In the 11th century, Abu Said Gardezi wrote about a Christian people from Rûm situated between the Slavs and Hungarians: 
That is the Džaihūn which is on their /the Magyars’/ left side. Beside Saqlāb /Slavs/ are a people az Rūm / from the Byzantine Empire (Rûm)  or of Rome   / who are all Christians and they are called N-n-d-r, and they are more numerous than the Magyars, but they are weaker. 
Juja Heitel, 2007; Photo: Marina Sabados
1.Transylvania Trust; Theoretical and Practical Issues of Monument Preservation
VIth International Scientific Conference
Ecclesiastical Architectural Heritage
16st – 23th March 1997
Susana HEITEL Ro
The Excavations of the First Transylvanian Cistercian Monastery
2. ACADEMIA ROMÂNĂ
Institutul de Istoria Artei „G. Oprescu”
Sesiunea de comunicări a Sectorului de Artă Medievală
DATE NOI ÎN CERCETAREA ARTEI MEDIEVALE DIN ROMÂNIA
Ediţia I, Bucureşti, 16 decembrie 2004 -
Suzana MORE-HEITEL (Institutul de Istoria Artei "G. Oprescu")
Despre biserica lui Ahtum de la Morisena (Cenad, jud.Timiş)
Ediţia a doua, 15-16 decembrie 2005
SUZANA HEITEL, Institutul de Istoria Artei, Bucureşti
Date noi privind bisericile de cretă de la Basarabi–Murfatlar
Ediţia a treia, 14-15 decembrie 2006
SUZANA HEITEL, Institutul de Istoria Artei „G. Oprescu”
Despre datarea bisericii capitlului de la Arad
RRHA, 2007, vol.1, pp.120-121
Suzana Móré Heitel, dans son Intervention Sur la datation de l’église du chapitre d’Arad, a abordé le sujet du chapitre collégial d’Arad, fondé probablement par le roi Bella II (1131-1141), qui fonctionnait déjà en 1156, lorsqu’on fait mention
du prépositus Primogenitus. L’information documentaire concernant la consécration de l’église n 1224 mène à l’hypothèse selon laquelle elle n’a été terminée qu’au début du XIIIe siècle, ayant tenu ompte, également, de la possibilité que la consécration respective ait eu lieu à la suite d’une ventuelle reconstruction. Les ruines de la grande église (ayant une longueur extérieure d’environ 62 mètres)
se trouvent à côté d’Arad, dans la commune sousurbaine Vladimirescu (l’ancienne commune Glogovăţ), ù se trouvait le premier noyau de la ville médiévale.
Elles indiquent une basilique à deux tours sur la façade ouest, transept et déambulatoire autour de l’abside e l’autel, déambulatoire qui suppose l’existence dans l’église d’Arad de prestigieuses reliques à l’époque du Moyen Âge. Mais ces vestiges ne conservent plus in situ des éléments architecturaux capables à
permettre la délimitation d’éventuelles phases de construction, et les quelques fragments de sculpture en pierre provenus de l’église peuvent s’encadrer soit au XIIe siècle (bases de colonne et un chapiteau), soit au début du XIIIe siècle (éléments de voûte). À la datation de l’église contribuent indirectement les
résultats des fouilles archéologiques de 1969-1970 et 1983-1984. Les vestiges de l’église plus ancienne découvertes alors au-dessous du monument présenté jusqu’ici, se constituent dans un terminus post quem pour son placement chronologique. Les données concernant cette église, récemment publiées, indiquent une nef carrée, une abside demi-circulaire à l’est et des murs très épais (entre 3 et 4 mètres).
Supposant qu’au début chaque côté a été pourvu d’une abside,cette église présenterait une analogie avec l’église de Feldebrő, de Hongrie, datant du XIe siècle. Son existence à cette époque-là est indirectement confirmée par la datation à la fin du même siècle des fragments de sculpture en marbre avec un décor
figuratif et végétal, réalisé dans la technique de l’incrustation, fragments découverts pendant les fouilles déjà mentionnées et présentées pour la première fois dans la présente intervention.
Campania de cercetare arheologica de la Pancota - punctul "Cetatea Turceasca" (manastire in incinta unei cetati de pamant) - a fost prezentata ieri, la fata locului, intr-o conferinta de presa la care au fost invitati ziaristi de la presa scrisa si audiovizuala precum si oficialitati: Gabriel Buza, vicepresedintele C. J. A. si Iosif Retter, primarul orasului Pancota.
