander. And I saw Socrates son of Sophroniscus in converse with Nestor and Palamedes; clustered round him were Hyacinth the Spartan, Narcissus of Thespiae, Hylas, and many another comely boy. -- True History book 2.

Damis. Thank you; a timely reminder; national observances show better than anything else how vague religious theory is. Confusion is endless, and beliefs as many as believers. Scythia makes offerings to a scimetar, Thrace to the Samian runaway Zamolxis, Phrygia to a Month-God, Ethiopia to a Day-Goddess, Cyllene to Phales, Assyria to a dove, Persia to fire, Egypt to water. -- Zeus Tragoedus, 42.

Momus: Ah; and out of consideration for him I suppose I must also abstain from any reference to the eagle, which is now a God like the rest of us, perches upon the royal sceptre, and may be expected at any moment to build his nest upon the head of Majesty?--Well, you must allow me Attis, Corybas, and 9 Sabazius: by what contrivance, now, did they get here? and that Mede there, Mithras, with the candys and tiara? why, the fellow cannot speak Greek; if you pledge him, he does not know what you mean. The consequence is, that Scythians and Goths, observing their success, snap their fingers at us, and distribute divinity and immortality right and left; that was how the slave Zamolxis's name slipped into our register. However, 10 let that pass. But I should just like to ask that Egyptian there--the dog-faced gentleman in the linen suit 1--who he is, and whether he proposes to establish his divinity by barking? -- The Gods in Council.

Something perhaps in Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 173. Also in the Suda, Diogenes Laertius Proem. 1 and VIII, 1:1. Also Lucian, "true history", II, 17. Also "Iupp. trag. 42" and "deorum conc. 9", whatever those are (I'm reading Pauly's RealEncyclopadie). Also Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras 14. That may be it. NB: the Getae certainly also worshipped Hestia and Ares.

Apparently "Iupp. trag." is Lucian, "Jupiter Tragoedus" (a name in everyone's lips), lit. "Zeus rants". Trying to find an English translation. And "deorum conc." is another Lucian.


Among his followers, however, who escaped the conflagration were Lysis and Archippus, and the servant of Pythagoras, Zamolxis, who also is said to have taught the Celtic Druids to cultivate the philosophy of Pythagoras. And they assert that Pythagoras learned from the Egyptians his system of numbers and measures; and I being struck by the plausible, fanciful, and not easily revealed wisdom of the priests, he himself likewise, in imitation of them, enjoined silence, and made his disciples lead a solitary life in underground chapels. -- book 1, c.2.

22. And the Celtic Druids investigated to the very highest point the Pythagorean philosophy, after Zamolxis,123 by birth a Thracian,124 a servant of Pythagoras, became to them the originator of this discipline. Now after the death of Pythagoras, Zamolxis, repairing thither, became to them the originator of this philosophy. The Celts esteem these as prophets and seers, on account of their foretelling to them certain (events), from calculations and numbers by the Pythagorean art; on the methods of which very art also we shall not keep silence, since also from these some have presumed to introduce heresies; but the Druids resort to magical rites likewise. -- Refutation of all Heresies, book 1, c.22.


The Jew continues his address to those of his countrymen who are converts, as follows: 'Come now, let us grant to you that the prediction was actually uttered. Yet how many others are there who practise such juggling tricks, in order to deceive their simple hearers, and who make gain by their deception?—as was the case, they say, with Zamolxis in Scythia, the slave of Pythagoras; and with Pythagoras himself in Italy; and with Rhampsinitus in Egypt (the latter of whom, they say, played at dice with Demeter in Hades, and returned to the upper world with a golden napkin which he had received from her as a gift); and also with Orpheus among the Odrysians, and Protesilaus in Thessaly, and Hercules at Cape Tænarus, and Theseus.' -- Origen Against Celsus 2:55



Jordanes, Getica

(63) Afterwards Darius, king of the Persians, the son of Hystaspes, demanded in marriage the daughter of Antyrus, king of the Goths (Getai), asking for her hand and at the same time making threats in case they did not fulfil his wish. The Goths spurned this alliance and brought his embassy to naught. Inflamed with anger because his offer had been rejected, he led an army of seven hundred thousand armed men against them and sought to avenge his wounded feelings by inflicting a public injury. Crossing on boats covered with boards and joined like a bridge almost the whole way from Chalcedon to Byzantium, he started for Thrace and Moesia. Later he built a bridge over the Danube in like manner, but he was wearied by two brief months of effort and lost eight thousand armed men among the Tapae. Then, fearing the bridge over the Danube would be seized by his foes, he marched back to Thrace in swift retreat, believing the land of Moesia would not be safe for even a short sojourn there.



Cothelas, also known as Gudila, (fl. 4th century BC) was a Getae king, who ruled an area near the Black Sea, between northern Thrace and the Danube.[1] His polity also included the important port of Odessos. Around 341 BC he concluded a treaty with Macedonian king Philip II, becoming his vassal. This relation was further cemented when Cothelas' daughter, Meda of Odessa, became one of the Macedonian king's wives.[2]


  1. ^ Lewis et al. 2008, p. 773
  2. ^ Talbert 1988, p. 63; Lewis et al. 2008, p. 472


See this website page Macedon, Getai, Dacheans

Muzeul "Callatis" reintră luni în posesia papirusului descoperit în 1959 şi trimis la Moscova 

 Muzeul "Callatis" reintră luni în posesia papirusului descoperit în 1959 şi trimis la Moscova

Muzeul de Arheologie "Callatis" din Mangalia va reintra, luni, în posesia papirusului descoperit într-un mormânt, în urmă cu mai bine de jumătate de secol, şi care fusese dat dispărut, după ce, trimis la Moscova pentru restaurare, a fost oprit acolo.
În anul 1959, a fost descoperit, la Mangalia, un papirus datat în secolul IV î.Ch., unicul de acest gen descoperit până în prezent în Europa, transmite corespondentul MEDIAFAX.
"Imediat după descoperire a fost trimis pentru restaurare şi conservare la Moscova. Timp de jumătate de secol, despre acest papirus nu s-a mai ştiut nimic. În lucrările de specialitate, dar şi în diverse alte reviste şi ziare, s-a menţionat că acest papirus s-a distrus în contact cu aerul şi lumina soarelui", a precizat directorul Muzeului de Arheologie "Callatis" Mangalia, dr. Sorin Marcel Colesniuc.
Recent, dr. Ion Pâslaru, angajat al muzeului, împreună cu dr. Sorin Marcel Colesniuc, au regăsit şi au reuşit să readucă în ţară, după mai bine de 50 de ani, unicul papirus existent, până la această dată, în toată Europa.
Ceremonia oficială de predare-primire a papirusului va avea loc, luni, la Muzeul de Arheologie "Callatis" din Mangalia, între specialiştii dr. Alexandr Nicolaievici Lesovoi - directorul Centrului de Restaurare I.E. Grabar din Moscova şi dr. Sorin Marcel Colesniuc - directorul Muzeului de Arheologie Callatis Mangalia.
Cu această ocazie va fi prezentată şi întreaga istorie a descoperirii, regăsirii şi readucerii în ţară a acestui papirus, datat în secolul IV î.Ch.
La eveniment au fost invitaţi să participe ministrul Culturii şi Patrimoniului Naţional, Kelemen Hunor, ministrul Dezvoltării Regionale şi Turismului, Elena Udrea, reprezentanţi ai Academiei Române şi ai Comisiei Naţionale de Arheologie, ambasadorul României la Moscova, consulul Federaţiei Ruse la Constanţa, profesori şi studenţi de la Universitatea regională de stat din Moscova, specialişti în istorie veche şi arheologie din universităţile şi muzeele din întreaga ţară, dar şi din străinătate, oameni de cultură şi pasionaţi de istorie.



 "Mormântul cu papirus" a fost descoperit în 1959, fiind datat în secolul IV Î.Ch. Interiorul mormântului este construit din blocuri de piatră cioplită, aflându-se la 1,5 metri sub nivelul solului. Se presupune că cel înmormântat aici era un om de seamă, iar lângă el a fost descoperit un papirus scris în limba greacă, singurul de acest fel descoperit în Europa.
 Din cauza climei foarte umede, practica papirusurilor a fost abandonată foarte repede de scribii vremii, acestea fiind înlocuite repede cu pergamente, mult mai rezistente în faţa umezelii. 


Cel mai vechi papirus din Europa şi singurul din România” s-a reîntors după 52 ani l

a Mangalia acolo unde a fost găsit într-un sarcofag descoperit în 1959 în timpul lucrărilor de construire a stadionului din oraş.

“Comoara a fost trimisă pentru restaurare şi conservare la Moscova şi, timp de jumătate de secol, nu s-a mai ştiu nimic despre acest papirus”, a explicat directorul Muzeului de Arheologie Callatis, Sorin Colesniuc în faţa numeroasei audienţe prezentă la ceremonia oficială de predare-primire a documentului “miracol”.

Ruşii au restaurat papirusul vreo 50 de ani

La eveniment, pe lângă ambasadorul Federaţiei Ruse la Bucureşti şi al consulului rus, a fost prezent directorul Centrului de Restaurare “I E Grabar” din Moscova, Alexander Lesovoy, care i-a predat directorului Muzeului Callatis cele trei cutii în care sunt păstrate cele 154 de fragmente ale preţiosului document.


Întreaga istorie a descoperirii, conservării în Moscova şi a regăsirii papirusului a fost prezentată în comun de specialiştii români şi ruşi. Sorin Colesniuc a ţinut să sublinieze că nu se pune problema unui refuz al autorităţilor ruse ci a faptului că, până în urmă cu doi ani, nimeni din România nu s-a arătat interesat de soarta documentului unic.

Papirusul a fost descoperit printre resturile scheletului mâinilor unui defunct îngropat într-un sarcofag care datează din secolul IV î.Hr. dar, potrivit directorului Centrului de Restaurare din Moscova, Alexander Lesovoy, „acest document poate fi chiar mai vechi cu două secole”. Imediat după descoperire, a fost trimis pentru restaurare și conservare la Moscova.

 Conservat de specialist din Moscova

În lucrările de specialitate, dar și în diverse alte reviste și ziare românești, autorii articolelor scriau că papirusul s-ar fi distrus în momentul când a fost scos din pământ. În realitate, el a fost restaurat și conservat, timp de trei ani, de Mihail A. Alexandrovski, un renumit specialist din Moscova, care a primit, pentru munca sa, din partea statului rus, cea mai înaltă distincție.

