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NEW!  Thracian Mycenaean Garb, Painted on Early Greek, Etruscan Pottery, Preserved in Geto-Dacian and then Romanian and East European Ethnic Costumes.



Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 575 BC–550 BC, Diam. 26.5 cm (10 ¼ in.), Current location,(Inventory)Louvre Museum, Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Sully wing, room 39, case 6  







1746, Leipzig, Antikenmuseum d. Universitat Leipzig, T3327

  • Vase Number: 1746
  • Fabric: ATHENIAN
  • Technique: BLACK-FIGURE
  • Shape Name: HYDRIA
  • Provenance: ETRURIA, CERVETRI
  • Date: -575 to -525
  • Attributed To: ARCHIPPE GROUP by BOTHMER
  • Collection Record: Leipzig, Antikenmuseum d. Universitat Leipzig: T3327
  • Publication Record: Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum: LEIPZIG, ANTIKENMUSEUM DER KARL MARX UNIVERSITAT 2, 25, PL.(82) 21.1
    Paul, E., Antike Keramik (Leipzig, 1982): 58.22
    Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae: VIII, PL.11, THETIS 40 (PART OF BD)
    Barringer, J.M., Divine Escorts, Nereids in Archaic and Classical Greek Art (Ann Arbor, 1995): PL.12
    Paul, E., Schwarzfigurige Vasen, Kleine Reihe des Antiken-Museums der Universitat Leipzig, 1 (1995): 15, NO.7 (COLOUR)
    Paul, E., Universitat Leipzig, Antikenmuseum, 50 Meisterwerke (Leipzig, 1994): 8, NO.13 (COLOUR)
  • CAVI Collection: Leipzig T 3327.
  • CAVI Lemma: BF hydria. From Cerveteri. Archippe Group (Bothmer){1}. Third quarter sixth.
  • CAVI Subject: Young warrior arming (Achilles?); on either side, a woman (woman and Thetis?).
  • CAVI Inscriptions: Above the youth's head, close to the top: Με[νε]λ̣εος. To left of the woman at right, below her middle, facing her: Θετις, retr.
  • CAVI Footnotes: {1} near the Tyrrhenian Group. Paul in CVA does not accept the attribution. 

Black figure vase. Wedding of Peleus and Thetis. From Eretria. 560-550 BC.



 (Detail of the Francois Vase, depicting the Wedding of Peleus and Thetis)







 Athena and Poseidon (identified by inscriptions). Side A from an Attic black-figure neck-amphora, ca. 550–530 BC. From Vulci.

H. 33 cm (12 ¾ in.)Current location Cabinet des Médailles Louvre Museum, Accession number
De Ridder 222 (= Luynes 678), Durand Collection; purchase, 1836
Beazley, ABV, 152.25, 687; CVA France 7, III H e, pl. 36, 1–7 & pl. 7
Source/Photographer (Illustration from a lithograph by Kaeppelin et Cie., ca. 1840.)






The Judgment of Paris

The Judgment of Paris, Side A from an attic black-figure amphora,between 560 and 550 BC,  eight: 40.3 cm (15.9 in). Depth: 29.3 cm (11.5 in). Current location (Inventory)Louvre Museum, reek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities - Room 42: Greek black-figure ceramics - case 5 - Sully, 1st floor, ccession number F 31, collection of Giampietro Campana (1808–1880). Purchase, 1861.
Beazley, ABV 313,1 Beazley, John [1956]. Attic Black-Figure Vase Painters. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 313,1,  Louvre Museum, Atlas database: entry 6905





Artemis from the Francois vase, Greek pottery, 4th century BC,  Archaeological Museum, Florence  CATRINTA 








Judgement of Paris

Judgement of Paris. Belly of a Geometric amphora of the 7th century BC. Archaeological museum of Paros, Inv. B 2652. 