Colectivul de cercetare - dr. Daniel Marcu Istrate, responsabil santier, dr. Suzana Heitel, Institutul de Istoria Artei, G. Oprescu, din Bucuresti, George Pascu Hurezan, Complexul Muzeal Arad, Ioan Fedor Pascu, Sighisoara - si dr. Peter Hügel, directorul Complexului Muzeal Arad, coordonatorul programului de cercetare - au pus la dispozitia jurnalistilor importante informatii despre sit si rezultatele sapaturilor arheologice din acest an (finantate cu 40 de milioane de la Ministerul Culturii si Cultelor si 10 milioane de la Complexul Muzeal).
Móré Heitel Suzana. Abaţia de la Pâncota şi vestigiile ei. Cluj-Napoca Mega 2006. 625167 ...
Among the formations existing before that opposed Magyar penetration in Transylvania, the best known are the Glad voivodate in Banat, residing in the Cuvin citadel, of Menumorut in Crisana, residing in the Biharea citadel and of Gelu the Vlach, residing in the citadel Dabaca.
The history of Transylvania is particularly illusive, even though it was on the trade route from the Black Sea to Western Europe and the Apuseni mountains were the major European source of gold originated from Dacian times. There is evidence that trade continued with the Romans after their departure from the area and when the Saxons much later built their cities these were situated at the sites of earlier Dacian towns or on the trans-Carpathian trade routes.
Roman emperor Aurelian (ruled 270-5), decisions changed the course of Carpi history. The emperor began the policy of transferring large numbers of Carpi to Pannonia and evacuated the Roman province of Dacia of Roman Army and Roman colonists, but some choose to stay, providing the remaining Carpi with space to expand.
Vlach-Bulgarian Knezates in Transylvania and Banat
before the Magyars
Butaul Ruler of two Getaean (Getian) Lands
Part of his territory is at present time in Romania (Tims, Carash Severin and Hunedoara counties) and other parts in Serbia and Hungary. He was the ruler of the two Getian Lands and the land across the Tisa were the Free Dacian-Carpi were moved several centuries earlier.
Buta-ul buried a large treasure in northern Banat, before Maghyar invasion, near the present day village of Nakovo in Serbia) and the town of Sânnicolau Mare in Romania. The treasure was excavated in 1799, and today it is kept in the Vienna cultural-historical museum. While it was originally believed to belong to Atilla the Hun, research shows that it is Bulgar, Avar, or Vlach in origin.
The "great župan" (rendering veliki župan) is a traditional Slavic ruler's title, while "Getian land" was a designation for present day Banat. The land "across the Tisa" is obviously present day Bačka.
The Bulgarian domination on Getian - Vlach Banat seems to be confirmed by the treasure discovered in 1799 at Sannicolau Mare ,Timiş county Romania.
Bazin cu cataramă; aur 22 carate, masa = 212 grame, înălțimea 25 mm; inscripție cu litere grecești (BOUTAUL)
Romanian interpretation (Romanian only)
Capitolul II. „Inscripția de pe vasul nr. 21 de la Sânnicolau Mare, cel mai vechi document epigrafic în limba română”
Inscripția de pe vasul cu nr. 21 se citește, după părerea autorului, astfel: "+BUILA ZOAPAN TECI DIRETOIRI BUTAUL ZOAPAN TARGORI ITZIRI TAICI". Analizând cuvânt cu cuvânt, a ajuns la următoarele concluzii:
Deci "Jupan Buila [are] toate drepturile, jupan Butaul [are dreptul de] ițiri [în] toate târgurile".
În concluzia autorului, „inscripția de pe vasul nr. 21 din tezaurul de la Sânnicolau Mare prezintă numele a doi români din secolul al IX-lea sau poate chiar din secolele anterioare, precum și drepturile pe care aceștia le aveau în calitate de conducători. Cronologic, existența lor este confirmată de menționarea zupanilor/jupanilor în documentele citate, precum și de faptul că ne aflăm într-o perioadă în care ungurii de-abia ajunseseră în Pannonia și nu-și începuseră expansiunea dominației politice la est de Dunăre și Tisa. Ca atare, vama târgurilor încă mai aparținea conducătorilor români de tipul zoapanilor.”