Abia în anul 2009 când se implineau 50 de ani de la descoperirea papirusului, directorul muzeului Callatis Mangalia, Sorin Colesniuc, împreună cu colegul său dr. Ion Pâslaru, care lucrase 10 ani în Ucraina şi care ştia de existenţa papirusului “undeva pe la Moscova”, şi-au propus să înceapă demersurile pentru recuperarea lui.

Ajutaţi de primarul Mangaliei, Mihai Claudiu Tusac, l-au găsit după doi ani şi, la solicitarea lor de restituire, Centrul de conservare din Moscova a cerut aprobarea Ministerului Culturii din Federația Rusă, pe care a primit-o în iunie 2011.

În plus, directorul Centrului de conservare, dr. Alexander Lesovoy, a convocat și un Consiliu științific, cu specialiști și experți din Federația Rusă, pentru a analiza starea în care se află papirusul. Concluzia a fost aceea că este într-o perfectă stare, la fel ca în anul 1961, atunci când Mihail A. Alexandrovski a finalizat restaurarea și conservarea sa.

Partea cea mai grea: descifrarea papirusului

Operațiunea de descifrare a papirusului va fi realizată de o comisie ştiinţifică de cercetători, din care vor face parte şi doi specialişti ruşi. Profesorul Alexandru Avram, specialist în inscripţiile greceşti, crede că poate fi vorba de un document juridic sau un text cu caracter magic şi nu exclude varianta unui text iniţiatic legat de misterele zeului Dyonisos, ”având în vedere că epoca elenistică de la Callatis cunoşteau o activitate intensă a unor asociaţii dionisiace al căror membru ar fi putut fi defunctul”.

“Până atunci însă papirusul va fi expus în muzeu, în condiţii de strictă securitare. Primarul Mihai Claudiu Tusac a anunţat că au fost instalate deja camerele de supraveghere şi un sistem de alarmare rapid, pentru că papirusul va deveni brandul turistic al Mangaliei şi va atrage in acest fel un număr important de vizitatori dar şi de răufăcători“. În opinia arhelogului Ion Pâslaru, “acest papirus are o valoare inestimabilă”.

Citiţi mai mult: Papirusul recuperat de la ruşi va deveni brandul turistic al Mangaliei - Util >


Cercetători din Europa vin la Mangalia pentru a pune cap la cap 154 de fragmente dintr-un valoros papirus şi pentru a descifra înscrisul de pe el. Papirusul ieşit la lumină la Mangalia în 1959, cea mai importantă descoperire din România în secolul XX, a fost expus ieri în premieră în locul unde a fost găsit.

După ce timp de peste 50 de ani a stat închis în Centrul de Conservare „I.E. Grabar" din Moscova, cel mai vechi papirus al Europei s-a întors la Mangalia în trei cutii. Acestea conţin în total 154 de fragmente fragile şi îngălbenite de vreme, foarte greu descifrabile, după cum spun specialiştii. Cu infraroşu, se văd câteva rânduri cu litere greceşti şi, din câte se pare, este vorba despre un document juridic al unui defunct, ale cărui osemnite au fost descoperite odată cu papirusul. „Poate fi chiar şi un text literar sau unul cu un caracter magic, având în vedere că la acea vreme, la Callatis, exista o asociaţie dionisiacă", a declarat Alexandru Avram, specialist în arheologie şi inscripţii greceşti.

Înmormântat cu papirusul în mână

Mormântul în care a fost descoperit oferă date valoroase pentru descifrarea preţiosului document. „Este vorba despre un mormânt pe al cărui capac au fost găsite în 1959 resturi de coji de ouă, o coroniţă din frunze de bronz, dar şi bobiţe de ceramică, prinse într-un cadru de os, toate aurite. În interior, a ieşit la lumină un schelet bărbătesc. Pe craniul său a fost găsită o altă coroniţă", a declarat Sorin Colesniuc, directorul Muzeului Callatis Mangalia. „În mâna dreaptă şi peste oasele bazinului scheletului au fost descoperite fragmentele papirusului scris în limba gracă, cu dimensiunile de 30 pe 5 centimetri", a adăugat acesta.

Pe baza şi a celorlalte materiale descoperite în mormânt se presupune că persoana înmormântată a avut un rol important în Cetatea Callatis.

La Mangalia, vor sosi în curând specialişti din Rusia şi Franţa pentru a începe cercetarea papirusului, mai ales că în România nu există cercetători în papirologie.

Valorosul document a fost predat în anul descoperirii, 1959, Republicii Ruse pentru a fi restaurat şi conservat. Ministerul Culturii a făcut deja demersurile pentru ca papirusul să intre în categoria Tezaur a Patrimoniului naţional mobil.


Piepor or Pierporus of the Free Dacian-Costobocans

PIEPOR - sec II en - Rege al costobocilor, a cărui soţie, Zias, fiica lui Tiatus moare la Roma, unde nepoţii ei Natoporus şi Drilgisa îi pun un epitaf.

An imperial-era funerary inscription found in Rome, dedicated to "Zia, daughter of Tiatus, Dacian wife of Pieporus, Costobocan king


" (D[is] M[anibus] Ziai Tiati fil[iae] Dacae uxori Piepori regis Coisstobocensis Natoporus et Drilgisa aviae cariss[imae] b[ene] m[erenti] fecer[unt]).[2]


Some scholars consider that Pieporus is a name of Dacian origin, as are those of Pieporus' named grandchildren, Natoporus and Drilgisa.[31]

The same scholars regard the name-suffix -poris/porus/por as typically Dacian.,.[31][32] The name Pieporus is reminiscent of the ‘Dac(i) Petoporiani’ on the Tabula Peutingeriana. Perhaps ‘Petoporani’ is an error and should read ‘Pieporiani’, which would mean that the Costoboci were Dacian.[33]The Costoboci have been linked by some scholars with the Lipiţa culture.,.[34][10] On the basis of this culture's characteristics, many Romanian archaeologists[who?] claim that the population of this region was always, and remained, predominantly Geto-Dacian

Lipiţa culture

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Map of Roman Dacia showing Costoboci, Carpi and Free Dacians

Lipita culture (Romanian Lipiţa, Polish Lipica other spellings: Lipitsa, Lipitza) is the archaeological material culture representative of a Dacian tribe.[1][2] It took its name from the Ukrainian village of Verkhnya Lypytsya (ukr. Верхня Липиця), region Rohatyn Raion, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast.


It is located on the Upper Dniester [3] and Middle Dniester, Upper Prut, in the Carpathians and Subcarpathians of today’s Bukovina, Pokuttya, Galicia, Transcarpathia and Maramureş. It lasted from the middle of the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 3rd century AD.

Lipita type site

Smiszko (1932) Kostrzewski (1949) Sulimirski (1972) Cigilik (1975) Kozak (1989 and 2006), Shchukin (1989 and 2006) explicitly assign to it a Dacian / North Thracian origin.[4][5][6][7] Still in the early Roman period, this Thracian population was dominated by strong Celtic influences or had simply absorbed Celtic ethnic components [3] One of the most recent settlements on Dniester that is associated with Lipita culture is in Remezivtsyah that existed before the early third century.[8]

"Flat" cremation cemeteries are typical of this culture.[7] And, along these a few graves have been discovered which differ markedly i.e. richly furnished inhumation burials in ancient mounds with equipment consisting of imported Roman vases and other goods, with a few articles typical of the Celtic culture. The pottery from these burials was a typical Lipita ware.[7] Buried in the graves were evidently members of the rulling class of the Lipita culture, presumably of Celtic origin.[7]

  • Like other pagan Dacians and Thracians, the Lipiţa people cremated their deceased. The remains were buried in a plane or tumular tomb. Only children were inhumed; as they hadn't passed a come of age passage ritual, due of their age, they couldn't be incinerated. These burial customs lasted from the late La Tène and were best preserved in the Upper Tisza basin, a region with a major Dacian cultural perpetuation throughout the ages.

The presence in Kolokolin ( Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast) and Chizhikovo (Ukraine, (Chyzhykove)) of Dacian pottery made some scholars to include also these memorials of those sites in the Lipitsa culture of the Upper Dniester, which was as linked to it by the Dacian tribe of the Costoboci.[9] Benadik and Kolnik sensing the similarity of these burials to the Zemplin burial ground, included the latter in the Lipita culture.[9] However, these burials date from a slightly earlier period, and possess typological difference which makes their inclusion into the Lipita culture unlikely.[9]

Culture and trade

Lipita culture (Romanian Lipiţa, Polish Lipica other spellings: Lipitsa, Lipitza) that is a Dacian / North Thracian culture is considered by the majority of scholars as representing the Dacian tribe of Costoboci.[1][2]

Roman influences are also visible in the material culture. Likewise, Germanic people from the Przeworsk culture, but also Celts and Sarmatians, came in contact with the Lipiţa people. It seems that no Early Slavs made contact with this area yet, as the first Slavic artifacts in today's Moldavia and Bukovina are not dated earlier than the 5th and 6th centuries AD.

In the first decades of the 3rd century, Lipiţa culture of the Costoboci restricted its territory and gave birth to a new archaeological culture, that of the Carpathian Tumuli. A part of the Costoboci inhabiting the Subcarpathian hills withdrew southwards into the mountains, while a small part migrated in Moldavia, joining the Carpi, another Dacian tribe. In any case, some did remain in the northern area of the Lipiţa culture, despite the pressure of the newly arrived East Germanic tribes.

The largest part of the territory of Lipiţa and Carpathian Tumuli archaeological cultures is now inhabited by the Hutsuls, both in Ukraine and in Romania.


  1. ^ a b Shchukin (1989) 306
  2. ^ a b Parvan, Florescu (1982) 547
  3. ^ a b Jażdżewski & 1948 76.
  4. ^ Shchukin, Kazanski, Sharov (2006) p.20
  5. ^ Kostrzewski (1949) p.230
  6. ^ Kozak & 2006 p.212.
  7. ^ a b c d Sulimirski & 1972 p.104.
  8. ^ Kozak & 2006 212.
  9. ^ a b c Shchukin & 1989 280.