Thrace had a heritage which matched that of its south-westerly neighbours, the Mycenaeans. Thracians were allied to Troy during the Trojan War, although Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined. In this period it encompassed a wide swathe of territory to the north of Greece 'proper', stretching from the River Axios in the west, to the Hellespont and the Black Sea in the east, and the Balkan Mountains in the north. Sometimes Thrace could be used to define literally all the territory to the north of Thessaly, incorporating Scythia and even Macedonia. In addition to the tribe that Homer called Thracians (in reality several tribes, all very warlike), ancient Thrace was home to numerous other Indo-European tribes, all non-Greek speakers, such as the Bisaltes, Bistones, Cicones, Edones, and Triballi, and all of them managed to remain rural peoples, usually living in fortified hilltops.

There is little specific order for the kings mentioned here, except by reference to outside events, such as the Trojan War. Thracian unification was not achieved until the fifth century and records are very sparse until that time. Much of what was originally thought of as Thrace is now within Bulgaria, but the south-western coastal districts still remain in modern Greek hands while the large south-eastern corner which includes Gallipoli and Constantinople (Istanbul) is part of Turkey.



Eponymous founder, and mythical son of the war-god Ares.



Greek mythological king of Thrace.


In Greek myth, the undatable Tegyrios of Thrace welcomes the exiled Eumolpus to his kingdom. The king's daughter is married to Ismarus, the son of Eumolpus, but Eumolpus subsequently plans to usurp the throne and is banished. Following the death of Ismarus, Tegyrios forgives his friend and makes Eumolpus his successor.



Successor king of Thrace.


fl c.1500 BC

Phineas / Phinehas

Son of Agenor of Tyre. King of Thrace.

c.1500 BC

According to Greek legend, Phineas is the son of Agenor, king of Tyre. He and his four brothers, Cadmus, Cilix, Phoenix, and Thasus have all departed their Phoenician home in search of their sister, Europa, who had been abducted by Zeus. Phineas gives up his search in eastern Thrace, where he settles on the western shores of the Black Sea and rules a city state of his own.

Phineas becomes the father to Bithynus, Mariandynus, Paphlagonus, and Thynus (Bithynus and Thynus are adopted from one Odrysus, the eponymous namesake of the later Thracian kingdom). The four each found kingdoms along the shores of the Black Sea; Bithynia, Mariandyne, Paphlagonia, and Thynia.


12th century BC

There are various tribes in Thrace at this time, and many of them take part in the Trojan War, almost exclusively on the side of their near neighbour, Troy. While many of them are given specific tribal names or locations by Homer and later Classical authors, others are simply 'of Thrace' and may represent a more powerful and influential element in Thracian tribal society. For the purposes of this list, in order to aid clarity, general Thracian kings are shown primarily, while specifically named tribes or kingdoms are shown as sub-kings. The Cicones are in green while the Edones are in red.

fl c.1220 BC


King of Thrace. Rescued from harpies by Jason of Iolkos.



Father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor.

fl c.1200 BC


King of Aenus.

c.1200 BC

Poltys appears to be a creation of post-Homeric authors. A son of Poseidon, he rules the city of Poltyobria when Heracles pays him and his brother Sarpedon a visit. The king welcomes him but Sarpedon does not, and Heracles slays him on the beach. No relationship is given between Poltys and his apparent successor, Acamas, but within two decades it is the latter who is king of the city, which is renamed Aenus.


Troezenus of the Cicones

Father of Euphemus. King of Ismara.

fl c.1183 BC


A Thracian king. Executed by Agamemnon.

c.1193 - 1183 BC

Polymestor is married to Ilione, eldest daughter of Priam of Troy. He betrays Priam's trust after the fall of Troy by murdering the king's young son when the boy has been placed in his care along with an amount of treasure. He is denounced by the boy's mother, Hecuba, and tried by Agamemnon. Found guilty, his sons are killed by Trojan women and Hecuba scratches out his eyes before he is led away by Agamemnon's men.

fl c.1183 BC

Acamas / Akamas

Son of Eussorus. From Aenus in Thrace. Killed by Ajax.