În continuare, Tonciulescu spune că inscripția este un document în limba română arhaică și consemnează un act de recunoaștere a puterii politice și militare din partea obștilor unui conducător feudal local, conducător din neamul căruia, după cum va afirma mai târziu Anonymus, se va naște Ahtum, ucis în cetatea sa de la Cenad.
Around 800, what it's now northeastern Hungar
y became part of the Slavic Principality of Nitra, which itself became part of Great Moravia in 833. Also, after 800, southeastern Hungary was conquered by Bulgaria, but was lost in 881 to Great Moravia. Western Hungary (Pannonia) was initially tributary to the Franks, but in 839 the Slavic Balaton Principality was founded in southwestern Hungary, and in 883/884 the whole of western Hungary was conquered by Great Moravia. The advanced economic and political conditions of the Slavs, who had been settling in the entire area, exerted a significant influence over the newly-arrived Magyars after 896 (see below); in fact, several Hungarian words relating to agriculture, politics, religion and handicrafts, were borrowed from Slavic peoples.
VESTIGIILE UNEI ASEZARI MEDIEVALE TIMPURII IN MARAMURES
Arheologii maramureşeni au făcut câteva descoperiri extrem de importante în situl din satul Bozânta Mică, situat la confluenţa Someşului cu Lăpuşul. Arheologul Marius Ardeleanu a remarcat şi „descoperirea a două complexe medieval timpurii, foarte importante, datate în secolul VIII d.Hr., câteva gropi de stâlpi care delimitau locuinţe sau anexe gospodăreşti de epocă romană, precum şi vetre din epoca bronzului". În situl de la Bozânta Mică au fost identificate trei sate: din epoca bronzului (aproximativ 1500-1000 î.Hr.), din epoca romană - Barbaricum (din afara graniţelor Imperiului Roman) şi din epoca medieval timpurie (sec. VIII-IX d.Hr.).
A chronicle by Venerable Nestor (1056 - 1136 AD) mentions Walachians (Romanians) fighting against Magyars north of the Danube in 6406 (898).  Text at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_Romanians
ALEXANDRU MADGEARU, GESTA HUNGARORUM
Map of Central Europe in the 9th century before arrival of Hungarians, according to Hungarian historian Dr. Márki Sándor. Map reflects data from Gesta Hungarorum chronicle and it show medieval duchies of Braslav, Salan (Zalan), Glad, Menumorut (Marót) and Gelou (Gyelo), as well as neighboring countries and territories.
Text at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelou
Gelou or Gelu (Hungarian: Gyalu, Romanian: Gelu) was a Romanian-VLACH duke mentioned in Gesta Ungarorum (“The Deeds of the Hungarians”) as having opposed the conquest of Transylvania by Tuhutum, one of the “seven dukes” of the Magyars. His story was recorded only by the anonymous writer of the 13th century Gesta.
His army was made of „Blasi et Sclavi”.
And while they tarried there some while, Tuhutum father of Horca, as he was a shrewd man, when he learned from the inhabitants of the goodness of the land of Transylvania, where Gelu, a certain Vlach, held sway, strove through the grace of Duke Árpád, his lord, to acquire the land of Transylvania for himself and his posterity. (…)—Chapter 24 of The Deeds of the Hungarians - Of the land of Transylvania
It is evident from the Gesta, that Tuhutum’s attack was clearly targeted toward the salt mine district in Transylvania. According to the anonymous author of the Gesta, Transylvania was inhabited by Vlachs and Slavs at that time.