  • Gheorghe Bichir, Dacii liberi din nordul Daciei in Spaţiul nord-est carpatic în mileniul întunecat, Historica, Iaşi, 1997
  • Jażdżewski, Konrad (1948). Atlas to the prehistory of the Slavs. Lodzkie Tow Naukowe, Poland.
  • Kostrzewski, Józef (1949) Les origines de la civilisation polonaise Press University of France
  • Kozak, Denys (2006). Ethnic-cultural processes on the territory of Ukrainian part of Dnister region during the first half of I kyr. A. D. P. 211–234. Lviv University Archaeology Studies.
  • Mircea Ignat, Spaţiul nord-est carpatic în secolele I - III d. Chr. in Spaţiul nord-est carpatic în mileniul întunecat, Historica, Iaşi, 1997
  • Pe urmele strǎmoşilor uitaţi / vol. 1, 2 , 3, Fundaţia Baltagul, Cîmpulung Moldovenesc, 2003
  • Parvan Vasile, Florescu Radu (1982) Getica, Editura Meridiane
  • Shchukin Mark B (1989) Rome and the barbarians in central and eastern Europe: 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. British Archaeological Reports
  • Shchukin Mark B, Kazanski Michel, Sharov Oleg (2006) Des les goths aux huns: le nord de la mer Noire au Bas-Empire et a l'époque des grandes migrations John and Erica Hedges, British Archaeological Reports (Jun 1 2006), ISBN 978-1841717562
  • Spinei, Victor (1997) Bucovina în mileniul întunecat in Spaţiul nord-est carpatic în mileniul întunecat, Historica, Iaşi, 1997
  • Sulimirski, Tadeusz (1972). "The Thracians in the North Carpathians and the Problem of the Walachians (Vlachs)". Polska Akademia Nauk. Oddział w Krakowie, Polska Akademia Nauk. Oddział w Krakowie. Komisja Archeologiczna. 12-14. Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe.


Map of Dacia 

 Digital Scriptorium Database, Huntington Catalog Images

Coins of the Getai and Dacian Kings


Thraco-Getae, Imitating types of Alexander the Great, AR Tetradrachm.

ΡΛΣΙΛΕΩΣ on right, ΛΝΞΛΝV on left, & controls K under Zeus’s arm, ΔΧ monogram under throne, grain stalk in exergue. Imitates issue of Callatis as Price 929. Cf. Göbl OTA 573

Imitations of Roman Republican coins from Dacia

I quote below a short extract from one of Phil Davis' recent studies on coins from Dacia, modeled on the Roman Republic, to give a flavor. Phil mentions that these coins were not intended to deceive, no more than the Italian or Spanish local small change was intended to deceive. They were good metal coins in as good a style as the makers could manage.

QUOTE. Twenty-five years have passed since the late Maria Chitescu's groundbreaking examination of Dacian imitations of Roman Republican denarii, Numismatic Aspects of the History of the Dacian State.... These range from very faithful copies, barely distinguishable from their Republican prototypes, to wild, outlandish, sometimes dramatic, occasionally lovely barbarous interpretations of the Roman original, to remarkably crude depictions of cartoon Roma heads and stick-figure quadrigas that hardly merit the term, art, at all.
Im-267-0695-41-Imitative Quinctia

They are in no sense counterfeits; their purpose was not to deceive or cheat the recipient, and in fact, the imitations often contain more silver by weight than their Republican models. Rather, they served to make up a shortfall, real or perceived, in the supply of circulating coinage in Dacia, much as local British imitations of Roman asses of Claudius made up a deficiency of coinage in First Century AD Britain... Coinage had long been known and used in Dacia, consisting largely of Macedonian and Thasian tetradrachms and imitations of them; drachms of Dyrrachium and Apollonia also circulated, primarily in Transylvania. As economic contact between the expanding Geto-Dacian world and the expanding Roman Republic intensified, perhaps as early as 100, more likely circa 75 BC, these Greek issues were almost entirely replaced by Roman Republican denarii.... K. Lockyear has demonstrated, by careful hoard analysis, that Republican denarii began to arrive in quantity in Dacia in the mid-70s BC. .... this corresponds nicely with the date at which the prototypes of the most typical Dacian copies were struck. The imitations will of course have been struck somewhat later than the prototypes, since an indeterminate, but not negligible, time will be required for these to arrive in Dacia. A timeframe ranging from roughly 80 BC to 65 BC for the issue of the bulk of the imitations, with a second, smaller peak around 40-30 BC, will perhaps be not far from the mark. Massive numbers of apparently official Republican issues have been found in Romania, some 25,000 in documented hoards, an unknown but substantial number in undocumented finds, more than have been unearthed anywhere outside Italy itself. These hoards are found in all regions of modern Romania. M. H. Crawford has described this as one of the most remarkable phenomena within the pattern of monetary circulation in antiquity...
Im-341-0380-40-Imitative Titia

These hoards contain a mixture of official Republican coins and locally made imitations of them. Just what the proportions of that mixture are has been the subject of sometimes heated debate. Chitescu and other Romanian scholars argued that the proportion of locally produced coins was surprisingly high, Crawford countered that it was quite low. That some of these coins are imitations is beyond dispute, as evidenced by their non-Roman style and garbled legends. Most however, give every appearance of being normal products of Roman mints... Chitescu and other Romanian scholars maintained that this flood of coins was due in large part to the economic requirements of the Dacian proto-state under Burebista. In this view, the coins were needed to fuel an expanding monetary economy and to pay Burebistas army. Contra this, Crawford suggested that the primary explanation for the influx was the requirements of a growing slave trade between Dacia and Rome, necessitated by the dearth of slaves in the Republic after the bloody destruction of Spartacus slave army in 71 BC and Pompeys repression of piracy in 67BC. This fractious debate has generated more heat than light... My intent here is to focus on the coins themselves, specifically those that were without doubt produced locally in Dacia... and examine particular Dacian imitations from a numismatic perspective. UNQUOTE.

Courtesy Phil Davis

Im-393-05105-31-Danube Eravisci




ZYRAXES - ~30 îen - Regele cu tribul dobrogean cel mai nordic, este atacat în capitala sa Genucla, de către Crassus pentru că deţinea stindardele lui Hybrida capturate în anul 61 îen. Zyraxes ştiind că nu va rezista, se retrage în stânga Dunării.  



 REICIPIER - Regele cotensilor, trib cu capitala la Ramidava.  


DICOMES - ~30 îen - Se amestecă şi el în lupta internă pentru putere de la Roma, într-un prim moment de partea lui Ovidiu dar acesta nerăspunzându-i (sau poate din solidaritate cu Coson) îl ajută pe Antoniu. Dacii căzuţi prizonieri sunt puşi să lupte în amfiteatre cu suebi.


ROLES - ~30 îen - Regele dobrogean câştigă titlul de "aliat şi prieten al poporului roman", de la Octavian la Corint, după ajutorul dat lui M.Licinus Crassus în a învinge tracii denteleţi.

29 - 28 - O invazie bastarno-dacă la sudul Dunării împotriva tracilor dentheleti, aliaţi ai romanilor este respinsă de proconsulul Macedoniei, M.Licinius Crassus, ajutat de regele get din SV Dobrogei, Roles fiind răsplătit cu titlul de socius et amicus populi romani. După scurt timp este atacat de Dapyx, rege get din centrul Dobrogii, Roles apelează la ajutorul lui Crassus. Campania iniţiată de acesta duce la înfrângerea lui Dapyx (care se sinucide) şi este continuată spre nord împotriva lui Zyraxes, regele get nord-dobrogean care în faţa iminentei înfrângeri se refugiază la nord de Dunăre. În resedinţa acestuia sunt găsite trofeele obţinute cu ocazia înfrângerii lui Hybrida

4 IULIE 27 - M.Licinius Crassus îşi celebrează la Roma triumful ex thraecia et geteis 


COTISO - ~30 îen - Rege care stăpâneşte în munţii dintre Banat şi Oltenia, cu o oarecare aproximaţie, de la începutul domniei lui Augustus (27 îen) şi despre care autorul antic Florus ne spune că atacă sudul Dunării când aceasta îngheaţă. După victoria lui Octavian în războaiele civile, romanii iau măsuri de pedepsire a regelui dac, acesta fiind înfrânt de generalul Marcus Licinius Crasus. Într-o odă dedicată protectorului său, Mecena, poetul Horaţiu îl sfătuieste pe acesta să nu mai fie frământat de grija Romei, căci armata lui Cotiso a pierit.

Sarmis Basileus against Alexander Macedon (Romanian)


Kings Sarmis on plate 058

He is wearing a collapsible Celtic type helmet like the one found at Ciumesti [See photo bellow]

On their heads they wear bronze helmets which possess projecting figures lending the appearance of enormous stature to the wearer.  In some cases, horns form one piece with the helmet while in other cases it is the relief figures or the foreparts of birds or quadrupeds.

-Diodorus Siculus





- sec. IV îen, rege a cărui existenţă este presupusă datorită unor descoperiri monetare şi a asemănării de nume cu capitala statului dac, Sarmizegetusa. Monezile atestă un "SARMIS BASILEUS". Acestea sunt în număr de 5. Una de argint cu menţiunea textuală şi un mistreţ cu o săgeată în gură menţionată de Zamosius, Troester şi Soterius. Una de aur descoperită la Turda în 1826, pe care apare menţiunea textuală şi poarta unei cetăţi. O altă monedă de aur descoperită la Turda în 1826 cu menţiunea textuală, un personaj cu două feţe şi o ţestoasă. O monedă de aur descoperită la Grădiştea Muncelului, aflată în 1848 în colecţia contelui Eszterhazy din Viena, J.F.Neigebaur o prezintă la un simpozion de la Institutul Arheologic din Roma la data de 4 februarie 1848, moneda conţine menţiunea textuală şi o ţestoasă.

O monedă de aur cu menţiunea textuală şi reprezentarea unei figuri umane, unui măgar şi a unui templu în care arde un foc. O monedă de argint cu menţiunea textuală, o figură umană cu două feţe şi o ţestoasă.. J.F.Neigebaur şi Huszti Andras îl consideră pe Sarmis regele get care se opune lui Alexandru Macedon în expediţia sa la nord de Dunăre.



Getian King Dromichaetes tomb at Seveshtari,Sborianovo, near Helis, now Bulgaria




 Dromichaetes (Ancient Greek, "Δρομιχαίτης") was ruler of the Getae on both sides of the lower Danube (present day Romania and Bulgaria) around 300 BC. His capital was named Helis and Romanian historians traditionally located it somewhere in the Romanian Plain (in Wallachia). However, the discovery of the Thracian tomb at Sveshtari (1982) in the western Ludogorie in Bulgaria suggested that Helis was located perhaps in its vicinity[1], where remains of a large ancient city are found along with dozens of other Thracian mound tombs.

Ancient chronicles (Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Polybius, Plutarch, Pausanias) recorded his victory over Lysimachus, King of Thrace, former general of Alexander the Great who held a fortress at Tirizis (modern Kaliakra).