c.1193 - 1183 BC

Acamas leads a contingent of Thracian warriors to the Trojan War on the side of Troy. He is the mythical founder of the city of Aenus on the south-eastern coastline near the mouth of the Hebrus. He is joined by his comrade Peiros, son of Imbrasus, and Asius, along with Euphemus, son of King Troezenus son of Ceas, and Rhesus, each with their own contingents which represent some of the various tribes in Thrace. Asius is from the city of Sestus, on the Thracian (northern) side of the Hellespont and is therefore a member of the Hyrtacidae, who may indeed be Thracians.

fl c.1183 BC

Peiros / Peirous

Son of Imbrasus. Comrade of Acamas.

fl c.1183 BC


Son of Eioneus. Joined the Trojan War later but did not fight.

fl c.1183 BC


Euphemus of the Cicones

From the city of Ismara, Ismarus, on southern Thracian coast.

fl c.1183 BC


Lycurgus of the Edones

From between rivers Nestus and Strymon in southern Thrace.


Based in the region of Mygdonia, Lycurgus dies violently, either by going insane, killing his son, and then being executed by his people, or by accidentally removing his own foot when attempting to cut down an ivy vine. Charops is selected as his successor. He is the father of Oeagrus, although sources are divided over this, with some claiming him as the son of King Pierus of Pieria to the west.

fl c.1170s BC


Charops of the Edones

Selected as the successor to the dead Lycurgus.

fl c.1170s BC


Oeagrus of the Edones

Son of Charops or King Pierus of Pieria.



Son. Musician, poet and prophet in Greek myth.

fl c.1170s BC


A Thracian king. Son of the war-god Ares.




c.1170s BC

Mycenaean-era Thrace fades from history as the Mycenaeans themselves are eclipsed by the invading Dorians. A dark age grips Greece for about four centuries until the rise of the Classical city states. Thrace at this time is still viewed as a wild, mountainous terrain populated by barbarous tribes.


c.800 - 700 BC

The Thracians are driven out of the region of Mygdonia by the newly arriving Macedonians.


513/12 - c.479 BC

Thrace south of the Danube is conquered by the Persians and held for about fifty years, possibly until they are forced out of Macedonia by Alexander I. Following their evacuation, and possibly unified to an extent under Persian occupation of the region, the Thracians form the Odrysian kingdom. Other tribes do still exist, and probably in independence, notably the Bessoi, but they are little-known hill tribes that play no real part in the main history of the region.





Specific characteristics of Romanian Folk Costumes, by Ethnographic Regions


Specific characteristics of Romanian Folk Costumes, by Ethnographic Regions..
Regarding Romanian folk costumes, there are 7 ethnographic regions. Six ethnographic regions in Romania proper and one outside present-day Romanian borders. (see map of ethnographic regions.) We are presenting about 90 ethnographic zones. Actually, there is not a set number of ethnographic zones in Romania and each "expert" will have a different combination presented, the total number being between 40 and 120.


West Plains



Basarabia, Bucovina, Moldova

Baragan Dobrogea,


1. Transylvania or Ardeal (Sibiu, Somesul Superior, Hateg, and Muntii Apuseni.) The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear two aprons, called zadii, c[tr`n\e or oprege; the aprons are narrow, the color is black or black and red.

2. West Plains or Câmpiile de vest (Câmpia Muresului, Câmpiile Crisurilor Negru-Alb-Repede, and Câmpia Somesului Inferior). The main characteristic of this region is that women wear only one front apron, called zadie or c[tr`n\[. The aprons are very wide and very colorful.

3. Banat (Lunca Timisului, Caras-Severin.) The main characteristic of this region is that women wear two aprons, called opreg. One or both aprons have long fringes.

4. Wallachia or Tara Româneasca (Oltenia and Muntenia). The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear two overlapping aprons. The aprons have different sizes and designs. The front, the narrow apron is called zavelca. The back apron is wide, with creases and is called vâlnic. Sometimes in the summer girls wear two "zavelca." In the winter women wear one apron, a heavier versions on the vâlnic, called "pesteman" and "fota creata," wide, pleated,wrapped all around, looking almost like a regular skirt.