The aforesaid Tuhutum, a most skilful man, sent a certain shrewd man, father of Opaforcos Ogmand, to spy out for him the quality and fertility of the land of Transylvania and what its inhabitants were like, so that he might, if he could, go to war with them, for Tuhutum wished thereby to acquire a name and land for himself. (…) When the father of Ogmand, Tuhutum’s scout, circling like a wolf, viewed, as much as the human gaze may, the goodness and fertility of the land and its inhabitants, he loved it more than can be said and most swiftly returned to his lord. When he arrived, he spoke much to his lord of the goodness of that land: that that land was washed by the best rivers, whose names and advantages he listed, that in their sands they gathered gold and that the gold of that land was the best, and that they mined there salt, and the inhabitants of that land were the basest of the whole world, because they were Vlachs and Slavs, because they had nothing else for arms than bows and arrows and their duke, Geleou was inconstant and did not have around him good warriors who would dare stand against the courage of the Hungarians, because they suffered many injuries from the Cumans and Pechenegs.—Chapter 25 of The Deeds of the Hungarians - Of the skillfulness of Tuhutum„Quod terra illa irrigaretur optimis fluuis, quorum nomina et utilitates seriatim dixit, et quod in arenis eorum aurum colligerent, et aurum terre illius optimum esset, et ut ibi foderetur sal et salgenia, et habitatores terre uiliores homines essent tocius mundi, quia essent Blasii et Sclaui, quia alia arma non haberent, nisi arcum et sagittas, et dux Geleou minus esset tenax et non haberet bonos milites, et auderent stare audatiam Hungarorum, quia Cumanis et Picenatis multas iniurias paterentur.“,
Then Tuhutum, having heard of the goodness of that land, sent his envoys to Duke Árpád to ask his permission to go beyond the woods to fight Duke Gelu. Duke Árpád, having taken counsel, commended Tuhutum’s wish and he gave him permission to go beyond the woods to fight Duke Gelou. When Tuhutum heard this from an envoy, he readied himself with his warriors and, having left his companions there, went forth eastwards beyond the woods against Gelou, duke of the Vlachs. Gelou, duke of Transylvania, hearing of his arrival, gathered his army and rode speedily towards him in order to stop him at the Meseş Gate, but Tuhutum, crossing the wood in one day, arrived at the Almaş river. Then both armies came upon each other, with the river lying between them. Duke Gelou planned to stop them there with his archers.—Chapter 26 of The Deeds of the Hungarians - How they went against Gelu /sic/
Next morning, before daybreak, Tuhutum divided his army in two and he sent one part a little way upstream so that, having crossed the river, they might enter into battle while Gelou’s warriors were yet unawares. And because they had an easy crossing, both forces arrived at the battle at the same time and they fought fiercely, but the warriors of Duke Gelou were defeated and many of them slain and more captured. When Gelou, their duke, saw this, he fled for his life along with a few men. As he was in flight, hastening to his castle beside the Someş River,(Dabaca) Tuhutum’s warriors, boldly pursuing Duke Gelou, slew him beside the Căpuş River. Then the inhabitants of the land, seeing the death of their lord, giving the right hand of their own free will chose to themselves as lord Tuhutum, father of Horca, and in that place which is called Esculeu, they confirmed their troth with an oath and from that day the place is called Esculeu, because they swore there. (…)—Chapter 27 of The Deeds of the Hungarians - Of the death of Gelu
Hungarian view is that the anonymous notary of the Hungarian king Béla III (1172-1196) wrote in the Gesta Ungarorum, based on ancient chronicles and oral tradition, that the Magyars, when they settled on the plains of the Tisza and Danube rivers, found there “Slavs, Bulgarians and Vlachs, and the shepherds of the Romans is not true”. On the other hand, around 1200, the author of the Gesta related in a novelistic form what he thought had happened at the time of the Magyar Conquest around 895. However, it is evident that he did not have the faintest idea about the real state of affairs in the Carpathian Basin at the time of the Magyar Conquest: instead of Simeon I of Bulgaria, Arnulf and Svatopluk, of whom he had no knowledge, he invented imaginary figures as enemies of the Hungarians. In the construction of his stories, he sometimes drew on legendary elements, but more frequently he worked with toponyms.In fact, the archaeological evidence published so far suggests that the excavators were embarrassed that no substantial evidence was found to prove the "Gesta" right. Although the Gesta Ungarorum is in sharp contrast with the chronicle of Simon of Kéza and of other 14th century chronicles, it is a mistake to treat Gelou as a purely fictional character whose name derived from that of the Transylvanian town Gilău (Gyalu in Hungarian) .
Romanian archaeologists proved that the Gesta was a reliable source for the medieval history of Transylvania and found Dăbâca . Archaeological research has located his voivodate, unearthing more than 40 settlements there.
There are four enclosures at Dăbâca, each one associated with earthwork fortifications; the excavators dated the third enclosure to the 9th or 10th century, while also claiming that it post-dated the second enclosure - the only defense work to have produced clearly datable artifacts, namely a silver penny of King Peter (1038-1041 and 1044-1046).