The remarkable thing about Dromichaetes was his diplomacy. After he captured Lysimachus, a symbolic feast was staged in which Lysimachus was treated with the best food and ate from silver plates, while the Getae ate modest food from wooden plates. The point made by Dromichaites was: 'if you had all these silver plates in your country, why did you come here to take our wooden plates?' Eventually, Lysimachus was set free and was offered lavish gifts, a peaceful relationship between him and the Getae being thus established.




Dromichetes? Rhyton, Piscul Crasani, Romania 

See video

Dromichaetes si Comorile dela Piscul Crasani at:     

The peace between the Getae and Lysimachus was strengthened further by the marriage between Dromichaetes and Lysimachus' daughter.

 Lives by Plutarch, translated by John Dryden

Demetrius Having thus continued three years a prisoner in Chersonesus, for want of exercise, and by indulging himself in eating and drinking, he fell into a disease, of which he died at the age of fifty-four. Seleucus was ill-spoken of, and was himself greatly grieved, that he had yielded so far to his suspicions, and had let himself be so much outdone by the barbarian Dromichaetes of Thrace, who had shown so much humanity and such a kingly temper in his treatment of his prisoner Lysimachus. (


 Lysimachus (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)at:

  The Annals of The World by Rev. James Ussher
Printed by E. Tyler, for F. Crook, and G. Bedell, 1658

 3711 AM, 4421 JP, 293 BC

2684. At that time, Lysimachus was fighting a war started against him by Dromichetes, the king of the Getes. So he would not be forced to fight against the king of Getes and Demetrius at the same time, he gave up that part of Macedon which belonged to his son-in-law Antipater and so made peace with him. (Justin l. 16. c. 1. with Strab. l. 7. p. 302, 305.)

2685. Dromichaetes captured Lysimachus but treated him very kindly. (Strabo. l. 7. p. 302, 305. Diodorus, in Excerpt. H. Vales. p. 257, 258.) Lysimachus gave him his daughter in marriage and part of Thrace which lay beyond the Ister, for a dowry. (Pansan. in Attica. p. 8.)

2686. Clearchus, the king of Heraclea in Pontus went to help Lysimachus in his war against the Getes and was taken prisoner together with Lysimachus. When Lysimachus had gotten liberty for himself, he wisely secured his liberty also. (Atemnon. in Excerpt. c. 6.)

Before setting out on his Persian expedition, Alexander the Great defeated the Getae and razed one of their settlements.[2] In 313 BC, the Getae formed an alliance with Callatis, Odessos, and other western Pontic Greek colonies against Lysimachus, who held a fortress at Tirizis (modern Kaliakra).[3]


  1. ^ Delev, P. (2000). "Lysimachus, the Getae, and Archaeology (2000)". The Classical Quarterly, New Series 50 (Vol. 50, No. 2): 384–401. doi:10.1093/cq/50.2.384. 

Dromichaetes (Ancient Greek, "Δρομιχαίτης") was ruler of the Getae on both sides of the lower Danube (present day Romania and Bulgaria) around 300 BC. His capital was named Helis and Romanian historians traditionally located it somewhere in the Romanian Plain (in Wallachia). However, the discovery of the Thracian tomb at Sveshtari (1982) in the western Ludogorie in Bulgaria suggested that Helis was located perhaps in its vicinity[1], where remains of a large ancient city are found along with dozens of other Thracian mound tombs.

Ancient chronicles (Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Polybius, Plutarch, Pausanias) recorded his victory over Lysimachus, King of Thrace, former general of Alexander the Great who held a fortress at Tirizis (modern Kaliakra).

The remarkable thing about Dromichaetes was his diplomacy. After he captured Lysimachus, a symbolic feast was staged in which Lysimachus was treated with the best food and ate from silver plates, while the Getae ate modest food from wooden plates. The point made by Dromichaites was: 'if you had all these silver plates in your country, why did you come here to take our wooden plates?' Eventually, Lysimachus was set free and was offered lavish gifts, a peaceful relationship between him and the Getae being thus established. The peace between the Getae and Lysimachus was strengthened further by the marriage between Dromichaetes and Lysimachus' daughter.


  1. ^ Delev, P. (2000). "Lysimachus, the Getae, and Archaeology (2000)". The Classical Quarterly, New Series 50 (Vol. 50, No. 2): 384–401. doi:10.1093/cq/50.2.384. 

External links



Thracian tomb near Sveshtari

The Thracian tomb near Sveshtari  revealed in 1982, was a Thracian-Hellenistic tomb of the first half of III century BC This is the tomb of the ruler of Getai Dromichaetes built of smoothly worked stone blocks of soft limestone.

It consists of a corridor and three square chambers. To one of the beds is facing facade sculpture of a miniature temple. The sanctification ritual of the king presented the semi-wall under the arch of the chamber. Prince on horseback, with two sword-bearers, it is against the goddess who brought him a golden crown, followed by four women with gifts.


The territory of another Thracian people , the Getae, spread in the northeastern part of the present-day Bulgarian state. The remains of their capital, Helis
The Great Race psp

, were discovered in the remarkable natural environment near the villages of Sveshtari and Sboryanovo. In immediate proximity there are more than 100 tumuli making up the royal necropolis of the ruler of Getae.The Sveshtari tomb, excavated in the early 1980s, is the masterpiece among all tombs discovered . That grandiose architectural construction was created in the first half of the 3rd century BC and was plundered then. That was the era of the historic campaigns of Alexander the Great. After his early death, his military commanders divided among themselves the enormous empire, whereby Thrace went to Lysimachos. Scholars have proven that the tomb was intended for the king of the Getae, Dromichaites, and his wife – Lysimachos’ daughter.

The Sacred Tombs of the Rulers of the Getae
The access to the three vaulted chambers of the tomb was through a corridor. The entrance is shaped with massive columns above which there is a slab decorated with stylised bull’s skulls: bucrania. All the chambers are built of perfectly hewn stone blocks. The central burial chamber contains the funerary beds of the royal couple. The walls are decorated with ten splendid sculptures of standing women with almost natural height. They are caryatids The Little Mermaid dvd supporting the roof of the building with their hands. Their faces are strongly individualised and additionally coloured. A decorative facade resembling a temple with exquisite columns, capitals and cornices, is built in front of the dynast’s funerary bed. A beautiful scene is painted above the caryatids, an invaluable masterpiece of Hellenistic art

. The deceased ruler is depicted in it as hero-horseman heading to the world beyond. The goddess standing before him is offering him a gold wreath, and the four women behind her are bringing gifts to the hero-king. He is accompanied by two of his arms-bearers with spears and swords. In this way, the composition presents the actual moment of the heroization or deification of the deceased dynast. This is the end of a long process the origin of which was seen in the megalithic monuments from the Eastern Rhodope Mountains, created one millennium earlier.


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Un caracter în primul rând extrem de solid si echilibrat, ajutat de calitătile unui geniu militar si un imens talent diplomatic. Un om robust cu bună conditie fizică luptător fiind si călător si un sistem imunitar foarte bun trăind aproape 70 de ani.

Numele regelui apare în multe izvoare în forme diferite chiar la acelasi scriitor. De amintit sunt:

-Burebistas, Burbistas, Boirebista, Beirebistas la Strabon;
-Burebista, Burabista în decretul dyonisopolitan în cinstea lui Acornion;
-Burebeista în epigrafa de la Nesebar-Bulgaria;
-Buruista la Iordanes;
Personal tind spre îndemnul etimologilor spre Burebista, acesta fiind numele unanim acceptat.

Două izvoare: Getica lui Iordanes si decretul dyonisopolitan în cinstea lui Acornion (plus un tezaur monetar) ne dau informatii despre domnia lui Burebista contestate si discutate de toti istoricii moderni care spun că al doilea îl exclude pe primul dar care în viziunea mea se îmbină armonios. Primul ne spune că atunci când Sylla pune mâna pe putere la Roma (adică în anul 82 îen) Burebista detinea deja puterea în Dacia, fapt sustinut si de tezaurul mentionat de la Găliganul de Jos, AG ce contine monede dintre anii 150-81 îen îngropate probabil din cauza frământărilor ce încep odată cu "revolutia" începută de Burebista. Pe baza celui de-al doilea izvor se poate face un frumos tablou al domniei lui Burebista.

După cum am arătat cel târziu în 83, Burebista îsi începe actiunile, în 82 când avea aproape 30 de ani este deja la putere la Costesti. Între 80-70 Acornion acum cam la 30 de ani sau mai mult îl întâlneste pe tatăl lui Burebista în vârstă de 65 de ani la Argedava de unde a plecat Burebista. În 48 Acornion acum la 60 de ani îndeplineste ultima misiune diplomatică mentionată de decret.

În anul 44 Burebista este asasinat la o vârstă de maxim 70 de ani (cu o mare tolerantă). Astfel rezultă o domnie de 38 de ani, între 30 si 70 de ani si o viata de 70 de ani, cifre perfect plauzibile.

În virtutea celor mai sus spuse înaintez si anii între care a trăit Burebista: 111-44 îen.
Am introdus si vârstele celor trei personaje pentru a aduce un argument în plus ipotezei mele.
Ipoteza mea împacă atât cele două izvoare cât si părerile a mari istorici în aparent conflict cum ar fi Crisan si Daicoviciu.

Pentru a sustine ipoteza mea mă voi referi la un scurt pasaj din decretul dyonisopolitan (din rândul 6) în care ni se spune că Acornion nefiind multumit cu întrevederea cu tatăl lui Burebista pleacă la "drum lung" pentru a-l întâlni pe regele însusi. Ce drum mai lung fată de Dyonisopolis poate fi decât unul până la Costesti?

Iată cum au stat poate lucrurile: Burebista cu o oaste de luat în seamă pleacă din Argedava cu gândul la locurile de lângă Orăstie. Se stabileste la cea mai mare cetate de la acea oră de lângă Orăstie: la Costesti de unde va activa un timp. Construieste apoi Sarmizegetusa.

Asadar Costesti a fost o capitală temporară, Sarmizegetusa una ideologică, religioasă, pe măsura regatului înfăptuit de marele rege si un refugiu suprem. Oricum regele sigur era nevoit să circule neîncetat astfel capitala fiind unde era regele.

Unificarea tuturor dacilor sub acest regat urias a avut loc pe mai multe planuri:

-militar: cu o oaste, după izvoare de 200.000 de ostasi bine antrenati fizic si tactic, cifră plauzibilă dacă ne gândim că azi se cunosc sute de localităti geto-dacice si că armata a avut si elemente străine;
-social: cel mai probabil că în ajutorul lui Burebista a venit marea majoritate a comatilor dar putini tarabostesi împărtăsindu-i visul.