5. Dunare, the region along the inferior course of River Danube: Baragan, Dobrogea and South Moldova. The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear two narrow aprons called pestelca. The aprons are similar in size, but different in design.

6. Moldova: Moldova, Basarabia, Bukovina. The main characteristic of this region is that women wear only one, wrapped around apron, called "fota."

7. Balkans, or Romanians who live outside the present-day Romanian borders.

a) In this vast region there are Romanians who live close-by the Romanian borders and their costumes are similar to those of their Romanian neighbors. Thus Romanians from Voijvodina or Banatu' Sarbesc (Serbian Banat) have costumes very similar to Romanians from Romanian Banat. Romanians who live in Timoc or Timok, Serbia have folk costumes similar to Caras-Severin. Romanians who live in Timoc or Timok, Bulgaria have folk costume similar to Oltenia .

b) Romanians also live in Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, and Macedonia:
– Istro-Romanians live in Istria, Croatia.
– Macedo-Romanians or Aromânii live in Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia.
– Megleno Romanians live in Bulgaria, Greece, and Macedonia.

The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear only one apron, called poale, and condusa, a long, sleeveless vest. Other elements of the Balkan's folk costumes are:
– Fustane, blouse and skirt together, sort of a dress with very little embroidery
– Condusa, a long, sleeveless vest.
– Scurtac, waist long vest.
– Libade, a jacket with short sleeves.
– Poala, apron
– Hrisafi or Pirpodzi, socks, made of many different colored wool thread.
– Paftale, two metallic "buckles" at the ends of the belt.
– Tipunea, heavy winter coat..
– Sarica, heavy, sleeveless winter coat...

5. Romanian Folk Costumes: Tables, Lists.

Romanian Folk Costumes by ethnographic regions
By 7 regions with 16 sub-regions and 97 ethnographic zones
(prezentarea a 7 regiuni folcorice, impartite in 16 sub-refiuni si 97 zone etnografice )

– Sibiu
– Somes (Somesul Superior)
– Hateg
– Apuseni

2. CAMPIILE de VEST (West Plains)
– Arad, Câmpia Muresului
– Bihor, Câmpia Crisurilor
– Câmpia Somesului Inferior

– Timis
– Caras-Sverin

– Oltenia
– Muntenia

– Baragan
– Dobrogea
– Moldova de Sud

– Bucovina
– Moldova
– Basarabia

7. BALCANI or Romanians outside the present day Romanian borders
– Daco-Romani: Serbia, Bulgaria, Ucraina
– Macedo-Romani (aromani or vlahi) ]n Albania, Bulgaria, Grecia, Macedonia, Serbia
– Istro-Romani (istro-romani or vlahi) in Istria (Croatia)
– Megleni-Romani (or vlasi) in Macedonia, Grecia, Bulgaria.

Romanian Folk Costumes by ethnographic regions and zones
Region sub-region Ethnographic zone

ARDEAL or Transilvania

Sibiu 1. Sibiu
Podisul Secaselor (Sebes)
2. Valea Hartibaciului
3. Fagaras or Tara Oltului
4. Tarnave
5. Barsa or Tara Barsei
6. Alba-Sebes-Aiud
7. Tara Lovistei
Topolog (19 century as Sibiu; 20 century as Valcea+Arges)