Aici ar trebui mentionat si numărul populatiei: dacă la un luptător se consideră patru necombatanti rezultă o populatie de circa un milion de oameni;

-administrativ: Burebista e conducătorul suprem care convinge cu mai multă sau mai putină fortă, Deceneu este cel care convinge cu blândete si inteligentă, iar curtea competentă îi ajută pe cei doi să-si pună planurile în aplicare;
-economic: bate monedă pentru că cea existentă devine insuficientă comertului care atinge cote uriase, fapt sustinut cu certitudine de arheologie;
-juridic: se reeditează sub Deceneu vestitele belagines;
-moral-religios: oamenii sunt adusi la o viată după norme morale avangardiste implementate în mare parte cu ajutorul religiei.

Pe plan militar primele mari actiuni îl găsesc pe Burebista atacând în 74 sudul Dunării în aliantă cu scordiscii pe care însă mai apoi din cauza unor neîntelegeri îi nimiceste. În jurul anului 60 nimiceste celtii boi si taurisci în fruntea cărora se afla Critasiros. Mai apoi între anii 55-48 cucereste întregul litoral pontic între Olbia si Apollonia.

Pe plan diplomatic duce tratative cu Pompeius căruia îi si oferă ajutor militar si care vorbeste în fata Senatului roman de un prieten personal (poate Burebista). Probabile legături diplomatice are cu dalmatii când s-ar fi putut amesteca în răscoala acestora pe malul Adriaticii. Se presupun legături si cu Midridates VI Eupator desi putin probabile.

Celui mai mare regat din istoria noastră i se pot urmări granitele pe următorul traseu: se pleacă de la S de Pont din Sozopol, Bulgaria, se merge de-a lungul Balcanilor de unde se urca spre NV paralel cu Morava apoi spre N pe Dunăre până la Bratislava. De aici pe Carpatii nordici se ajunge la Nistru care ne duce până la Parutino, Rusia înapoi la Pont.

Stirile despre acest eveniment ne lipsesc cu desăvârsire, se poate specula doar, probabilul asasinat între anii 44-42 într-o "revoltă de palat".


1. Ioan Horatiu CRISAN - BUREBISTA si epoca sa
2. Ctin C.GIURESCU, Dinu C.GIURESCU - ISTORIA ROMÂNILOR din cele mai vechi timpuri până astăzi

The Gold Wreath-Crown of the King Dromichaetes

Gold Wreath from Golyamata Mogila

Sofia - Odrysian Wreath from Golyamata Mogila

A golden wreath and ring from the burial of an Odrysian Getae Aristocrat at the Golyamata Mogila tumulus (part of the Sboryanovo Archaeological Reserve), situated between the villages of Zlatinitsa and Malomirovo in the Yambol region.

The burial, wreath and signal rign are dated to the mid 4th century BC

The Sboryanovo archaeological reserve is located near the town of Isperih, NE Bulgaria. The reservation covers one of the greatest concentrations of archaeological sites in the country from Prehistoric, Thracian, Roman and Early Christian periods. One of the most sensational discoveries of the Thracian archaeology - the Sveshtari tomb, a Unesco World Heritage Site - is located here. Sboryanovo reserve now is one of the biggest and best studied Thracian religious and political center dated to the 1st millenium BC.

Sboryanovo was founded at a strategic cross road between Europe and Asia, it became the capital of the Thracian Getae (or Getai) tribes in the 4th to 3rd centuries BC.

The complex of sanctuaries, the Hellenistic town and the hypothetical kings residence were surrounded in a radius of about 2000 m. by five tumular cemeteries, which in total contain over 150 mounds. The center could be identified with Dausdava, or the"City of the wolves" on the map of the Roman geographer Ptolemaios.

The Thracian - Getian Tomb of Sveshtari (Свещарската гробница) is located 2.5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, on the Sboryanovo Archaeological Reservine, in the northeast of Bulgaria. Discovered in 1982 below the Ginina Mogila mound, this 3rd century BC Thracian tomb reflects the fundamental structural principles of Thracian cult buildings.

The tomb's architectural decor is considered to be unique, with polychrome half-human, half-plant caryatids and painted murals. The ten female figures carved in high relief on the walls of the central chamber and the decorations of the lunette in its vault are the only examples of this type found so far in the Thracian lands. It features a scene of deification of the deceased ruler, and a massive decorative stone door (naiskos) hid the burial bed from the eyes of the mortals.

A second humbler bed was designed for the rulers wife, who followed the deceased in his afterlife, while his favorite horses were laid in the lateral chamber and in front of the entrance to the antechamber.

The Sveshtari Tomb is a remarkable reminder of the culture of the Getae, a Thracian tribe who were in contact with the Hellenistic and Hyperborean worlds, according to ancient geographers.


Archaeoastronomical analysis shows that that the axis of the Sveshtari tomb was directed to the first sun ray on December 22nd in 4th c. BC and the astronomic orientation of the other tombs were determined by the sun as well. The tumuli clusters were constructed as mirror images of part of the brightest stars in the constellations Canis Major, Canis Minor, Orion, Taurus, while the location of those from the Western cemetery coincides with the double mirror image of Saggitarius - a mirror reflection of the celestial order, following the Orphism beliefs. 

The Sboryanovo Archaeological Reserve contains amongst others the Unesco World Heritage Site 'Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari', the Demir Baba Teke mausoleum,  the Thracian town of Chelis and the Golyamata Mogila burial mounds.

Deceneus and Cosmicos, Kings an High Priests


DECENEU - 44-X îen - Preotul vicerege preia şi puterea laică după moartea lui Burebista, în probabil cel mai mare din cele 4, apoi 5 regate în care se împarte Dacia burebistană. Imaginându-ne că au existat două facţiuni, una răsculată şi una condusă de Deceneu, ultima câştigând. Astfel lui Deceneu i se mai adaugă şi titlul de rege, judecător suprem (ceea ce atestă existenţa altor judecători) şi probabil comandant suprem al armatei, titlurilor pe care le avea şi pe vremea lui Burebista: mare preot, instructor în filozofie, morală, ştiinţe).

 (67) Then when Buruista was king of the Goths, Dicineus came to Gothia at the time when Sulla ruled the Romans. Buruista received Dicineus and gave him almost royal power. It was by his advice the Goths ravaged the lands of the Germans, which the Franks now possess. (68) Then came Caesar, the first of all the Romans to assume imperial power and to subdue almost the whole world, who conquered all kingdoms and even seized islands lying beyond our world, reposing in the bosom of Ocean. He made tributary to the Romans those that knew not the Roman name even by hearsay, and yet was unable to prevail against the Goths, despite his frequent attempts. Soon Gaius Tiberius reigned as third emperor of the Romans, and yet the Goths continued in their kingdom unharmed. (69) Their safety, their advantage, their one hope lay in this, that whatever their counsellor Dicineus advised should by all means be done; and they judged it expedient that they should labor for its accomplishment. And when he saw that their minds were obedient to him in all things and that they had natural ability, he taught them almost the whole of philosophy, for he was a skilled master of this subject. Thus by teaching them ethics he restrained their barbarous customs; by imparting a knowledge of physics he made them live naturally under laws of their own, which they possess in written form to this day and call belagines. He taught them logic and made them skilled in reasoning beyond all other races; he showed them practical knowledge and so persuaded them to abound in good works. By demonstrating theoretical knowledge he urged them to contemplate the twelve signs and the courses of the planets passing through them, and the whole of astronomy. He told them how the disc of the moon gains increase or suffers loss, and showed them how much the fiery globe of the sun exceeds in size our earthly planet. He explained the names of the three hundred and forty-six stars and told through what signs in the arching vault of the heavens they glide swiftly from their rising to their setting.

Se spune despre Deceneu că era un înțelept al neamului dacilor care trăia retras, ca un adevărat sihastru, într-un ținut ascuns, unii cred că pe muntele sfânt al dacilor – numit Kogaionon. Deceneu era slujitor al zeului Zalmoxis iar în momentul venirii la conducerea dacilor a regelui Burebista, Deceneu era Mare preot al dacilor. El îl ajutǎ pe Burebista, indemnându-i pe daci la abstinențǎ.Deceneu a devenit rege al geților începand cu anul 44 î.e.n după moartea regelui Burebista. Era un rege venerat de către geți. A stabilit locuința preoților lui Zamolxe pe muntele Cogeon (Kogaionon) dincolo de Dunăre. A reformat pontificatul zamolxian. A împărțit pe geți în ordinul Piloforilor sau Pileaților și ordinul Capeluttilor sau Comaților. A cultivat în rândul geților astronomia și agricultura. A reconstruit altare noi și a construit edificii sacre. Se pare că a urmat canoanele arhitectonice din Egipt (unde trăise) precum și din Orient. Sacerdot dac ,mare preot ,sfetnic si colaborator apropiat a lui Burebista. Cel mai important personaj dupa rege in statul dac.Deceneu l-a ajutat considerabil pe marele rege in opera sa de unificare si organizare a triburilor geto-dace. Dupa moartea lui Burebista si destramarea stapinirii acestuia (44 ien) Deceneu isi asuma si puterea regala in statul dac intracarpatic. O informatie din Iordanes (Getica:XI,67) indica venirea lui Deceneu la putere ca vicerege, Burebista acordindu-i o putere aproape regala. Strabon spune:

"Burebista…si-a luat ca ajutor pe Deceneu ,un barbat vrajitor, care umblase multa vreme prin Egipt, invatind acolo unele semne profetice, datorita carora sustinea ca talmaceste vointa zeilor. Ba inca ,de la un timp era socotit si zeu, asa cum am aratat cind am vorbit de Zamolxe. Ca o dovada de ascultarea ce i-o dadeau getii, este si faptul ca ei s-au lasat induplecati sa-si stirpeasca viile si sa traiasca fara vin" (Geografia:VII,3,11)

Dupa Iordanes, Deceneu era un om de o vasta eruditie. Relatarea istoricului got contine date deosebite privind rolul cultural si religios indeplinit de catre Deceneu in instruirea spirituala a stratului ierarhic superior de sacerdoti si tarabostesi daci:
"Observand inclinatia lor de a-l asculta in toate si inteligenta lor nativa,el i-a initiat in aproape toata filozofia, caci era maestru priceput in aceasta. El i-a invatat etica, dezvatandu-i de obiceiurile lor barbare, i-a instruit in fizica, facandu-i sa traiasca potrivit cu legile naturii, pe care gotii [getii] transcriindu-le le pastreaza pina azi [sec VI en] cu numele de belagines; i-a invatat logica, facandui-i superiori celorlalte popoare in ce priveste mintea; aratandu-le practica, i-a indemnat sa-si traiasca viata in fapte bune; demonstrandu-le teoria, i-a invatat sa contemple cele 12 semne ale zodiacului iar prin ele mersul planetelor si toata astronomia, lamurindu-i cum creste si scade discul lunii si cu cat globul de foc al soarelui intrece masura rotunjimii pamintului si le-a expus sub ce nume si sub ce semne cele 345 de stele trec de la rasarit la apus, ca sa se apropie sau sa se departeze de polul ceresc. Vezi ce placere (este) ca niste oameni prea viteji sa se indeletniceasca cu doctrinele filosofice, cand mai aveau putin ragaz de razboaie. Puteai sa-l vezi pe unul cercetand pozitia cerului, pe altul proprietatile ierburilor si ale arbustilor, pe acesta studiind cresterea si scaderea Lunii, pe celalalt observind eclipsele soarelui si cum, prin rotatia cerului, Soarele vrand sa atinga regiunea orientala, este adus inapoi in regiunea occidentala. Getul se linisteste de indata ce primeste explicatia acestor lucruri. Aceasta si multe altele, invatind Deceneu pe geti, prin stiinta sa, a stralucit in mijlocul lor ca o adevarata minune ." (Getica;XI;69—70)

In felul acesta Iordanes ne infatiseaza seriozitatea si priceperea cu care, cel putin clasa sacerdotala, privea preocuparile stiintifice iar mai departe "pe barbatii cei mai de seama  si mai intelepti pe care i-a invatat teologia, i-a sfatuit sa cinsteasca anumite divinitati si sanctuare, facindu-i preoti si dindu-le numele de pileati" (Getica;XI,71)  
Deceneu a revigorat spiritualitatea geto-dacilor, inlaturind cultul bahic sau dyonisiac asociat cu cultura vitei de vie si cu orgii. El este cel dintii care s-a opus viguros patrunderii in Dacia a cultelor straine, vatamatoare pentru sanatatea spirituala si corporala a geto-dacilor. De aceea nu este intimplator si fara rezonante religioase profunde ca el a determinat autoritatea regala sa dispuna distrugerea vitei de vie—planta sacra a lui Dyonisos—si ca toata preotimea dacica l-a sprijinit in acest act extraordinar.  Ca mare preot si vicerege , apoi el insusi rege Deceneu, a dispus de dubla autoritate, morala (stirpind viciul betiei) si politica (organizeaza triburile si casta sacerdotala), facind dintre nobili o clasa de pilleati, ca si din categoria privilegiata mai larga ,capillati (sau comatti), din aceasta facind pentru clerul de rind o clasa asimilabila cu clasa cavalerilor romani-equites.
Deceneu considera ca viitorul si stralucirea poporului sau depind numai de inalta tinuta morala si plecind de la aceasta premisa se poate cladi un edificiu statal si social trainic, motiv pentru care, sprijinit de BUREBISTA, a infaptuit o profunda reforma sociala si religioasa a poporului geto-dac. Aceasta reforma, celebra in lumea antica, a fost pusa in practica nu prin legi oficiale si seci ci prin rabdare si educatie. Deceneu a impus sobrietatea si cumpatarea, acea modestie a sufletului ale carei valente razbat din textul lui Platon. Deceneu a cerut poporului"ascultarea de porunci" ca efect al educatiei prin dreptate. Getii fiind recunoscuti in antichitate ca fiind "cei mai drepti" dintre cei cu care se inrudeau, caracteristica desigur foarte veche.
Deceneu a fost una din acele impresionante personalitati care si-au creat un loc de frunte in istoria lumii. Un factor care l-a ajutat sa se realizeze pe sine insusi si prin asta sa fie de folos neamului sau, a fost prietenia si sprijinul pe care Burebista i le-a acordat, lucru rar in istorie. Ei s-au inteles si au claborat, armonios si eficient  incit, in putini ani, au izbutit sa dureze un stat  puternic atit social cit si moral.
[modifică] Surse informaționale
1. Ion Popescu Puțuri, 1988, Magazin istoric XXII nr. 2 (251), februarie 1988



COMOSICUS - X-29 en - Aceeaşi situaţie este şi în cazul lui Comosicus preotul care îi urmează lui Deceneu şi care "nu îi este cu nimic mai prejos" (Iordanes; Getica; 73-74).

List of the Getian-Dacian Kings

  • Zalmoxis of the Getae "This Zalmoxis lived many years before Pythagoras (569 - 475 BC)" Herodotus [55]

  • Charnabon of the Getae who came into power when grain was first given to men[10] mentioned by Sophocles[11] Carnabon,"Carnabon. King of the Getae in Thrace who came into power when grain was first given to men [see also Lyncus, and CONSTELLATIONS] [Hyg.Ast.2.14]."Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization by Ioana A Oltean,2007,page 41: "... Trixae and Sophocles (Triptolem, FR 547) mentions a local king, Charnabon, as a typical anti-hero.




Rhemaxos was an ancient king who ruled to the north of Danube around 200 BC and who was the protector of the Greek colonies in Dobruja, receiving a tribute from them in exchange of protection against outside attacks. It appears that the links with the Greek cities lasted a rather long period of time, as several treaties have been found.

His origin is still unknown. Most historians have suggested that he was the chieftain of a Dacian tribe union on the Romanian Plain, although there are other possibilities, such as his having been a Scythian or even a Celt from Bessarabia.


  • Dicţionar de istorie veche a României ("Dictionary of ancient Romanian history") (1976) Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, pp. 504



Moskon was a Getae king that ruled in the 3rd century BC the northern parts of Dobruja, probably being the head of a local tribal union, which had close relations with the local Greek colonies and adopted the Greek style of administration.

The only proofs of his existence are some silver coins found near Tulcea, all of them featuring the head of a young man with long hair and a tiara and a horseman the reverse, with the writing ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΟΣΚΩΝΟΣ, Basileos Moskonos, i.e. King Moskon.


  • C.Preda, SCIV XV (1964), 401-410; idem, Fasti Archeologici XVII (1965), p.237 nr.3353
  • Radu Ocheşeanu, Monedele basileului Moskon aflate în colecţiile Muzeului de arheologie Constanţa (=Coins of Basileus Moskon in the collections of the Archaeological Museum at Constantza), în Pontica 3 (1970), p. 125-128.
  • Dicţionar de istorie veche a României ("Dictionary of ancient Romanian history") (1976) Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, pp. 416



Zalmodegicus was a Getian king.[1]

The Getae flourished especially in the first half of the 3rd century BC. By about 200 BC, the authority of the Getic prince, Zalmodegicus, stretched as far as Histria (Sinoe), as a contemporary inscription shows.[4]


  1. ^ The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus by B. C. McGing "At the end of the third century, Istrys made an agreement to pay an annual tribute to the Getan king Zalmodegicus in return for the restoration of Istrian hostages and some sources of revenue"


 Rubobostes was a Dacian king in Transylvania, during the 2nd century BC.

He was mentioned in Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus's Prolegomena. Trogus wrote that during his rule, the Dacians' power increased, as they defeated the Celts who previously held the power in the region.


  • Dicţionar de istorie veche a României ("Dictionary of Ancient Romanian History") (1976) Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, pp. 510


Map of Kings


Around the year 200 BC King Oroles from southern Moldavia opposed the advance of the Bastarnai, and while he stopped their advance the two peoples would war against--and sometimes alongside--one another many times in years to come.


Basileos Thiamarcos King of Buridava

  • Basileos Thiamarcos  king of Buridava


     Dolium, Vas de provizii, la Tene



    Buza profilată. Sub buză, decor striat în valuri, încadrat de benzi de striuri, paralele şi orizontale. Scrierea s-a realizat pe umărul vasului înainte de ardere. Pe unul din fragmente se află cuvântul "BASIL" şi un rest din litera "E". Pe al doilea fragment s-a scris cu aceleaşi litere majuscule greceşti "THIAMARK", iar pe al treilea fragment "CEMOIEI ". Inscripţia completă este "BASILEOS THIAMARKOS EMOIEI" (Regele Thiamarcos a făcut). 

    Archaeological findings attest to the existence of large areas of habitation and advanced prehistoric civilisations. The discoveries of the Dacian fortresses at Ocnita, Gradistea, Roesti and Tetoiu, which formed a genuine defence system of the south-eastern side of the Dacian kings’ residence in Orastie Mountains, are of special importance. Nearby the salt massif at Ocnele Mari the ancient Dacian stronghold Buridava, mentioned by Ptolemy, was unearthed. Here, they found shards bearing the inscriptions REB and BUR, as well as a fragment of a vase on which the words Basileos Thiamarcos Epoiei preserve the memory of a local king, contemporary with Emperor Octavian Augustus. Widely-reputed historian Vasile Parvan supposed, and later discoveries confirmed his supposition, that there existed a number of fortifications along the river Olt (Limes Alutanus) built during the Roman rule (106-271), namely Pons Vetus (Caineni), Praetorium (Racovita), Arutela (Bivolari), Castra Traiana (Sambotin), Buridava (Stolniceni), Pons Aluti (Ionesti), Rusidava (Dragasani). After the withdrawal of the Roman administration, the local people had to face the invasions of the migratory populations. "

     Descoperirile fortaretelor dacice de la Ocnita, Gradistea, Rotesti si Tetoiu, care formeaza un sistem defensiv ingenios in partea sud-estica a resedintei regilor daci din Muntii Orastie este de o mare importanta. In apropiere de masivul ocnele mari, cetatea dacica Buridava, mentionata de Ptolemy, a fost scoasa la lumina. Aici s-au gasit bucati de ceramica purtand incrisptia REB si BUR cat si un fragment dintr-o vaza pe care scrie Basiloes Thiamarcos Epoiei , care pastreaza memoria unui rege local contemporan cu imparatul Octavian Augustus
  •  Pe teritoriul localitatilor Ocnita si Cosota (Ocnele Mari,Vilcea)a fost indentificat un mare complex arheologic a carui cercetare inca nu s-a incheiat.

      Cetatea este situata la altitudinea de 600m, pe o inaltime in forma de potcoava, in sistemul de aparare al careia, pe linga valuri de pamint si palisade de lemn intra si ziduri de piatra fasonata. Necropola asezarii, e situata la poalele uneia dintre coline, si e compusa din morminte de incineratie, fara tumuli si din gropi simple  sau doar urne toate in numar de cca 100.