8a Cluj or Dealurile Clujului
8b. Campia Clujului
9. Lapus
10. Maramures
11. Mures + Valea Gurghiului
Tulghes-Izvorul Muresului-Ciuc (In Transylvania, but similar to Moldova)
12. Nasaud + Prundu Bargaului
13 Huedin (or Meses)
Depresiunea Calata (Or Kalotszeg)
14. Salaj
15. Somes
Hateg 16. Hateg - Sarmisegetuza
17. Hateg - Lunca Cernii
18. Hateg - Meria
19. Hunedoara
20. Orastie
21. Petrosani – Valea Jiului
22. Petrosani-Momarlani (Valea Jiul-de-Vest)
23. Padureni
Apuseni 24. Ampoi, Valea Ampoilui; Zlatna
Mocanii de Turda (pr Aries)
25. Aries (Valea Ariesului; Salciua)
25a. Aries (Lupsa)
26. Beius (transition between Bihor & Apuseni),
27. Bucium-Abrud
28. Tara Motilor--Vidra
29. Tara Zarandului-Brad
30. Tara Zarandului-Halmagiu
Campiile de Vest

(câmpie=plain) Arad
Campia Muresului
31. Arad ( cu "Opreg" or 2 oprege)
32. Arad (Orasenesc)
33. Arad ("Zadie" or 1 zadie)
Campiile Crisurilor
34. Ineu (Bihor: Campia Crisului Alb)
35. Meziad (Bihor: Campia Crisului Negru)
36. Alesd (Bihor: Campia Crisului Repede)
37. Valea Barcaului & Crasnei
Campia Somesului Inferior
38. Codru (Zone Codru-Chioar-Oas)
39. Chioar (Zone Codru-Chioar-Oas)
40. Oas (Campia Somesului)
BANAT Timis 41. Timis
42. Buzias
43a. Deta-Ciacova
43b. Jebel-Buzias-Lugoj, or The Golden Triangle
44. Lipova
45. Faget
46. Lugoj
47. Sannicolau
Caras-Severin 48. Almaj (Carbunari)
49. Almaj (Valea Nerei)
50. Caras (Oravita)
51. Clisura Dunarii
52. Severin
53. Valea Bistrei,
Valahia Oltenia 54. Valcea
55. Horezu
56. Gorj, + Tismana
57. Mehedinti + Plaiul Closanilor
58. Olt + Campia Boianului
59. Romanati + Slatina
60. Dolj
Tara Romaneasca
Valahia / Wallahia 61. Arges, + Topolog
Topolog (19 century as Sibiu; 20 century as Valcea+Arges)
62. Bran
63. Buzau
64. Dambovita
65. Ilfov
66. Muscel
67. Prahova
68. Ramnic
69. Teleorman
70. Vlasca
DUNARE Baragan,

71. Ialomita
72. Braila

73. Tulcea(or Macin)North Dobrogea
74. Babadag (Dobrogea Central)
75. Ostrov (South Dobrogea)
76. Macedo-Romani or Aromani
77. Megleno-romani (Cerna, judetul Tulcea)
Moldova de Sud 78. Covurlui (azi Galti)
79. Prut
MOLDOVA Bucovina 80. Suceava+ Falticeni
81. Campulung Moldovenesc
82. Dorna ( or Vatra Dornei)
83. Homor (or Gura Humorului)
84. Radauti

85. Bacau
86. Botosani + Siret +Jijia
87. Iasi
88. Tulghes-Izvorul Muresului-Ciuc (In geographically in Transylvania
but ethnographically similar to Moldova )
89. Neamt + Valea Bistritei
90. Roman
91. Vrancea
Basarabia 92 Basarabia
BALCANI Daco-romani 93. Romani in Banatul Sarbesc
94. Romani in Cadrilater (South Dobrogea, Bulgaria)
& Romani in North Bulgaria Nord, along Danube river
95. Romani in Timoc (Vidin, Bulgaria)
96. Romani in Timoc (Negotin, Serbia)
Macedo-Romani (Aromani) in Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Gerecia, Albania (76)
Megleno-romani Megleno-Romani in Romania (Tulcea) (77)
Macedonia. Grecia, Bulgaria
Istro-romani 97. Istro-Romani (in Istria, Croatia)
Original article here:










 (The Judgment of Paris)


 Judgment of Paris; f.l.t.r. Hermes, Iris, Hera, Athena, Aphrodite. Etruscan Antikensammlung, Munich







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