      Cetatea mai dispunea de ateliere de prelucrare a fierului, a pietrei, a bronzului si a argintului. Dar  caracteristica cea mai evidenta a cetatii o constituie edificiul supranumit"palatul". Acest palat, cu mai multe incaperi subterane, sapate in stinca, singurele dealtfel pastrate, pentru ca restul cladirii a fost de lemn si a cazut prada unui violent incendiu care a distrus asezarea. In incaperile subterane s-a descoperit un bogat si variat material arheologic constind in ceramica, lucrata cu mina sau la roata de diferite tipuri si forme, apoi podoabe, unelte, arme si monezi, atit denari romani cit si monede autohtone! Pe baza acestor descoperiri intregul complex poate fi aproximativ incadrat intre sec II ien si sec I en. Complexul reprezinta una din acele DAVA dacice si a fost indentificat cu Buridava asezare mentionata in izvoarele romane ca importanta asezare situata pe drumul ce lega Romula peste Carpati ,de Caput Stenarum.Geograful Ptolemeu mentioneaza in zona tribul dacic buridavenses.

       In anul 1973 ,intr-una din incaperile subterane ale edificiului ,s-a descoperit fragmente dintr-un chiup mare ,vas pentru pastrarea proviziilor, care poarta o inscriptie. Sub buza acestuia, inainte de ardere s-a scris: --BASILE[US]TIAMARCO[S]—scrisa cu caractere grecesti, (conf.I.I.Russu - Anuarul Institutului de Istorie si Arheologie Cluj-Napoca 1976) care se traduce prin: "vasul regelui Tiamarcos" in cazul in care este vorba de genitiv (terminatia celor doua cuvinte lipseste!) sau la nominativ: "regele Tiamarcos", ca proprietar al atelierului in care s-a lucrat vasul. Pe cit de irelevanta in sine terminatia, pe atit de interesanta este mentionarea, intr-o scriere autentica, contemporana, a unui rege geto-dac THIAMARCOS, in nord-vestul Olteniei, pe locul viitoarei Dacia Malvensis! I.I.Russu  confirma ca numele dinastului dac este de cea mai pura factura tracica si tot ele este cel care a descifrat inscripita. In subsolul aceleiasi cladiri s-au mai descoperit numeroase vase si obiecte care dateaza din a doua jumatate a  a sec.I ien  si primul deceniu al secolului urmator iar sfirsitul intregii cetati este legat cronologic, de monedele  imparatului Augustus. Asadar regele THIAMARCOS  a domnit  in rastimpul cuprins intre a doua jumatate a sec.I ien si inceputul celui urmator, fara insa al putea preciza exact. El se incadreaza deci in galeria de regi daci, urmasi ai marelui BUREBISTA. Din vasta stapinire a lui Burebista impartita la moartea acestuia in "atunci in patru parti ,iar mai tirziu in cinci"dupa cum spune Strabon, s-au desprins zone mai mari sau mai mici peste care au stapinit diversi regi. Daca cei din Dobrogea sint cunoscuti datorita izvoarelor literare antice, iata ca un rege dac, care a domnit peste dacii din zona Vilcei si a Argesului, este cunoscut datorita unui izvor scris local! Fara sa se poate preciza exact marimea regatului acestui rege, putem spune ca centrul puterii sale, antica BURIDAVA, se afla pe locul unde azi se afla Ocnele Mari-Vilcea, locul unde s-a descoperit vasul ce ii poarta inscriptionat numele.



    Scorilo (Coryllus)



     Decebalus per Scorillo giant bowl, MNIR


    The subsequent period of peace coincided — according to the list of kings noted earlier — with the forty-year reign of the Dacian ruler Coryllus.

    Jordanes, Getica

    When he too had departed from human affairs, Coryllus ascended the throne as king of the Goths and for forty years ruled his people in Dacia. 

    Since Coryllus is not mentioned in any other source, it is probably a misspelling of Scorilo, a relatively common Dacian name. An anecdote has survived about a Dacian king called Scorilo: To dissuade his people from meddling with the Romans, he set two dogs fighting, then introduced a wolf, whereupon the dogs joined forces to attack the wolf.[13]13. Frontinus, Stratagemata I, 10, 4. Such prudence must have been characteristic of the long reign of Coryllus-Scorilo; the example of the dogs was certainly opposite during the Roman empire's first great crisis (68–69 A.D.), when legions left the Danube frontier unguarded to join in the civil war. The Sarmatians repeatedly exploited this situation, annihilating several Roman legions and even governors. On one occasion, probably in the winter of 68–69, the Dacians, too, crossed the Danube into Moesia, where they seized a few Roman camps along the border. It is not known if this raid was mounted by Scorilo or by some independent Dacian group. If the attribution of the dog anecdote is valid, it is more likely that the attack was launched by some Dacians from Wallachia, and that it served as the stimulus for Coryllus/Scorilo's cautionary stratagem.

    In reference to the raid, Tacitus noted that the Dacians were 'always unreliable'.[14]14. Tacitus, Historiae III, 46, 2. Admittedly, his observation also drew on subsequent experience of Roman-Dacian clashes, but the Romans had been wary of the Dacians since the time of Burebista. Their strategy of forging alliances (in which the 'allies' were actually {1-53.} client states) was generally successful, but the Dacian kingdom proved less tractable. It is reported that, towards the end of Augustus' reign, the Dacians had become less menacing and more ready to accept Rome's supremacy — presumably a reference to the relatively peaceable relations in the time of Scorilo. It seems, however, that the Roman-Dacian alliance (foedus) lacked a solid foundation. Dacia differed in several respects from the German and Sarmatian client states along Rome's Danubian frontier. For one thing, the Dacians were favoured by geography, for high mountain ranges impeded access to their kingdom's heartland from the direction of the Danube. Rome's armies had to make long detours along the Muresh or Timish valleys in the west, and the Olt or Jiu  valleys in the east; in either case, they confronted easily-defended narrows and passes. Thus tactical advantage lay with the Dacians, and particularly so at a key stretch of the imperial frontier, where the Danube passes through a narrow gorge at the southern extremity of the Carpathians. There, a road had to be cut into the cliff face to serve as a towpath for shipping; this, one of the great engineering feats of Antiquity, was completed towards the end of Tiberius' reign. It is probably not coincidental that Daco-Roman relations took a peaceful turn at this juncture. Rome must have resorted to bribing the Dacians in order to keep this fluvial route secure.

    Rome had to take into account not only Dacia's geographical defences but also the strong central organization of the kingdom. The 'royal' fortress on the heights of Sarmizegethusa, in the western Kudzsir Alps, was surrounded a ring of hilltop forts, and thus the center of power was easily defensible even against attack from the kingdom's outlying regions. These forts not only served as accommodation for troops but also as industrial centres, storehouses, treasuries and even shrines. The fortified emplacements, which covered several hectares, were protected by earthworks and generally had thick walls as well as towers; they served not only military purposes, but also as treasuries, industrial centres, warehouses, and {1-54.} even shrines. The ruler's ability to marshall great manpower is best attested by fortresses's walls, built of huge stone blocks on timber frames, by the paved yards and roads, stone steps, and by the drains hewn out of the rock. All this no doubt also served to make an impression on the ordinary folk, who lived in primitive conditions; a function that must not be underrated, for the great social gap between the 'capped' and 'long-haired' people probably necessitated an awesome display of kingly might.


    SCORILO-CORYLLUS - 29-69 en - Acesta conducea Dacia, în timp ce la Roma erau mari războaie civile după moartea lui Nerva. Majoritatea dacilor îl îndemnau pe rege la amestecul prin forţă în lupta pentru putere de la Roma. Frontinus ne comunică că regele dac le dă o pildă vie contra acestei actiuni: el ia doi câini pe care îi pune să se lupte şi aduce un lup. Atunci cei doi câini (romanii) uită de divergenţe şi se aliază să se apere de lup (daci). 



    The History of the Getai



      The History of the Getai
    At the end of the Aeneolit
    hic Age, around 3500 BC, an important ethnic and cultural synthesis took place that led to the appearance of new peoples and cultures in Central Europe and the Balkans. These peoples can be identified with the traditional ethnic groups of Old Europe: the Hellenes, the Illyrioi, and the Thraikes. The Thraikes came to inhabit the vast territory from the south of Poland, to the north of Hellas and from Slovakia to north-western Anatolia. The historian Herodotus speculated that "the population of Thraike is greater than that of any other country in the world except India. If the Thraikes could be united under a single ruler, or to a common purpose, they would be the most powerful nation on earth and no one could cope with them."

    The next historical period, the Bronze Age (3500 to 1200 BC) saw the development of the Thraikes. A spectacular demographic growth occurred, as proven by archeological discoveries of many large settlements, some of them fortified. The metallurgy practiced in Bronze Age Getia, learned from their neighbors, attained high levels of craftsmanship, as evidenced by the rich deposits of bronze and gold items found in parts of Transylvania. Rich sanctuary sites belie the existence of a powerful priestly class and religious culture, while rich sanctuary deposits and a handful of noble burials offer some glimpse into the vibrant tribal aristocracy that emerged in this period. The lower classes spent most of their efforts in agriculture and pastoralism, but the latter part of this period saw the emergence of mining and metallurgy, as well as simple handicraft manufacture and trade.

    Beginning in 1400 BC, important ethnic and cultural developments took place in the Carpathian-Danubian territory over a period of several hundred years. Nomadic tribes from the Sabatinovka culture moved towards the west while the creators of the mound tomb culture (hugelgraber-kultur) came from the regions of central Europe toward the east and southeast, causing the dislocation of some Thracian tribes and the massive movement of peoples toward southeastern Europe, to north-eastern Anatolia and beyond to Egypt and the coastlands of the Levant. Many of these migrant peoples interacted with the various Thraikes, which led to greater capacity for metallurgy and more skill in architecture. The northern Thraikians continued much as they had before, though the emergence of small fortifications and a switch from a mixed economy to one focused more heavily on pastoralism during the Dark Ages indicates that war had come to this region as well. The nobility remained wealthy, benefiting from the value of salt extracted from the region and sold abroad. Their wealth is evidenced by fortified villages and several significant deposits of high quality goods from the transitional period between the Bronze and Iron Ages: single-edged swords, axes, fibulae, buckles, and the like. The most significant invasion, toward the close of this period, was a devastating Skythian invasion of Inner Carpathia around 700 BC, which despite its negative effects also introduced new technologies, many of them military, to the emerging Getai. Iron smelting became much more significant from this point, and the technologies of both horsemanship and archery were either introduced or much advanced due to the contact with the Skythians.

    Strabo reports that "the Getai are those who occupy the territory toward the sea and the east, while the Dakoi are those who live in the opposite part toward Germania and the source of the Donaris." Despite this they spoke the same language and belonged to the same ethnic group. The different names may reflect changing identification over time, or could signify some slight differences in ethnic identities between the regions separated by the massive Carpathians. The last phase of the first Iron Age (650 to the latter half of the fifth century BC) and the first two phases of the second Iron Age (the latter half of the fifth century BC to the beginning of the second century BC) denote a distinct historical period in the evolution of these northern Thraikes. They were still divided, passing through stages of political development that differed from region to region. They were greatly influenced by the people with whom they came in contact: most prominent among them the Hellenes, Skythai, Halstatt-era Keltoi, and even Persai.

    The Hellenes founded several colonies (apoikia) and commercial settlements (emporia) such as Histria on the shore of Lake Sinoe, Tomis (today Constanta), Argamon, Kallatis (today Mangalia), and Tyras (today Cetatea Alba), on the western and northern shores of the Pontos Euxeinos in the mid-to-late seventh century BC. These settlements, referred to as the "Hellenes beyond the seas," played a vital role in the development of the Getai and Skythai due to their multiple economic contacts, political relationships, cultural developments, and economic exchanges with the local communities. Close relationships formed between the Getai and Hellenes that led to the gradual Hellenization of the native tribes. Hellenic ceramic goods, luxury items, and superior oils and wines spread throughout Dobrogea and beyond to Moldavia, Muntenia, and Oltenia. Rapid cultural progress took place. Some tribes, including the Getai, founded powerful political organizations led by dynasts during the sixth to the third centuries BC. Herodotos relates that during the expedition King Dareios I led against the Skythai north of the Black Sea in 513 BC, the Getai alone resisted the advance of the Persian Army. Though they fought valiantly enough for Herodotos to declare them “the manliest and most just of the tribes of the Thraikes,” they were eventually defeated and at least some of their number enslaved by the king of kings. Later, Thoukydides speaks of the same Getai fighting alongside the Odrysian King Sitalkes against the allies of Athenai in the Peloponesian War of 429 BC.

    Philippos II of Makedonia, in order to punish the Skythian king Atias for his treachery, concluded an alliance with the Getic king Kothelas. This alliance was consecrated by the marriage of Kothelas's daughter Meda to Philippos in 339 BC. The Getai and Makedones drove the Skythai from Kallatis and Kothelas became the master of the colonies on the Pontos Euxeinos. Philippos's son, Megas Alexandros, undertook an expedition against the Triballoi in the year 335 BC in preparation for his great Persian campaign. The legendary general defeated the Triballoi and made a brief expedition north of the Istros (Danube) against the Getai, who mustered an army of 4,000 horseman and 10,000 infantry to resist the young war-king. A peace was made without bloodshed, and the Getai were spared the military governorship installed over the other Thraikes. The peace was short-lived, however, as around 325 BC the military governor of Thraike was killed together with his entire army by a Getic-Skythian combined force.

    This victory, combined with the death of Megas Alexandros in 323 BC, weakened Makedonian control in the region and allowed the Getai to become the dominant political force. The tribes offered vital assistance to the Hellenic colonies on the coastline of the Pontos Euxeinos, led by Kallatis, in their struggle against the Makedonian Lysimachos, the King of Thraike. But the most important episode, related by several ancient authors (Diodoros Sikilios, Strabo, and Trogus Pompeius) was the conflict between Lysimachos and the Getian kingdom of Dromichaites. The kingdom of Dromichaites was located in Eastern Muntenia, having its capital at Helis (Sveshtari, Bulgaria). The Makedonian king tried to make the Donaris his northern frontier, while the Getian tried to maintain his control over the colonies on the Pontos Euxeinos, as Kothelas had done a generation or two earlier. Lysimachos organized two campaigns into the north, in 300 and 292 BC. The result was a military disaster as both Lysimachos and his heir Agathokles were captured. The Makedones finally recognized Getic supremacy over the lower Istros and Pontos Euxeinos. A royal marriage concluded the alliance between the two powers. Shortly thereafter the kingdom of Dromichaites, the people of the Getai in general, faced a great blow. The Galatai, who laid low the king of Makedonia in 279 BC and sacked Delphoi the following year, wrought ruin among the Getai who dwelt along and south of the Donaris. Helis was abandoned, and the southern banks of the Donaris truly became the “desert” it had seemed to those who had formerly sought to invade it.

    Development for the Getai was pushed north of the Istros, or east of it into the region of Mikra Skythia. A sort of wild period followed, as tarabostes of the many regions carved out petty kingdoms of their own, and at one another's expense. Two Getic rulers (Zalmodegikos and later Rhemaxos) continued to exercise control over Histria, like the kings of the Getai before them, and may represent a continuation of the ruling traditions of Dromichaites and Kothelas, whether by birth, tribal affiliation, or propaganda. Still others ruled petty fiefdoms from fortified villages in the northeast, while unnamed rulers led their people in war and trade with the Keltoi settlers working their way into Inner Carpathia. Around the year 200 BC King Oroles from southern Moldavia opposed the advance of the Bastarnai, and while he stopped their advance the two peoples would war against--and sometimes alongside--one another many times in years to come. Another king, Rubobostes, ended the Celtic domination in Transylvania early in the second century, even as Getai in southwestern Getia developed better and better relationships with their former enemies, the Skordiskoi. Forging alliances among the tarabostes and negotiating power relationships with hostile peoples in all directions, the rulers of the Getai acquired significant political experience during this period, which presaged the expansion of Getic power in the following century.

    By the middle of the second century BC the Geto-Dacians entered a new period of development, the most advanced in their entire history. The most interesting part of this period is the appearance of proto-urban settlements known as davas. They were organized areas, being political, commercial, religious and military centers of the Getic tribes. Some used an amalgamation of Roman, Greek, and Celtic fortification techniques, known as Murus Dacicus. The Dacian fortresses found north of the Danube, like the complex of fortifications in the Sebes mountaines, formed the strongest defensive systems in the "barbarian" world. The Getic craftsmen had ties with the Roman and Hellenic worlds, which brought an unprecedented level of economic development. The Dacian goldsmiths even exported to far-off Scandinavia. The society clearly stratified into two social groups: the komatai (the free people) and tarabostes (the nobility). The leaders of the state were selected from the nobility, which was distinguishable by the fur caps they wore. A powerful but smaller third social class, the priests, served as intermediaries between god and man, and oversaw the vibrant cultic centers of Getic religion, of which that at Sarmiszegethusa is most renowned. This was part of the transition to the cult of Zalmoxis, which became fully incorporated into the state structure. Like noblemen, priests wore fur caps to express their position. The high priest was an important position second only to the king. It was this cult that allowed the unification of the Getic tribes to occur.

    During the first century BC they were finally united under the rule of King Burebista (70-44 BC). As his power increased, he opposed Roman supremacy north of the Balkans. He is referred to by the people of Dionysopolis as "the first and the most powerful among the kings who ever reigned in Thraike, master of the entire region this side of the great river." His kingdom, centered at Argedava, gradually expanded in all directions. Getic armies crushed the Boioi and Tauriskoi, led by Kritosiros, in the winter campaign of 60 BC. He later (in 55 BC) conquered the Hellenic colonies on the Black Sea coast, defeating the Bastarnai and securing the shoreline from Olbia in the north to Apollonia in the south. Now Getia was a force to be reckoned with.

    Duras- Diurpaneus 69-87 AD

    DURAS-DIURPANEUS - 69-87 en - Fratele lui Scorilo, menţionat de Dio Cassius şi Iordanes nu are parte de evenimente marcante lui surâzându-i însă atacurile asupra posesiunilor romane până îi cedează locul nepotului său Decebal.



    COSON - ~30 îen - Regele get îl ajută pe Brutus în lupta pentru putere dintre Ovidiu şi Antoniu, care este de partea celui de-al doilea. Alegerea este greşită deoarece Ovidiu iese învingător dar îl va ierta pe Coson (după cum ne spune Suetoniu vorbind despre posibila încuscrire dintre Coson şi Ovidiu). 



    Roman consul walking left, accompanied by two lictors; ΒΑ monogram to left, ΚΟΣΩΝ in exergue. | Eagle standing left on sceptre, holding wreath.

    There's much disagreement on the origin of this coin, one of the commonest and most affordable ancient gold coins.

    To begin with what's certain: the obverse clearly echoes the reverse of this coin of M. Junius Brutus, famous assassin, minted in 54 BCE.

    The reverse echoes the reverse of this coin of Q. Pomponius Rufus, a little-known moneyor of 73 BCE.

    The apparent connection to the assassination of Julius Caesar, and to the extremely valuable "EID MAR" coinage of Brutus was so compelling that theories of the 19th century, still popular with some sellers, have these struck for Brutus by an otherwise unknown Thracian dynast. The monogram on the obverse, when present (a variety lacks this monogram) was generally read BR, for Brutus.

    Ancient Thrace is today Bulgaria, but these coins are overwhelmingly found in Transylvania, in Romania, ancient Dacia.

    A more current theory, seen here and here is that the coins were struck by a Geto-Dacian king frequently known as Cotiso, used simplified designs from their Roman neighbors, as they had earlier produced simplified copies of Macedonian coins. The monogram is read ΒΑ for Βαςιλευς; "King."

    Some further discussion here, and I can't find a link to the speculation that these are not ancient at all, but are the work 16th century miners who didn't wish to be taxed for selling their gold or executed for counterfeiting contemporary issues.

    There is silver or bronze coinage known for King Cotiso, but the use of Roman designs on the gold may indicate that they used whatever came to hand. Why the minted this gold, and where the gold came from, remain unclear.

    Since the collapse of Soviet communism there have been a lot of these available, as coins long hidden from the government can now be sold, even if not quite openly.


    DAPYX - ~30 îen - Intră în conflict cu Roles vecinul din sud, care cu ajutorul lui Crassus îl alungă până într-o cetate unde un trădător se înţelege în greceşte cu generalul roman. Dapyx piere eroic în fruntea soldaţilor săi.

    Getas Basileus

    Getas Basileis Coin
     In sept 2006, a fabulous site was discovered in Floresti, near Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A few month before that I have published that the location (see 1a above) corresponds to the same site.
    The exhibition of the artifacts shows a seal with a cross which undoubtedly means the seal of the Gets, according to poorly documented antic coins which bear the same logo and the label "Getas ...Basileis". These coins were also found in Babylon, also in agreement with Jordannes on the wars with Ramses (lost reference-volunteer needed


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